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College Physics for AP® Courses

15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency

College Physics for AP® Courses15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 1.1 Physics: An Introduction
    3. 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units
    4. 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
    5. 1.4 Approximation
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  3. 2 Kinematics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 2.1 Displacement
    3. 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
    4. 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed
    5. 2.4 Acceleration
    6. 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
    7. 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One Dimensional Kinematics
    8. 2.7 Falling Objects
    9. 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One Dimensional Motion
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  4. 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction
    3. 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    4. 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    5. 3.4 Projectile Motion
    6. 3.5 Addition of Velocities
    7. Glossary
    8. Section Summary
    9. Conceptual Questions
    10. Problems & Exercises
    11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  5. 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 4.1 Development of Force Concept
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
    6. 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Force
    7. 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies
    8. 4.7 Further Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion
    9. 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  6. 5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 5.1 Friction
    3. 5.2 Drag Forces
    4. 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain
    5. Glossary
    6. Section Summary
    7. Conceptual Questions
    8. Problems & Exercises
    9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  7. 6 Gravitation and Uniform Circular Motion
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration
    4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
    5. 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force
    6. 6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
    7. 6.6 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  8. 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition
    3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
    4. 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy
    5. 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
    6. 7.5 Nonconservative Forces
    7. 7.6 Conservation of Energy
    8. 7.7 Power
    9. 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
    10. 7.9 World Energy Use
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  9. 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions
    1. Connection for AP® courses
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force
    3. 8.2 Impulse
    4. 8.3 Conservation of Momentum
    5. 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    6. 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
    7. 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
    8. 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. 9 Statics and Torque
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium
    3. 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium
    4. 9.3 Stability
    5. 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies
    6. 9.5 Simple Machines
    7. 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  11. 10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 10.1 Angular Acceleration
    3. 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion
    4. 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
    5. 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
    6. 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
    7. 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
    8. 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  12. 11 Fluid Statics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 11.1 What Is a Fluid?
    3. 11.2 Density
    4. 11.3 Pressure
    5. 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
    6. 11.5 Pascal’s Principle
    7. 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
    8. 11.7 Archimedes’ Principle
    9. 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
    10. 11.9 Pressures in the Body
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  13. 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
    3. 12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
    4. 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
    5. 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
    6. 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence
    7. 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
    8. 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  14. 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 13.1 Temperature
    3. 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
    4. 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law
    5. 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
    6. 13.5 Phase Changes
    7. 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  15. 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 14.1 Heat
    3. 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
    4. 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods
    6. 14.5 Conduction
    7. 14.6 Convection
    8. 14.7 Radiation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  16. 15 Thermodynamics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
    4. 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
    5. 15.4 Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
    6. 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
    7. 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
    8. 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  17. 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
    3. 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations
    4. 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
    5. 16.4 The Simple Pendulum
    6. 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    7. 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
    8. 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion
    9. 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    10. 16.9 Waves
    11. 16.10 Superposition and Interference
    12. 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
    17. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  18. 17 Physics of Hearing
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 17.1 Sound
    3. 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    4. 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    5. 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    6. 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
    7. 17.6 Hearing
    8. 17.7 Ultrasound
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  19. 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
    3. 18.2 Conductors and Insulators
    4. 18.3 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
    5. 18.4 Coulomb’s Law
    6. 18.5 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
    7. 18.6 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
    8. 18.7 Electric Forces in Biology
    9. 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  20. 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
    3. 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
    4. 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
