A

aberrations26.6 Aberrations

absolute pressure11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement

absolute zero13.1 Temperature

acceleration due to gravity2.7 Falling Objects

accommodation26.1 Physics of the Eye

acoustic impedance 17.7 Ultrasound

activity31.5 Half-Life and Activity

adaptive optics26.5 Telescopes

air resistance3.4 Projectile Motion

alpha decay31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

Alternating current20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current

ammeters21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters

ampere20.1 Current

amplitude16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion, 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves, 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves

amplitude modulation24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Analog meters21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters

Analytical methods3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods

Anger camera32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

angular acceleration10.1 Angular Acceleration

angular magnification26.5 Telescopes

angular momentum10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation

angular momentum quantum number30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules

angular velocity6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity

antielectron31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

antimatter31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

antinode16.10 Superposition and Interference, 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns

approximations1.4 Approximation

arc length6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity

Archimedes' principle11.7 Archimedes’ Principle

astigmatism26.2 Vision Correction

atomic de-excitation30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations

atomic excitation30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations

atomic mass31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus

atomic spectra29.1 Quantization of Energy

Average speed2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed

Average velocity2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed

Avogadro’s number13.3 The Ideal Gas Law

axis of a polarizing filter27.8 Polarization

B

back emf23.6 Back Emf

banked curves6.3 Centripetal Force

barrier penetration31.7 Tunneling

baryon number33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws

basal metabolic rate7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans

beat frequency16.10 Superposition and Interference

becquerel31.5 Half-Life and Activity

Bernoulli's equation12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation

Bernoulli's principle12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation

beta decay31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

binding energy per nucleon31.6 Binding Energy

bioelectricity20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms

Biot-Savart law22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law

birefringent27.8 Polarization

Black holes34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity

blackbodies29.1 Quantization of Energy

blackbody radiation29.1 Quantization of Energy

Bohr radius30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

Boltzmann constant13.3 The Ideal Gas Law

break-even32.5 Fusion

breeder reactors32.6 Fission

breeding32.6 Fission

bremsstrahlung29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Brewster’s angle27.8 Polarization

Brewster’s law27.8 Polarization

bridge devices21.5 Null Measurements

Brownian motion30.1 Discovery of the Atom

buoyant force11.7 Archimedes’ Principle

C

capacitive reactance23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive

carbon-14 dating31.5 Half-Life and Activity

carrier particles4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

carrier wave24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

cathode-ray tubes30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei

Celsius13.1 Temperature

center of gravity9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium

center of mass6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation

centrifugal force6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force

centrifuge6.2 Centripetal Acceleration

centripetal acceleration6.2 Centripetal Acceleration

centripetal force6.3 Centripetal Force

change in angular velocity10.1 Angular Acceleration

change in entropy15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy

change in momentum8.2 Impulse

characteristic time constant23.10 RL Circuits

characteristic x rays29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

chart of the nuclides31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus

chemical energy7.6 Conservation of Energy

classical physics1.1 Physics: An Introduction

Classical relativity3.5 Addition of Velocities

coefficient of linear expansion13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids

coefficient of performance15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators

coefficient of volume expansion13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids

Colliding beams33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy

color constancy26.3 Color and Color Vision

complexity34.5 Complexity and Chaos

compound microscope26.4 Microscopes

Compton effect29.4 Photon Momentum

Conduction14.4 Heat Transfer Methods

conductor18.2 Conductors and Insulators

confocal microscopes27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light

conservation laws21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules

conservation of mechanical energy7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy

conservation of momentum principle8.3 Conservation of Momentum

Conservation of total 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws

conservation of total baryon number33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws

conservation of total LμLμ size 12{L rSub { size 8{μ} } } {}33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws

conservative force7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy

constructive interference16.10 Superposition and Interference

constructive interference for a diffraction grating27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction

constructive interference for a double slit27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment

