By the end of this section, you will be able to:
- Define mass and inertia.
- Understand Newton's first law of motion.
Experience suggests that an object at rest will remain at rest if left alone, and that an object in motion tends to slow down and stop unless some effort is made to keep it moving. What Newton’s first law of motion states, however, is the following:
There exists an inertial frame of reference such that a body at rest remains at rest, or, if in motion, remains in motion at a constant velocity unless acted on by a net external force.
Note the repeated use of the verb “remains.” We can think of this law as preserving the status quo of motion.
The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference which we call an inertial reference frame, relative to which the motion of an object not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. An inertial reference frame is any reference frame that is not itself accelerating. A car traveling at constant velocity is an inertial reference frame. A car slowing down for a stoplight, or speeding up after the light turns green, will be accelerating and is not an inertial reference frame. Finally, when the car goes around a turn, which is due to an acceleration changing the direction of the velocity vector, it is not an inertial reference frame. Note that Newton’s laws of motion are only valid for inertial reference frames.
Rather than contradicting our experience, Newton’s first law of motion states that there must be a cause (which is a net external force) for there to be any change in velocity (either a change in magnitude or direction) in an inertial reference frame. We will define net external force in the next section. An object sliding across a table or floor slows down due to the net force of friction acting on the object. If friction disappeared, would the object still slow down?
The idea of cause and effect is crucial in accurately describing what happens in various situations. For example, consider what happens to an object sliding along a rough horizontal surface. The object quickly grinds to a halt. If we spray the surface with talcum powder to make the surface smoother, the object slides farther. If we make the surface even smoother by rubbing lubricating oil on it, the object slides farther yet. Extrapolating to a frictionless surface, we can imagine the object sliding in a straight line indefinitely. Friction is thus the cause of the slowing (consistent with Newton’s first law). The object would not slow down at all if friction were completely eliminated. Consider an air hockey table. When the air is turned off, the puck slides only a short distance before friction slows it to a stop. However, when the air is turned on, it creates a nearly frictionless surface, and the puck glides long distances without slowing down. Additionally, if we know enough about the friction, we can accurately predict how quickly the object will slow down. Friction is an external force.
Newton’s first law is completely general and can be applied to anything from an object sliding on a table to a satellite in orbit to blood pumped from the heart. Experiments have thoroughly verified that any change in velocity (speed or direction) must be caused by an external force. The idea of generally applicable or universal laws is important not only here—it is a basic feature of all laws of physics. Identifying these laws is like recognizing patterns in nature from which further patterns can be discovered. The genius of Galileo, who first developed the idea for the first law, and Newton, who clarified it, was to ask the fundamental question, “What is the cause?” Thinking in terms of cause and effect is a worldview fundamentally different from the typical ancient Greek approach when questions such as “Why does a tiger have stripes?” would have been answered in Aristotelian fashion, “That is the nature of the beast.” True perhaps, but not a useful insight.
The property of a body to remain at rest or to remain in motion with constant velocity is called inertia. Newton’s first law is often called the law of inertia. As we know from experience, some objects have more inertia than others. It is obviously more difficult to change the motion of a large boulder than that of a basketball, for example. The inertia of an object is measured by its mass.
An object with a small mass will exhibit less inertia and be more affected by other objects. An object with a large mass will exhibit greater inertia and be less affected by other objects. This inertial mass of an object is a measure of how difficult it is to alter the uniform motion of the object by an external force.
Roughly speaking, mass is a measure of the amount of “stuff” (or matter) in something. The quantity or amount of matter in an object is determined by the numbers of atoms and molecules of various types it contains. Unlike weight, mass does not vary with location. The mass of an object is the same on Earth, in orbit, or on the surface of the Moon. In practice, it is very difficult to count and identify all of the atoms and molecules in an object, so masses are not often determined in this manner. Operationally, the masses of objects are determined by comparison with the standard kilogram.
Which has more mass: a kilogram of cotton balls or a kilogram of gold?