    5. 19.4 Equipotential Lines
    6. 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
    8. 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  21. 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 20.1 Current
    3. 20.2 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits
    4. 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity
    5. 20.4 Electric Power and Energy
    6. 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current
    7. 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body
    8. 20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  22. 21 Circuits, Bioelectricity, and DC Instruments
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel
    3. 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage
    4. 21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules
    5. 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
    6. 21.5 Null Measurements
    7. 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  23. 22 Magnetism
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 22.1 Magnets
    3. 22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
    4. 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
    5. 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
    6. 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
    7. 22.6 The Hall Effect
    8. 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
    9. 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
    10. 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
    11. 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
    12. 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
    17. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  24. 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
    3. 23.2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
    4. 23.3 Motional Emf
    5. 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
    6. 23.5 Electric Generators
    7. 23.6 Back Emf
    8. 23.7 Transformers
    9. 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
    10. 23.9 Inductance
    11. 23.10 RL Circuits
    12. 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
    13. 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits
    14. Glossary
    15. Section Summary
    16. Conceptual Questions
    17. Problems & Exercises
    18. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  25. 24 Electromagnetic Waves
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
    3. 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
    4. 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
    10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  26. 25 Geometric Optics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light
    3. 25.2 The Law of Reflection
    4. 25.3 The Law of Refraction
    5. 25.4 Total Internal Reflection
    6. 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms
    7. 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses
    8. 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  27. 26 Vision and Optical Instruments
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 26.1 Physics of the Eye
    3. 26.2 Vision Correction
    4. 26.3 Color and Color Vision
    5. 26.4 Microscopes
    6. 26.5 Telescopes
    7. 26.6 Aberrations
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  28. 27 Wave Optics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
    3. 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
    4. 27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment
    5. 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction
    6. 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction
    7. 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
    8. 27.7 Thin Film Interference
    9. 27.8 Polarization
    10. 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  29. 28 Special Relativity
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 28.1 Einstein’s Postulates
    3. 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation
    4. 28.3 Length Contraction
    5. 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities
    6. 28.5 Relativistic Momentum
    7. 28.6 Relativistic Energy
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  30. 29 Introduction to Quantum Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 29.1 Quantization of Energy
    3. 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect
    4. 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 29.4 Photon Momentum
    6. 29.5 The Particle-Wave Duality
    7. 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter
    8. 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    9. 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  31. 30 Atomic Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 30.1 Discovery of the Atom
    3. 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
    4. 30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
    5. 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
    6. 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
    7. 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
    8. 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
    9. 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules
    10. 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  32. 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity
    3. 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors
    4. 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus
    5. 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
    6. 31.5 Half-Life and Activity
    7. 31.6 Binding Energy
    8. 31.7 Tunneling
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  33. 32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
    3. 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
    4. 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
    5. 32.4 Food Irradiation
    6. 32.5 Fusion
    7. 32.6 Fission
    8. 32.7 Nuclear Weapons
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  34. 33 Particle Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
    3. 33.2 The Four Basic Forces
    4. 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
    5. 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
    6. 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?
    7. 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  35. 34 Frontiers of Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics
    3. 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
    4. 34.3 Superstrings
    5. 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure
    6. 34.5 Complexity and Chaos
    7. 34.6 High-Temperature Superconductors
    8. 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  36. A | Atomic Masses
  37. B | Selected Radioactive Isotopes
  38. C | Useful Information
  39. D | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation
  40. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
    32. Chapter 32
    33. Chapter 33
    34. Chapter 34
  41. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • State the expressions of the second law of thermodynamics.
  • Calculate the efficiency and carbon dioxide emission of a coal-fired electricity plant, using second law characteristics.
  • Describe and define the Otto cycle.
Photograph of melting ice floes in the Arctic.
Figure 15.16 These ice floes melt during the Arctic summer. Some of them refreeze in the winter, but the second law of thermodynamics predicts that it would be extremely unlikely for the water molecules contained in these particular floes to reform the distinctive alligator-like shape they formed when the picture was taken in the summer of 2009. (credit: Patrick Kelley, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Geological Survey)