Convection14.4 Heat Transfer Methods

converging (or convex) lens25.6 Image Formation by Lenses

conversion factor1.2 Physical Quantities and Units

corner reflector25.4 Total Internal Reflection

correspondence principleConnection for AP® Courses

cosmic microwave background34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics

cosmological constant34.4 Dark Matter and Closure

cosmological red shift34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics

Cosmology34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics

Coulomb force18.5 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited

Coulomb forces18.4 Coulomb’s Law

Coulomb interaction18.7 Electric Forces in Biology

Coulomb's law18.4 Coulomb’s Law

critical angle25.4 Total Internal Reflection

Critical damping16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion

critical density34.4 Dark Matter and Closure

critical mass32.6 Fission

critical point13.5 Phase Changes

Critical pressure13.5 Phase Changes

criticality32.6 Fission

Curie temperature22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets

Current sensitivity21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters

D

Dalton’s law of partial pressures13.5 Phase Changes

dark matter34.4 Dark Matter and Closure

de Broglie wavelength29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter

decay constant31.5 Half-Life and Activity

decay equation31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws, 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws, 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

decay series31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

defibrillator19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors

degree Celsius13.1 Temperature

degree Fahrenheit13.1 Temperature

Density11.2 Density

dependent variable2.8 Graphical Analysis of One Dimensional Motion

derived units1.2 Physical Quantities and Units

destructive interference16.10 Superposition and Interference

destructive interference for a double slit27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment

destructive interference for a single slit27.5 Single Slit Diffraction

diastolic pressure11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement, 11.9 Pressures in the Body

dielectric19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics

dielectric strengths19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics

diffraction27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction

diffraction grating27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction

digital meters21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters

Direct current20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current

direction of magnetic field lines22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines

direction of polarization27.8 Polarization

Dispersion25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms

displacement2.1 Displacement

Distance2.1 Displacement

Distance traveled2.1 Displacement

diverging lens25.6 Image Formation by Lenses

Doppler effect17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms

Doppler shift17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms

Doppler-shifted ultrasound17.7 Ultrasound

Double-slit interference30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

drag force5.2 Drag Forces

drift velocity 20.1 Current

dynamic equilibrium9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium

E

eddy current23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping

efficiency7.6 Conservation of Energy

Elapsed time2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed

elastic potential energy16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited

electric and magnetic fields24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves

electric charge18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge

electric current20.1 Current

electric field18.3 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium, 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves

Electric field lines24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed

electric field strength18.5 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited

electric fields18.6 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges

Electric generators23.5 Electric Generators

electric potential19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference

electric power20.4 Electric Power and Energy

Electrical energy7.6 Conservation of Energy

electrocardiogram (ECG)20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms

electromagnetic induction23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux

Electromagnetism22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets

electromagnets22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets

electromotive force21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage

Electron capture31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

electron capture equation31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

electron family number 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws

electron volt19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference

electron’s antineutrino31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

electron’s neutrino31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

electrostatic equilibrium18.3 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium

electrostatic force18.4 Coulomb’s Law

electrostatic precipitators18.8 Applications of Electrostatics

Electrostatic repulsion18.2 Conductors and Insulators

electrostatics18.8 Applications of Electrostatics

electroweak epoch34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics

electroweak theory33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces

emf induced in a generator coil23.5 Electric Generators

emissivity14.7 Radiation

endoscope25.4 Total Internal Reflection

energies of hydrogen-like atoms30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

energy stored in an inductor 23.9 Inductance

energy-level diagram30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

English units1.2 Physical Quantities and Units

equipotential lines19.4 Equipotential Lines

escape velocity34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity

event horizon34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity

external force4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System

external forces4.1 Development of Force Concept, 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

Extremely low frequency (ELF)24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

eyepiece26.4 Microscopes

F

Fahrenheit13.1 Temperature

far point26.2 Vision Correction

Faraday’s law of induction23.2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law

