By the end of this section, you will be able to:
- Define ferromagnet.
- Describe the role of magnetic domains in magnetization.
- Explain the significance of the Curie temperature.
- Describe the relationship between electricity and magnetism.
The information presented in this section supports the following AP® learning objectives and science practices:
- 2.D.3.1 The student is able to describe the orientation of a magnetic dipole placed in a magnetic field in general and the particular cases of a compass in the magnetic field of the Earth and iron filings surrounding a bar magnet. (S.P. 1.2)
- 2.D.4.1 The student is able to use the representation of magnetic domains to qualitatively analyze the magnetic behavior of a bar magnet composed of ferromagnetic material. (S.P. 1.4)
- 4.E.1.1 The student is able to use representations and models to qualitatively describe the magnetic properties of some materials that can be affected by magnetic properties of other objects in the system. (S.P. 1.1, 1.4, 2.2)
Only certain materials, such as iron, cobalt, nickel, and gadolinium, exhibit strong magnetic effects. Such materials are called ferromagnetic, after the Latin word for iron, ferrum. A group of materials made from the alloys of the rare earth elements are also used as strong and permanent magnets; a popular one is neodymium. Other materials exhibit weak magnetic effects, which are detectable only with sensitive instruments. Not only do ferromagnetic materials respond strongly to magnets (the way iron is attracted to magnets), they can also be magnetized themselves—that is, they can be induced to be magnetic or made into permanent magnets.
When a magnet is brought near a previously unmagnetized ferromagnetic material, it causes local magnetization of the material with unlike poles closest, as in Figure 22.7. (This results in the attraction of the previously unmagnetized material to the magnet.) What happens on a microscopic scale is illustrated in Figure 22.8. The regions within the material called domains act like small bar magnets. Within domains, the poles of individual atoms are aligned. Each atom acts like a tiny bar magnet. Domains are small and randomly oriented in an unmagnetized ferromagnetic object. In response to an external magnetic field, the domains may grow to millimeter size, aligning themselves as shown in Figure 22.8(b). This induced magnetization can be made permanent if the material is heated and then cooled, or simply tapped in the presence of other magnets.
Conversely, a permanent magnet can be demagnetized by hard blows or by heating it in the absence of another magnet. Increased thermal motion at higher temperature can disrupt and randomize the orientation and the size of the domains. There is a well-defined temperature for ferromagnetic materials, which is called the Curie temperature, above which they cannot be magnetized. The Curie temperature for iron is 1043 K , which is well above room temperature. There are several elements and alloys that have Curie temperatures much lower than room temperature and are ferromagnetic only below those temperatures.
Early in the 19th century, it was discovered that electrical currents cause magnetic effects. The first significant observation was by the Danish scientist Hans Christian Oersted (1777–1851), who found that a compass needle was deflected by a current-carrying wire. This was the first significant evidence that the movement of charges had any connection with magnets. Electromagnetism is the use of electric current to make magnets. These temporarily induced magnets are called electromagnets. Electromagnets are employed for everything from a wrecking yard crane that lifts scrapped cars to controlling the beam of a 90-km-circumference particle accelerator to the magnets in medical imaging machines (See Figure 22.9).
Figure 22.10 shows that the response of iron filings to a current-carrying coil and to a permanent bar magnet. The patterns are similar. In fact, electromagnets and ferromagnets have the same basic characteristics—for example, they have north and south poles that cannot be separated and for which like poles repel and unlike poles attract.
In Figure 22.11, a series of tiny compass needles are placed in an external magnetic field. These dipoles respond exactly like the iron filings in Figure 22.10. For needles close to one pole of the magnet, the needle is aligned so that the opposite pole of the needle points at the bar magnet. For example, close to the north pole of the bar magnet, the south pole of the compass needle is aligned to be closest to the bar magnet.
As an experimenter moves each compass around, the needle will rotate in such a way as to orient itself with the field of the bar magnet at that location. In this way, the magnetic field lines may be mapped out precisely.
The strength of the magnetic field depends on the medium in which the magnetic field exists. Some substances (like iron) respond to external magnetic fields in a way that amplifies the external magnetic field. The magnetic permeability of a substance is a measure of the substance’s ability to support or amplify an already existing external magnetic field. Ferromagnets, in which magnetic domains in the substance align with and amplify an external magnetic field, are examples of objects with high permeability.
Combining a ferromagnet with an electromagnet can produce particularly strong magnetic effects. (See Figure 22.12.) Whenever strong magnetic effects are needed, such as lifting scrap metal, or in particle accelerators, electromagnets are enhanced by ferromagnetic materials. Limits to how strong the magnets can be made are imposed by coil resistance (it will overheat and melt at sufficiently high current), and so superconducting magnets may be employed. These are still limited, because superconducting properties are destroyed by too great a magnetic field.
Figure 22.13 shows a few uses of combinations of electromagnets and ferromagnets. Ferromagnetic materials can act as memory devices, because the orientation of the magnetic fields of small domains can be reversed or erased. Magnetic information storage on videotapes and computer hard drives are among the most common applications. This property is vital in our digital world.
Current: The Source of All Magnetism
An electromagnet creates magnetism with an electric current. In later sections we explore this more quantitatively, finding the strength and direction of magnetic fields created by various currents. But what about ferromagnets? Figure 22.14 shows models of how electric currents create magnetism at the submicroscopic level. (Note that we cannot directly observe the paths of individual electrons about atoms, and so a model or visual image, consistent with all direct observations, is made. We can directly observe the electron’s orbital angular momentum, its spin momentum, and subsequent magnetic moments, all of which are explained with electric-current-creating subatomic magnetism.) Currents, including those associated with other submicroscopic particles like protons, allow us to explain ferromagnetism and all other magnetic effects. Ferromagnetism, for example, results from an internal cooperative alignment of electron spins, possible in some materials but not in others.
Crucial to the statement that electric current is the source of all magnetism is the fact that it is impossible to separate north and south magnetic poles. (This is far different from the case of positive and negative charges, which are easily separated.) A current loop always produces a magnetic dipole—that is, a magnetic field that acts like a north pole and south pole pair. Since isolated north and south magnetic poles, called magnetic monopoles, are not observed, currents are used to explain all magnetic effects. If magnetic monopoles did exist, then we would have to modify this underlying connection that all magnetism is due to electrical current. There is no known reason that magnetic monopoles should not exist—they are simply never observed—and so searches at the subnuclear level continue. If they do not exist, we would like to find out why not. If they do exist, we would like to see evidence of them.
Electric current is the source of all magnetism.
Explore the interactions between a compass and bar magnet. Discover how you can use a battery and wire to make a magnet! Can you make it a stronger magnet? Can you make the magnetic field reverse?