The second law of thermodynamics deals with the direction taken by spontaneous processes. Many processes occur spontaneously in one direction only—that is, they are irreversible, under a given set of conditions. Although irreversibility is seen in day-to-day life—a broken glass does not resume its original state, for instance—complete irreversibility is a statistical statement that cannot be seen during the lifetime of the universe. More precisely, an irreversible process is one that depends on path. If the process can go in only one direction, then the reverse path differs fundamentally and the process cannot be reversible. For example, as noted in the previous section, heat involves the transfer of energy from higher to lower temperature. A cold object in contact with a hot one never gets colder, transferring heat to the hot object and making it hotter. Furthermore, mechanical energy, such as kinetic energy, can be completely converted to thermal energy by friction, but the reverse is impossible. A hot stationary object never spontaneously cools off and starts moving. Yet another example is the expansion of a puff of gas introduced into one corner of a vacuum chamber. The gas expands to fill the chamber, but it never regroups in the corner. The random motion of the gas molecules could take them all back to the corner, but this is never observed to happen. (See Figure 15.17.)

Part a of the figure shows spontaneous heat transfers. A rectangular section is divided down the center, and then marked hot on the left end and cold on the right. Heat Q is shown to flow from the hot end to the cold end as shown by a bold arrow toward the right. Part b of the figure shows a car moving on a horizontal road toward the right with initial velocity v. The car brake is applied after some time. The final velocity v sub f is shown equal to zero. Heat is released by the car. Part c of the figure shows two parts. The first part shows a burst of gas let into a vacuum chamber using a sprayer. The molecules of gas are shown to move in a random manner shown as dashed zigzag arrows. The second part of the same diagram shows the next stage after the air burst is sprayed. The molecules of air are shown to be arranged in uniform distribution as shown by horizontal, parallel dashed curves in the medium.
Figure 15.17 Examples of one-way processes in nature. (a) Heat transfer occurs spontaneously from hot to cold and not from cold to hot. (b) The brakes of this car convert its kinetic energy to heat transfer to the environment. The reverse process is impossible. (c) The burst of gas let into this vacuum chamber quickly expands to uniformly fill every part of the chamber. The random motions of the gas molecules will never return them to the corner.

The fact that certain processes never occur suggests that there is a law forbidding them to occur. The first law of thermodynamics would allow them to occur—none of those processes violate conservation of energy. The law that forbids these processes is called the second law of thermodynamics. We shall see that the second law can be stated in many ways that may seem different, but which in fact are equivalent. Like all natural laws, the second law of thermodynamics gives insights into nature, and its several statements imply that it is broadly applicable, fundamentally affecting many apparently disparate processes.

The already familiar direction of heat transfer from hot to cold is the basis of our first version of the second law of thermodynamics.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics (first expression)

Heat transfer occurs spontaneously from higher- to lower-temperature bodies but never spontaneously in the reverse direction.

Another way of stating this: It is impossible for any process to have as its sole result heat transfer from a cooler to a hotter object.

Heat Engines

Now let us consider a device that uses heat transfer to do work. As noted in the previous section, such a device is called a heat engine, and one is shown schematically in Figure 15.18(b). Gasoline and diesel engines, jet engines, and steam turbines are all heat engines that do work by using part of the heat transfer from some source. Heat transfer from the hot object (or hot reservoir) is denoted as QhQh size 12{Q rSub { size 8{h} } } {}, while heat transfer into the cold object (or cold reservoir) is QcQc size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {}, and the work done by the engine is WW size 12{W} {}. The temperatures of the hot and cold reservoirs are ThTh size 12{T rSub { size 8{h} } } {} and TcTc size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {}, respectively.

Part a of the figure shows the spontaneous heat transfer from a hot system to a cold system. The hot reservoir at temperature T sub h is represented by a rectangular section in the top and the cold reservoir at temperature T sub c is shown as a rectangular section at the bottom. Heat is shown to flow from hot reservoir to cold reservoir as shown by a bold arrow pointing downward. Part b of the figure shows a heat engine represented as a circle. The hot reservoir at temperature T sub h is represented by a rectangular section at the top and a cold reservoir at temperature T sub c is shown as a rectangular section at the bottom. Heat Q sub h is transferred out of the hot reservoir, work W is the output equals Q sub h minus Q sub c, and heat Q sub c is the heat transferred into the cold reservoir. All these are shown using bold arrows.
Figure 15.18 (a) Heat transfer occurs spontaneously from a hot object to a cold one, consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. (b) A heat engine, represented here by a circle, uses part of the heat transfer to do work. The hot and cold objects are called the hot and cold reservoirs. QhQh size 12{Q rSub { size 8{h} } } {} is the heat transfer out of the hot reservoir, WW size 12{W} {} is the work output, and QcQc size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {} is the heat transfer into the cold reservoir.