Farsightedness26.2 Vision Correction

ferromagnetic22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets

Feynman diagram33.2 The Four Basic Forces

Fiber optics25.4 Total Internal Reflection

fine structure30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization

first law of thermodynamics15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics

first postulate of special relativity28.1 Einstein’s Postulates

fission fragments32.6 Fission

flat (zero curvature) universe34.4 Dark Matter and Closure

fluids11.1 What Is a Fluid?

focal length25.6 Image Formation by Lenses

focal point25.6 Image Formation by Lenses

Food irradiation32.4 Food Irradiation

force constant16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited

force field4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction, 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction, 18.5 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited

fossil fuels7.9 World Energy Use

free electrons18.2 Conductors and Insulators

free radicals32.4 Food Irradiation

free-body diagram4.1 Development of Force Concept, 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies, 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

frequency modulation24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

friction4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System, 5.1 Friction, 7.5 Nonconservative Forces

full-scale deflection21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters

fundamental frequency16.10 Superposition and Interference

fundamental particle33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?

fundamental units1.2 Physical Quantities and Units

G

galvanometer21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters

gamma camera32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

Gamma decay31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

gamma ray24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

gauge bosons33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws

Geiger tube31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors

general relativity34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity

geometric optics25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light

glaucoma11.9 Pressures in the Body

Grand Unified Theory (GUT)33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces

gravitational constant6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation

gravitational potential energy7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy

Gravitational waves34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity

greenhouse effect14.7 Radiation

grounding19.4 Equipotential Lines

GUT epoch34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics

H

half-life31.5 Half-Life and Activity

Hall effect22.6 The Hall Effect

Hall emf22.6 The Hall Effect

head-to-tail method3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods, 3.5 Addition of Velocities

heat14.1 Heat

heat of sublimation14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat

heat pump's coefficient of performance15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators

Heisenberg uncertainty principle29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

henry23.9 Inductance

Higgs boson33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces

Hooke's law5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain

horizontally polarized27.8 Polarization

horsepower7.7 Power

Hubble constant34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics

Human metabolism15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics

Huygens’s principle27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction

Hydrogen spectrum wavelength30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

hydrogen-like atom30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

hydrogen-spectrum wavelengths30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

hyperopia26.2 Vision Correction

I

ideal banking6.3 Centripetal Force

ideal gas law13.3 The Ideal Gas Law

Ignition32.5 Fusion

Image distance 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses

impedance23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits

impulse8.2 Impulse

Incoherent27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment

independent variable2.8 Graphical Analysis of One Dimensional Motion

index of refraction25.3 The Law of Refraction

inductance23.9 Inductance

induction18.2 Conductors and Insulators

inductive reactance23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive

inductor23.9 Inductance

inelastic collision8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension

inertia4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia, 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

inertial confinement32.5 Fusion

inertial frame of reference4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Force, 28.1 Einstein’s Postulates

inflationary scenario34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics

Infrared radiation24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Infrared radiation (IR)29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

infrasound17.6 Hearing

ink jet printer18.8 Applications of Electrostatics

Instantaneous acceleration2.4 Acceleration

Instantaneous speed2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed

Instantaneous velocity2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed

insulators18.2 Conductors and Insulators

intensity16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity, 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level, 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves

intensity reflection coefficient17.7 Ultrasound

Interference microscopes27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light

internal energy15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics

Internal kinetic energy8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension, 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension

internal resistance21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage

intraocular pressure11.9 Pressures in the Body

intrinsic magnetic field 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization

intrinsic spin30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization

irreversible process15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency

isobaric process15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes

isolated system8.3 Conservation of Momentum

isotopes31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus

K

Kelvin13.1 Temperature

kilocalorie14.1 Heat

kilowatt-hours7.7 Power

kinematics3.4 Projectile Motion

kinematics of rotational motion10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion

kinetic energy7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem

kinetic friction5.1 Friction

Kirchhoff’s rules21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules

L

Laser printers18.8 Applications of Electrostatics

Laser vision correction26.2 Vision Correction

latent heat coefficients14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat

law of conservation of angular momentum10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation

law of conservation of charge18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge

law of conservation of energy7.6 Conservation of Energy

law of inertia4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia, 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

law of refraction25.3 The Law of Refraction

Length contraction 28.3 Length Contraction

linear accelerator33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy

linear hypothesis32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

Linear momentum8.1 Linear Momentum and Force

liquid drop model32.6 Fission

longitudinal wave16.9 Waves

loop rule21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules

loudness17.6 Hearing

M

magic numbers31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus

magnetic confinement32.5 Fusion

magnetic damping23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping

magnetic field22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines, 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves

magnetic field lines22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines, 24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed

magnetic field strength (magnitude) produced by a long straight current-carrying wire22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law

magnetic field strength at the center of a circular loop22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law

magnetic field strength inside a solenoid22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law

magnetic flux23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux

magnetic monopoles22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)22.11 More Applications of Magnetism

magnetized22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets

magnetocardiogram (MCG)22.11 More Applications of Magnetism

magnetoencephalogram (MEG)22.11 More Applications of Magnetism

magnification25.6 Image Formation by Lenses

magnitude of kinetic friction
f
k
f
k
size 12{f rSub { size 8{k} } } {}
5.1 Friction

magnitude of static friction
f
s
f
s
size 12{f rSub { size 8{s} } } {}
5.1 Friction

magnitude of the intrinsic (internal) spin angular momentum30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules

mass4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia, 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

mass number31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus

massive compact halo objects34.4 Dark Matter and Closure

maximum (peak) emf23.5 Electric Generators

maximum field strength24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves

Maxwell’s equations22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law, 24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed

mechanical advantage9.5 Simple Machines

mechanical energy7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy, 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference

mechanical equivalent of heat14.1 Heat

metabolic rate7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans

method of adding percents1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures

metric system1.2 Physical Quantities and Units

Michelson-Morley experiment28.1 Einstein’s Postulates

Microgravity6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation

microlensing34.4 Dark Matter and Closure

microshock sensitive20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body

micturition reflex11.9 Pressures in the Body

moderate dose32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

Modern physics1.1 Physics: An Introduction

moment of inertia10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia, 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia

motion3.4 Projectile Motion

muon family number33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws

Mutual inductance23.9 Inductance

myopia26.2 Vision Correction

N

natural frequency16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance

near point26.2 Vision Correction

Nearsightedness26.2 Vision Correction

negatively curved34.4 Dark Matter and Closure

Nerve conduction20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms

net external force4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System

net rate of heat transfer by radiation14.7 Radiation

neutral equilibrium9.3 Stability

neutralinos34.4 Dark Matter and Closure

neutrino oscillations34.4 Dark Matter and Closure

Neutron stars34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity

Neutron-induced fission32.6 Fission

newton-meters7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition

Newton's universal law of gravitation6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation

Newton’s first law of motion4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia, 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia, 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

Newton’s second law of motion4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System

Newton’s third law of motion4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces, 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

non-inertial frame of reference6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force

nonconservative force7.5 Nonconservative Forces

normal force4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Force

north magnetic pole22.1 Magnets

notes17.6 Hearing

Nuclear energy7.6 Conservation of Energy

Nuclear fission32.6 Fission

Nuclear fusion32.5 Fusion

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)22.11 More Applications of Magnetism

nuclear radiation31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity

nuclear reaction energy31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

nucleons31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus

Null measurements21.5 Null Measurements

numerical aperture (NA)(NA)26.4 Microscopes

O

objective lens26.4 Microscopes

ohmmeters21.5 Null Measurements

optically active27.8 Polarization

orbital angular momentum30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization

orbital magnetic field30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization

order of magnitude1.2 Physical Quantities and Units

overdamped16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion

P

parallel plate capacitor19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics

Partial pressure13.5 Phase Changes

Pascal's principle11.5 Pascal’s Principle

Pauli exclusion principle30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle

percent relative humidity13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling

percent uncertainty1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures

perfectly inelastic collision8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension

periodic motion16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations

permeability of free space22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law

perpendicular lever arm9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium

phase angle23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits

phase diagrams13.5 Phase Changes

phase-contrast microscope27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light

phon17.6 Hearing

Phosphorescence30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations

photoconductor18.8 Applications of Electrostatics

photoelectric effect29.2 The Photoelectric Effect

photomultiplier31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors

photon energy29.2 The Photoelectric Effect

photon momentum29.4 Photon Momentum

physical quantity1.2 Physical Quantities and Units

Physics1.1 Physics: An Introduction

Planck’s constant29.1 Quantization of Energy

planetary model of the atom30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei

point masses8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions

Poiseuille's law12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law

Poiseuille's law for resistance12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law

polarization microscope27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light

population inversion30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations

position2.1 Displacement

positively curved34.4 Dark Matter and Closure

positron decay31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

positron emission tomography (PET)32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

potential difference19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference, 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage

potential energy7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy, 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy

potential energy of a spring7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy

potentiometer21.5 Null Measurements

power factor23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits

presbyopia26.1 Physics of the Eye

probability distribution29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

projectile3.4 Projectile Motion

Projectile motion3.4 Projectile Motion

Proper length 28.3 Length Contraction

Proper time 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation

proton-proton cycle32.5 Fusion

PV diagram13.5 Phase Changes

Q

quality factor32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

quantizedConnection for AP® Courses

quantum electrodynamics33.2 The Four Basic Forces

Quantum gravity34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity

quantum mechanical tunneling31.7 Tunneling

quantum numbers30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules

R

radiant energy7.6 Conservation of Energy

radiation detector31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors

radioactive31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity

Radioactive dating31.5 Half-Life and Activity

radioactivity31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity

radiolytic products32.4 Food Irradiation

radiopharmaceutical32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

radiotherapy32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation

radius of a nucleus31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus

radius of curvature6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity

range of radiation31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity

rate of conductive heat transfer14.5 Conduction

rate of decay31.5 Half-Life and Activity

Ray tracing25.6 Image Formation by Lenses

Rayleigh criterion27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion

real image25.6 Image Formation by Lenses

reflected light is completely polarized27.8 Polarization

refraction25.3 The Law of Refraction

relative biological effectiveness32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

relative humidity13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling

relative osmotic pressure12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes

relative velocities3.5 Addition of Velocities

relativistic Doppler effects28.6 Relativistic Energy

Relativistic kinetic energy28.6 Relativistic Energy

Relativistic momentum28.5 Relativistic Momentum

relativistic velocity addition28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities

Renewable forms of energy7.9 World Energy Use

resistivity20.3 Resistance and Resistivity

resonant frequency23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits

Rest energy28.6 Relativistic Energy

rest mass28.5 Relativistic Momentum

restoring force16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited

resultant vector3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods

retinex theory of color vision26.3 Color and Color Vision

retinexes26.3 Color and Color Vision

reversible process15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes

Reynolds number12.5 The Onset of Turbulence

right hand rule 222.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law

right-hand rule10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum

rods and cones26.3 Color and Color Vision

roentgen equivalent man32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

rotation angle6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity

rotational inertia10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia

rotational kinetic energy10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited, 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited

RR size 12{R} {} factor14.5 Conduction

S

saturation13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling

scalar2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems, 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods, 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field

Schwarzschild radius34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity

scientific method1.1 Physics: An Introduction

scintillators31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors

screening18.7 Electric Forces in Biology

second law of motion8.1 Linear Momentum and Force

second law of thermodynamics15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency, 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency, 15.4 Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated

second postulate of special relativity28.1 Einstein’s Postulates

Self-inductance23.9 Inductance

semipermeable12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes, 20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms

shear deformation5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain

short circuit20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body

shunt resistance21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters

SI unit of torque9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium

significant figures1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures

simple circuit20.2 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits

Simple Harmonic Motion16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion

simple harmonic oscillator16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion

simple pendulum16.4 The Simple Pendulum

simplified theory of color vision26.3 Color and Color Vision

single-photon-emission computed tomography(SPECT)32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