Because the hot reservoir is heated externally, which is energy intensive, it is important that the work is done as efficiently as possible. In fact, we would like WW size 12{W} {} to equal QhQh size 12{Q rSub { size 8{h} } } {}, and for there to be no heat transfer to the environment (Qc=0Qc=0 size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } =0} {}). Unfortunately, this is impossible. The second law of thermodynamics also states, with regard to using heat transfer to do work (the second expression of the second law):

The Second Law of Thermodynamics (second expression)

It is impossible in any system for heat transfer from a reservoir to completely convert to work in a cyclical process in which the system returns to its initial state.

A cyclical process brings a system, such as the gas in a cylinder, back to its original state at the end of every cycle. Most heat engines, such as reciprocating piston engines and rotating turbines, use cyclical processes. The second law, just stated in its second form, clearly states that such engines cannot have perfect conversion of heat transfer into work done. Before going into the underlying reasons for the limits on converting heat transfer into work, we need to explore the relationships among WW size 12{W} {}, QhQh size 12{Q rSub { size 8{h} } } {}, and QcQc size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {}, and to define the efficiency of a cyclical heat engine. As noted, a cyclical process brings the system back to its original condition at the end of every cycle. Such a system's internal energy UU is the same at the beginning and end of every cycle—that is, ΔU=0ΔU=0 size 12{ΔU=0} {}. The first law of thermodynamics states that

ΔU=QW,ΔU=QW, size 12{ΔU=Q - W} {}
15.22

where QQ size 12{Q} {} is the net heat transfer during the cycle (Q=QhQcQ=QhQc size 12{Q=Q rSub { size 8{h} } - Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {}) and WW size 12{W} {} is the net work done by the system. Since ΔU=0ΔU=0 size 12{ΔU=0} {} for a complete cycle, we have

0=QW,0=QW, size 12{0=Q - W} {}
15.23

so that

W=Q.W=Q. size 12{W=Q} {}
15.24

Thus the net work done by the system equals the net heat transfer into the system, or

W=QhQc(cyclical process),W=QhQc(cyclical process), size 12{W=Q rSub { size 8{h} } - Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {}
15.25

just as shown schematically in Figure 15.18(b). The problem is that in all processes, there is some heat transfer QcQc size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {} to the environment—and usually a very significant amount at that.

In the conversion of energy to work, we are always faced with the problem of getting less out than we put in. We define conversion efficiency EffEff size 12{ ital "Eff"} {} to be the ratio of useful work output to the energy input (or, in other words, the ratio of what we get to what we spend). In that spirit, we define the efficiency of a heat engine to be its net work output WW size 12{W} {} divided by heat transfer to the engine QhQh size 12{Q rSub { size 8{h} } } {}; that is,

Eff=WQh.Eff=WQh. size 12{ ital "Eff"= { {W} over {Q rSub { size 8{h} } } } } {}
15.26

Since W=QhQcW=QhQc size 12{W=Q rSub { size 8{h} } -Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {} in a cyclical process, we can also express this as

Eff=QhQcQh=1QcQh(cyclical process),Eff=QhQcQh=1QcQh(cyclical process), size 12{ ital "Eff"= { {Q rSub { size 8{h} } - Q rSub { size 8{c} } } over {Q rSub { size 8{h} } } } =1 - { {Q rSub { size 8{c} } } over {Q rSub { size 8{h} } } } } {}
15.27

making it clear that an efficiency of 1, or 100%, is possible only if there is no heat transfer to the environment (Qc=0Qc=0 size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } =0} {}). Note that all QQ size 12{Q} {}s are positive. The direction of heat transfer is indicated by a plus or minus sign. For example, QcQc size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {} is out of the system and so is preceded by a minus sign.

Example 15.3 Daily Work Done by a Coal-Fired Power Station, Its Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

A coal-fired power station is a huge heat engine. It uses heat transfer from burning coal to do work to turn turbines, which are used to generate electricity. In a single day, a large coal power station has 2.50×1014J2.50×1014J size 12{2 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } J} {} of heat transfer from coal and 1.48×1014J1.48×1014J size 12{1 "." "48" times "10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } J} {} of heat transfer into the environment. (a) What is the work done by the power station? (b) What is the efficiency of the power station? (c) In the combustion process, the following chemical reaction occurs: C+O2CO2C+O2CO2 size 12{C+O rSub { size 8{2} } rightarrow "CO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {}. This implies that every 12 kg of coal puts 12 kg + 16 kg + 16 kg = 44 kg of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Assuming that 1 kg of coal can provide 2.5×106J2.5×106J size 12{2 "." 5 times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } J} {} of heat transfer upon combustion, how much CO2CO2 size 12{"CO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} is emitted per day by this power plant?

Strategy for (a)

We can use W=QhQcW=QhQc size 12{W=Q rSub { size 8{h} } - Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {} to find the work output WW size 12{W} {}, assuming a cyclical process is used in the power station. In this process, water is boiled under pressure to form high-temperature steam, which is used to run steam turbine-generators, and then condensed back to water to start the cycle again.

Solution for (a)

Work output is given by:

W=QhQc.W=QhQc. size 12{W=Q rSub { size 8{h} } - Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {}
15.28

Substituting the given values:

W = 2 . 50 × 10 14 J 1 . 48 × 10 14 J = 1 . 02 × 10 14 J . W = 2 . 50 × 10 14 J 1 . 48 × 10 14 J = 1 . 02 × 10 14 J . alignl { stack { size 12{W=2 "." "50"´"10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } " J" +- 1 "." "48"´"10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } " J"} {} # =1 "." "02"´"10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } " J" "." {} } } {}
15.29

Strategy for (b)

The efficiency can be calculated with Eff=WQhEff=WQh size 12{ ital "Eff"= { {W} over {Q rSub { size 8{h} } } } } {} since QhQh size 12{Q rSub { size 8{h} } } {} is given and work WW size 12{W} {} was found in the first part of this example.

Solution for (b)

Efficiency is given by: Eff=WQhEff=WQh size 12{ ital "Eff"= { {W} over {Q rSub { size 8{h} } } } } {}. The work W W was just found to be 1.02 × 10 14 J 1.02 × 10 14 J , and QhQh size 12{Q rSub { size 8{h} } } {} is given, so the efficiency is

Eff = 1 . 02 × 10 14 J 2 . 50 × 10 14 J = 0 . 408 , or  40 . 8% Eff = 1 . 02 × 10 14 J 2 . 50 × 10 14 J = 0 . 408 , or  40 . 8% alignl { stack { size 12{ ital "Eff"= { {1 "." "02" times "10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } J} over {2 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } J} } } {} # =0 "." "408"", or ""40" "." 8% {} } } {}
15.30

Strategy for (c)

The daily consumption of coal is calculated using the information that each day there is 2.50×1014 J2.50×1014 J size 12{2 "." "50"´"10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } " J"} {} of heat transfer from coal. In the combustion process, we have C+O2CO2C+O2CO2 size 12{C+O rSub { size 8{2} } rightarrow "CO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {}. So every 12 kg of coal puts 12 kg + 16 kg + 16 kg = 44 kg of CO2CO2 size 12{"CO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} into the atmosphere.

Solution for (c)

The daily coal consumption is

2.50×1014J2.50×106J/kg=1.0×108kg.2.50×1014J2.50×106J/kg=1.0×108kg. size 12{ { {2 "." "50"´"10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } " J"} over {2 "." "50"´"10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J/kg"} } =1 "." 0´"10" rSup { size 8{7} } " J/kg"} {}
15.31

Assuming that the coal is pure and that all the coal goes toward producing carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide produced per day is

1.0×108kg coal×44 kg CO212 kg coal=3.7×108kg CO2.1.0×108kg coal×44 kg CO212 kg coal=3.7×108kg CO2. size 12{1 "." 0´"10" rSup { size 8{7} } " kg coal"´ { {"44 kg CO" rSub { size 8{2} } } over {"12 kg coal"} } =3 "." 7´"10" rSup { size 8{7} } " kg CO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {}
15.32

This is 370,000 metric tons of CO2CO2 size 12{"CO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} produced every day.

Discussion

If all the work output is converted to electricity in a period of one day, the average power output is 1180 MW (this is left to you as an end-of-chapter problem). This value is about the size of a large-scale conventional power plant. The efficiency found is acceptably close to the value of 42% given for coal power stations. It means that fully 59.2% of the energy is heat transfer to the environment, which usually results in warming lakes, rivers, or the ocean near the power station, and is implicated in a warming planet generally. While the laws of thermodynamics limit the efficiency of such plants—including plants fired by nuclear fuel, oil, and natural gas—the heat transfer to the environment could be, and sometimes is, used for heating homes or for industrial processes. The generally low cost of energy has not made it economical to make better use of the waste heat transfer from most heat engines. Coal-fired power plants produce the greatest amount of CO2CO2 size 12{"CO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} per unit energy output (compared to natural gas or oil), making coal the least efficient fossil fuel.

With the information given in Example 15.3, we can find characteristics such as the efficiency of a heat engine without any knowledge of how the heat engine operates, but looking further into the mechanism of the engine will give us greater insight. Figure 15.19 illustrates the operation of the common four-stroke gasoline engine. The four steps shown complete this heat engine's cycle, bringing the gasoline-air mixture back to its original condition.

The Otto cycle shown in Figure 15.20(a) is used in four-stroke internal combustion engines, although in fact the true Otto cycle paths do not correspond exactly to the strokes of the engine.

The adiabatic process AB corresponds to the nearly adiabatic compression stroke of the gasoline engine. In both cases, work is done on the system (the gas mixture in the cylinder), increasing its temperature and pressure. Along path BC of the Otto cycle, heat transfer QhQh size 12{Q rSub { size 8{h} } } {} into the gas occurs at constant volume, causing a further increase in pressure and temperature. This process corresponds to burning fuel in an internal combustion engine, and takes place so rapidly that the volume is nearly constant. Path CD in the Otto cycle is an adiabatic expansion that does work on the outside world, just as the power stroke of an internal combustion engine does in its nearly adiabatic expansion. The work done by the system along path CD is greater than the work done on the system along path AB, because the pressure is greater, and so there is a net work output. Along path DA in the Otto cycle, heat transfer QcQc size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {} from the gas at constant volume reduces its temperature and pressure, returning it to its original state. In an internal combustion engine, this process corresponds to the exhaust of hot gases and the intake of an air-gasoline mixture at a considerably lower temperature. In both cases, heat transfer into the environment occurs along this final path.

The net work done by a cyclical process is the area inside the closed path on a PVPV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagram, such as that inside path ABCDA in Figure 15.20. Note that in every imaginable cyclical process, it is absolutely necessary for heat transfer from the system to occur in order to get a net work output. In the Otto cycle, heat transfer occurs along path DA. If no heat transfer occurs, then the return path is the same, and the net work output is zero. The lower the temperature on the path AB, the less work has to be done to compress the gas. The area inside the closed path is then greater, and so the engine does more work and is thus more efficient. Similarly, the higher the temperature along path CD, the more work output there is. (See Figure 15.21.) So efficiency is related to the temperatures of the hot and cold reservoirs. In the next section, we shall see what the absolute limit to the efficiency of a heat engine is, and how it is related to temperature.

The figure shows four diagrams a, b, c, and d representing four stages of a four stroke gasoline engine. The construction of the engine has the base chamber whose cross section is in the shape of a square with flat corners, the top portion of the chamber is extended into a cylindrical section. The cylindrical section ends in the upper section with two valves, an inlet and an outlet. The cylindrical section has a movable cylinder with a piston attached to it. The piston is connected to the crank shaft in the base gas chamber. There is a spark plug on the top most part of the cylinder between the two valves. The four parts of the diagram show various stages of this four stoke engine. Part a of the diagram shows the air fuel mixture enters through the inlet valve in the upper section of the engine. The outlet valve is shown to be closed. The air and fuel is shown to exert a pressure on the piston acting downward. This force is shown to move the rotating crank shaft in clockwise direction in the gas chamber. This is the intake stroke. Part b of the diagram shows the compression stroke. Both the inlet and outlet valves are closed. The air and fuel mixture is shown to be compressed. The piston is shown to rise up as shown by a vertically pointing arrow. The piston is at the edge of the cylinder near the valves. The crankshaft in the gas chamber has shown to complete one complete cycle of rotation in the gas chamber. Part c of the diagram shows the power stroke. It has two parts, first the ignition stroke. This shows ignition of the fuel in the cylinder and pressure buildup in the region. Then in the second part the piston is shown to descend down the cylinder moving the crankshaft in the gas chamber in the clockwise direction. Part d of the figure shows the exhaust stroke. The piston expels the hot gas by moving upward and the gas is expelled through the exhaust valve.
Figure 15.19 In the four-stroke internal combustion gasoline engine, heat transfer into work takes place in the cyclical process shown here. The piston is connected to a rotating crankshaft, which both takes work out of and does work on the gas in the cylinder. (a) Air is mixed with fuel during the intake stroke. (b) During the compression stroke, the air-fuel mixture is rapidly compressed in a nearly adiabatic process, as the piston rises with the valves closed. Work is done on the gas. (c) The power stroke has two distinct parts. First, the air-fuel mixture is ignited, converting chemical potential energy into thermal energy almost instantaneously, which leads to a great increase in pressure. Then the piston descends, and the gas does work by exerting a force through a distance in a nearly adiabatic process. (d) The exhaust stroke expels the hot gas to prepare the engine for another cycle, starting again with the intake stroke.
Part a of the figure shows a graph of pressure P versus volume V for an Otto cycle. The pressure P is along the Y axis and the volume V is along the X axis. The graph shows a complete cycle A B C D.  The path begins at point A; the curve rises upward from point A to point B along the direction of the negative X axis. This is marked as an adiabatic process. Then the curve rises vertically up from point B to point C in a direction perpendicular to the X axis. Then the curve moves smoothly down to point D along the direction of the positive X axis. This is also marked as an adiabatic process. The last part of the curve drops vertically down from point D back to point A. The path A B is slightly lower than path C D. Heat Q sub h is shown to enter the system as shown by a bold arrow to the curve B C. Heat Q sub c is shown to leave the system as shown by a bold arrow near D A. The area inside A B C D is shaded, and the area of the shaded region is shown proportional to the work W. Part b of the diagram shows an internal combustion engine represented as a circle. The hot reservoir is a rectangular section at the top of the circle shown at temperature T sub h. A cold reservoir is shown as a rectangular section in the bottom part of the circle at temperature T sub c. Heat Q sub h is shown to enter the heat engine, as shown by a bold arrow. Work W is produced as output, shown to leave the system, and the remaining heat Q sub c is returned back to the cold reservoir as shown by bold arrow toward it.
Figure 15.20 PVPV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagram for a simplified Otto cycle, analogous to that employed in an internal combustion engine. Point A corresponds to the start of the compression stroke of an internal combustion engine. Paths AB and CD are adiabatic and correspond to the compression and power strokes of an internal combustion engine, respectively. Paths BC and DA are isochoric and accomplish similar results to the ignition and exhaust-intake portions, respectively, of the internal combustion engine's cycle. Work is done on the gas along path AB, but more work is done by the gas along path CD, so that there is a net work output.
Part a of the figure shows a graph of pressure P versus volume V for an Otto cycle. The pressure P is along the Y axis and the volume V is along the X axis. The graph shows a complete cycle A B C D. The path begins at point A; the curve rises upward from point A to point B along the direction of the negative X axis. This is marked as an adiabatic process. Then the curve rises vertically up from point B to point C in a direction perpendicular to the X axis. Then the curve moves smoothly down to point D along the direction of the positive X axis. This is also marked as an adiabatic process. The last part of the curve drops vertically down from point D back to point A. The path A B is much lower than path C D, which shows that the starting temperature of path C D is higher than A B. Heat Q sub h prime enters the system as shown by a bold arrow to the curve B C. Heat Q sub c prime leaves the system, as shown by a bold arrow near D A. The area inside A B C D is shaded. Part b of the diagram shows an internal combustion engine represented as a circle. The hot reservoir is a rectangular section at the top of the circle shown at temperature T sub h prime. A cold reservoir is shown as a rectangular section in the bottom part of the circle at temperature T sub c prime. Heat Q sub h prime enters the heat engine as shown by a bold arrow, a work W prime is produced as output, shown to leave the system, and the remaining heat Q sub c prime is returned back to the cold reservoir, as shown by a bold arrow toward it.
Figure 15.21 This Otto cycle produces a greater work output than the one in Figure 15.20, because the starting temperature of path CD is higher and the starting temperature of path AB is lower. The area inside the loop is greater, corresponding to greater net work output.
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