Solid-state radiation detectors31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors

sonic boom17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms

sound17.1 Sound

sound intensity level17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level

sound pressure level17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level

south magnetic pole22.1 Magnets

space quantization30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization

special relativity.28.1 Einstein’s Postulates

specific gravity11.7 Archimedes’ Principle

specific heat14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity

spin projection quantum number30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules

spin quantum number30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules

spontaneous symmetry breaking34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics

stable equilibrium9.3 Stability

Standard Model33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces

static equilibrium9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium, 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies

static friction5.1 Friction

statistical analysis15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation

Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation14.7 Radiation

step-down transformer23.7 Transformers

step-up transformer23.7 Transformers

Stimulated emission30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations

Stokes' law5.2 Drag Forces

Superconductors34.6 High-Temperature Superconductors

supercriticality32.6 Fission

superforce34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics

superposition16.10 Superposition and Interference

synchrotron33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy

synchrotron radiation33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy

T

tangential acceleration10.1 Angular Acceleration

Television24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Temperature13.1 Temperature

temperature coefficient of resistivity20.3 Resistance and Resistivity

tensile strength5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain

terminal speed12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid

terminal voltage21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage

the second law of thermodynamics stated in terms of entropy15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy

theory of quark confinement33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?

therapeutic ratio32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation

thermal agitation24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

thermal conductivity14.5 Conduction

thermal energy7.5 Nonconservative Forces, 7.6 Conservation of Energy, 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature

thermal equilibrium13.1 Temperature

thermal expansion13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids

Thermal stress13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids

thin film interference27.7 Thin Film Interference

thin lens25.6 Image Formation by Lenses

thin lens equations25.6 Image Formation by Lenses

thought experiment34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity

three-wire system23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices

thrust4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces, 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

timbre17.6 Hearing

Time dilation28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation

TOE epoch34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics

tone17.6 Hearing

Torque9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium, 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia

Total energy 28.6 Relativistic Energy

total internal reflection25.4 Total Internal Reflection

trajectory3.4 Projectile Motion

transformer equation23.7 Transformers

Transformers23.7 Transformers

triple point13.5 Phase Changes

Tunneling31.7 Tunneling

U

ultra high frequency24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

ultracentrifuge6.2 Centripetal Acceleration

ultrasound17.6 Hearing

Ultraviolet (UV) microscopes27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light

Ultraviolet radiation29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

ultraviolet radiation (UV)24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

uncertainty in energy29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

uncertainty in momentum29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

uncertainty in position29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

uncertainty in time29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

underdamped16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion

unpolarized27.8 Polarization

unstable equilibrium9.3 Stability

useful work7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans

V

Van de Graaff33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy

Van de Graaff generators18.8 Applications of Electrostatics

vapor13.5 Phase Changes

Vapor pressure13.5 Phase Changes

vector2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems, 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods, 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field

vectors3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction, 18.6 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges

velocity3.5 Addition of Velocities

vertically polarized27.8 Polarization

very high frequency24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

virtual image25.6 Image Formation by Lenses

viscous drag12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid

Visible light24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum, 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

voltage drop21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel

Voltmeters21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters

W

watt7.7 Power

wave16.9 Waves

wave velocity16.9 Waves

wavelength in a medium27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference

weakly interacting massive particles34.4 Dark Matter and Closure

weight4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System, 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Force

Wheatstone bridge21.5 Null Measurements

X

x rays29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum, 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications

x-ray diffraction30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications

xerography18.8 Applications of Electrostatics

Y

Z

Zeeman effect30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization

zeroth law of thermodynamics13.1 Temperature

zz size 12{z} {}-component of spin angular momentum30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules

zz size 12{z} {}-component of the angular momentum30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules