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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 1.1 Physics: An Introduction
    3. 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units
    4. 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
    5. 1.4 Approximation
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  3. 2 Kinematics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 2.1 Displacement
    3. 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
    4. 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed
    5. 2.4 Acceleration
    6. 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
    7. 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One Dimensional Kinematics
    8. 2.7 Falling Objects
    9. 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One Dimensional Motion
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  4. 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction
    3. 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    4. 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    5. 3.4 Projectile Motion
    6. 3.5 Addition of Velocities
    7. Glossary
    8. Section Summary
    9. Conceptual Questions
    10. Problems & Exercises
    11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  5. 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 4.1 Development of Force Concept
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
    6. 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Force
    7. 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies
    8. 4.7 Further Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion
    9. 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  6. 5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 5.1 Friction
    3. 5.2 Drag Forces
    4. 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain
    5. Glossary
    6. Section Summary
    7. Conceptual Questions
    8. Problems & Exercises
    9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  7. 6 Gravitation and Uniform Circular Motion
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration
    4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
    5. 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force
    6. 6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
    7. 6.6 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  8. 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition
    3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
    4. 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy
    5. 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
    6. 7.5 Nonconservative Forces
    7. 7.6 Conservation of Energy
    8. 7.7 Power
    9. 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
    10. 7.9 World Energy Use
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  9. 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions
    1. Connection for AP® courses
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force
    3. 8.2 Impulse
    4. 8.3 Conservation of Momentum
    5. 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    6. 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
    7. 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
    8. 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. 9 Statics and Torque
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium
    3. 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium
    4. 9.3 Stability
    5. 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies
    6. 9.5 Simple Machines
    7. 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  11. 10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 10.1 Angular Acceleration
    3. 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion
    4. 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
    5. 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
    6. 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
    7. 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
    8. 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  12. 11 Fluid Statics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 11.1 What Is a Fluid?
    3. 11.2 Density
    4. 11.3 Pressure
    5. 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
    6. 11.5 Pascal’s Principle
    7. 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
    8. 11.7 Archimedes’ Principle
    9. 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
    10. 11.9 Pressures in the Body
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  13. 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
    3. 12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
    4. 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
    5. 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
    6. 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence
    7. 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
    8. 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  14. 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 13.1 Temperature
    3. 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
    4. 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law
    5. 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
    6. 13.5 Phase Changes
    7. 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  15. 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 14.1 Heat
    3. 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
    4. 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods
    6. 14.5 Conduction
    7. 14.6 Convection
    8. 14.7 Radiation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  16. 15 Thermodynamics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
    4. 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
    5. 15.4 Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
    6. 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
    7. 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
    8. 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  17. 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
    3. 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations
    4. 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
    5. 16.4 The Simple Pendulum
    6. 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    7. 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
    8. 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion
    9. 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    10. 16.9 Waves
    11. 16.10 Superposition and Interference
    12. 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
    17. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  18. 17 Physics of Hearing
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 17.1 Sound
    3. 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    4. 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    5. 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    6. 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
    7. 17.6 Hearing
    8. 17.7 Ultrasound
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  19. 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
    3. 18.2 Conductors and Insulators
    4. 18.3 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
    5. 18.4 Coulomb’s Law
    6. 18.5 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
    7. 18.6 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
    8. 18.7 Electric Forces in Biology
    9. 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  20. 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
    3. 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
    4. 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
    5. 19.4 Equipotential Lines
    6. 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
    8. 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  21. 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 20.1 Current
    3. 20.2 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits
    4. 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity
    5. 20.4 Electric Power and Energy
    6. 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current
    7. 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body
    8. 20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  22. 21 Circuits, Bioelectricity, and DC Instruments
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel
    3. 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage
    4. 21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules
    5. 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
    6. 21.5 Null Measurements
    7. 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  23. 22 Magnetism
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 22.1 Magnets
    3. 22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
    4. 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
    5. 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
    6. 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
    7. 22.6 The Hall Effect
    8. 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
    9. 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
    10. 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
    11. 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
    12. 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
    17. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  24. 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
    3. 23.2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
    4. 23.3 Motional Emf
    5. 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
    6. 23.5 Electric Generators
    7. 23.6 Back Emf
    8. 23.7 Transformers
    9. 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
    10. 23.9 Inductance
    11. 23.10 RL Circuits
    12. 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
    13. 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits
    14. Glossary
    15. Section Summary
    16. Conceptual Questions
    17. Problems & Exercises
    18. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  25. 24 Electromagnetic Waves
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
    3. 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
    4. 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
    10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  26. 25 Geometric Optics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light
    3. 25.2 The Law of Reflection
    4. 25.3 The Law of Refraction
    5. 25.4 Total Internal Reflection
    6. 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms
    7. 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses
    8. 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  27. 26 Vision and Optical Instruments
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 26.1 Physics of the Eye
    3. 26.2 Vision Correction
    4. 26.3 Color and Color Vision
    5. 26.4 Microscopes
    6. 26.5 Telescopes
    7. 26.6 Aberrations
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  28. 27 Wave Optics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
    3. 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
    4. 27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment
    5. 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction
    6. 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction
    7. 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
    8. 27.7 Thin Film Interference
    9. 27.8 Polarization
    10. 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  29. 28 Special Relativity
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 28.1 Einstein’s Postulates
    3. 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation
    4. 28.3 Length Contraction
    5. 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities
    6. 28.5 Relativistic Momentum
    7. 28.6 Relativistic Energy
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  30. 29 Introduction to Quantum Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 29.1 Quantization of Energy
    3. 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect
    4. 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 29.4 Photon Momentum
    6. 29.5 The Particle-Wave Duality
    7. 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter
    8. 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    9. 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  31. 30 Atomic Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 30.1 Discovery of the Atom
    3. 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
    4. 30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
    5. 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
    6. 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
    7. 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
    8. 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
    9. 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules
    10. 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  32. 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity
    3. 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors
    4. 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus
    5. 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
    6. 31.5 Half-Life and Activity
    7. 31.6 Binding Energy
    8. 31.7 Tunneling
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  33. 32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
    3. 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
    4. 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
    5. 32.4 Food Irradiation
    6. 32.5 Fusion
    7. 32.6 Fission
    8. 32.7 Nuclear Weapons
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  34. 33 Particle Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
    3. 33.2 The Four Basic Forces
    4. 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
    5. 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
    6. 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?
    7. 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  35. 34 Frontiers of Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics
    3. 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
    4. 34.3 Superstrings
    5. 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure
    6. 34.5 Complexity and Chaos
    7. 34.6 High-Temperature Superconductors
    8. 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  36. A | Atomic Masses
  37. B | Selected Radioactive Isotopes
  38. C | Useful Information
  39. D | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation
  40. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
    32. Chapter 32
    33. Chapter 33
    34. Chapter 34
  41. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Describe the effects of gravity on objects in motion.
  • Describe the motion of objects that are in free fall.
  • Calculate the position and velocity of objects in free fall.

The information presented in this section supports the following AP® learning objectives and science practices:

  • 3.A.1.1 The student is able to express the motion of an object using narrative, mathematical, or graphical representations. (S.P. 1.5, 2.1, 2.2)
  • 3.A.1.2 The student is able to design an experimental investigation of the motion of an object. (S.P. 4.2)
  • 3.A.1.3 The student is able to analyze experimental data describing the motion of an object and is able to express the results of the analysis using narrative, mathematical, and graphical representations. (S.P. 5.1)

Falling objects form an interesting class of motion problems. For example, we can estimate the depth of a vertical mine shaft by dropping a rock into it and listening for the rock to hit the bottom. By applying the kinematics developed so far to falling objects, we can examine some interesting situations and learn much about gravity in the process.

Gravity

The most remarkable and unexpected fact about falling objects is that, if air resistance and friction are negligible, then in a given location all objects fall toward the center of Earth with the same constant acceleration, independent of their mass. This experimentally determined fact is unexpected, because we are so accustomed to the effects of air resistance and friction that we expect light objects to fall slower than heavy ones.

Positions of a feather and hammer over time as they fall on the Moon. The feather and hammer are at the exact same position at each moment in time.
Figure 2.50 A hammer and a feather will fall with the same constant acceleration if air resistance is considered negligible. This is a general characteristic of gravity not unique to Earth, as astronaut David R. Scott demonstrated on the Moon in 1971, where the acceleration due to gravity is only 1.67 m/s21.67 m/s2 size 12{1 "." "67 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}.

In the real world, air resistance can cause a lighter object to fall slower than a heavier object of the same size. A tennis ball will reach the ground after a hard baseball dropped at the same time. (It might be difficult to observe the difference if the height is not large.) Air resistance opposes the motion of an object through the air, while friction between objects—such as between clothes and a laundry chute or between a stone and a pool into which it is dropped—also opposes motion between them. For the ideal situations of these first few chapters, an object falling without air resistance or friction is defined to be in free-fall.

The force of gravity causes objects to fall toward the center of Earth. The acceleration of free-falling objects is therefore called the acceleration due to gravity. The acceleration due to gravity is constant, which means we can apply the kinematics equations to any falling object where air resistance and friction are negligible. This opens a broad class of interesting situations to us. The acceleration due to gravity is so important that its magnitude is given its own symbol, gg size 12{g} {}. It is constant at any given location on Earth and has the average value

g=9.80 m/s2.g=9.80 m/s2. size 12{g=9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
2.74

Although gg size 12{g} {} varies from 9.78 m/s29.78 m/s2 size 12{9 "." "78 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} to {}9.83 m/s29.83 m/s2 size 12{9 "." "83 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}, depending on latitude, altitude, underlying geological formations, and local topography, the average value of 9.80 m/s29.80 m/s2 size 12{9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} will be used in this text unless otherwise specified. The direction of the acceleration due to gravity is downward (towards the center of Earth). In fact, its direction defines what we call vertical. Note that whether the acceleration aa size 12{a} {} in the kinematic equations has the value +g+g size 12{+g} {} or gg size 12{ - g} {} depends on how we define our coordinate system. If we define the upward direction as positive, then a=g=9.80 m/s2a=g=9.80 m/s2 size 12{a= - g= - 9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}, and if we define the downward direction as positive, then a=g=9.80 m/s2a=g=9.80 m/s2 size 12{a=g=9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}.

One-Dimensional Motion Involving Gravity

The best way to see the basic features of motion involving gravity is to start with the simplest situations and then progress toward more complex ones. So we start by considering straight up and down motion with no air resistance or friction. These assumptions mean that the velocity (if there is any) is vertical. If the object is dropped, we know the initial velocity is zero. Once the object has left contact with whatever held or threw it, the object is in free-fall. Under these circumstances, the motion is one-dimensional and has constant acceleration of magnitude gg size 12{g} {}. We will also represent vertical displacement with the symbol yy size 12{y} {} and use xx size 12{x} {} for horizontal displacement.

Kinematic Equations for Objects in Free-Fall where Acceleration = -g

v = v 0 gt v = v 0 gt size 12{v=v rSub { size 8{0} } + ital "gt"} {}
2.75
y = y 0 + v 0 t 1 2 gt 2 y = y 0 + v 0 t 1 2 gt 2 size 12{y=y rSub { size 8{0} } +v rSub { size 8{0} } t+ { {1} over {2} } ital "gt" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
2.76
v 2 = v 0 2 2g y y 0 v 2 = v 0 2 2g y y 0 size 12{v rSup { size 8{2} } =v rSub { size 8{0} } rSup { size 8{2} } +2g left (y - y rSub { size 8{0} } right )} {}
2.77

Example 2.14 Calculating Position and Velocity of a Falling Object: A Rock Thrown Upward

A person standing on the edge of a high cliff throws a rock straight up with an initial velocity of 13.0 m/s. The rock misses the edge of the cliff as it falls back to Earth. Calculate the position and velocity of the rock 1.00 s, 2.00 s, and 3.00 s after it is thrown, neglecting the effects of air resistance.

Strategy

Draw a sketch.

Velocity vector arrow pointing up in the positive y direction, labeled v sub 0 equals thirteen point 0 meters per second. Acceleration vector arrow pointing down in the negative y direction, labeled a equals negative 9 point 8 meters per second squared.
Figure 2.51

We are asked to determine the position yy size 12{y} {} at various times. It is reasonable to take the initial position y0y0 size 12{y rSub { size 8{0} } } {} to be zero. This problem involves one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction. We use plus and minus signs to indicate direction, with up being positive and down negative. Since up is positive, and the rock is thrown upward, the initial velocity must be positive too. The acceleration due to gravity is downward, so aa size 12{a} {} is negative. It is crucial that the initial velocity and the acceleration due to gravity have opposite signs. Opposite signs indicate that the acceleration due to gravity opposes the initial motion and will slow and eventually reverse it.

Since we are asked for values of position and velocity at three times, we will refer to these as y1y1 size 12{y rSub { size 8{1} } } {} and v1v1 size 12{v rSub { size 8{1} } } {}; y2y2 size 12{y rSub { size 8{2} } } {} and v2v2 size 12{v rSub { size 8{2} } } {}; and y3y3 size 12{y rSub { size 8{3} } } {} and v3v3 size 12{v rSub { size 8{3} } } {}.

Solution for Position y 1 y 1 size 12{y rSub { size 8{1} } } {}

1. Identify the knowns. We know that y0=0y0=0 size 12{y rSub { size 8{0} } =0} {}; v0=13.0 m/sv0=13.0 m/s size 12{v rSub { size 8{0} } ="13" "." "0 m/s"} {}; a=g=9.80 m/s2a=g=9.80 m/s2 size 12{a= - g= - 9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}; and t=1.00 st=1.00 s size 12{t=1 "." "00 s"} {}.

2. Identify the best equation to use. We will use y=y0+v0t+12at2y=y0+v0t+12at2 size 12{y=y rSub { size 8{0} } +v rSub { size 8{0} } t+ { {1} over {2} } ital "at" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} because it includes only one unknown, yy size 12{y} {} (or y1y1 size 12{y rSub { size 8{1} } } {}, here), which is the value we want to find.

3. Plug in the known values and solve for y1y1 size 12{y rSub { size 8{1} } } {}.

y 1 = 0 + 13 . 0 m/s 1 . 00 s + 1 2 9 . 80 m/s 2 1 . 00 s 2 = 8 . 10 m y 1 = 0 + 13 . 0 m/s 1 . 00 s + 1 2 9 . 80 m/s 2 1 . 00 s 2 = 8 . 10 m size 12{y"" lSub { size 8{1} } =0+ left ("13" "." "0 m/s" right ) left (1 "." "00 s" right )+ { {1} over {2} } left ( - 9 "." "80"" m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } right ) left (1 "." "00 s" right ) rSup { size 8{2} } =8 "." "10"`m} {}
2.78

Discussion

The rock is 8.10 m above its starting point at t=1.00t=1.00 size 12{t=1 "." "00"} {} s, since y1>y0y1>y0 size 12{y rSub { size 8{1} } >y rSub { size 8{0} } } {}. It could be moving up or down; the only way to tell is to calculate v1v1 size 12{v rSub { size 8{1} } } {} and find out if it is positive or negative.

Solution for Velocity v 1 v 1 size 12{v rSub { size 8{1} } } {}

1. Identify the knowns. We know that y0=0y0=0 size 12{y rSub { size 8{0} } =0} {}; v0=13.0 m/sv0=13.0 m/s size 12{v rSub { size 8{0} } ="13" "." "0 m/s"} {}; a=g=9.80 m/s2a=g=9.80 m/s2 size 12{a= - g= - 9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}; and t=1.00 st=1.00 s size 12{t=1 "." "00 s"} {}. We also know from the solution above that y1=8.10 my1=8.10 m size 12{y rSub { size 8{1} } =8 "." "10 m"} {}.

2. Identify the best equation to use. The most straightforward is v=v0gtv=v0gt size 12{v=v rSub { size 8{0} } - ital "gt"} {} (from v=v0+atv=v0+at size 12{v=v rSub { size 8{0} } + ital "at"} {}, where a=gravitational acceleration=ga=gravitational acceleration=g size 12{a="gravitational acceleration"= - g} {}).

3. Plug in the knowns and solve.

v 1 = v 0 gt = 13 . 0 m/s 9 . 80 m/s 2 1 . 00 s = 3 . 20 m/s v 1 = v 0 gt = 13 . 0 m/s 9 . 80 m/s 2 1 . 00 s = 3 . 20 m/s size 12{v rSub { size 8{1} } =v rSub { size 8{0} } - ital "gt"="13" "." "0 m/s" - left (9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } right ) left (1 "." "00 s" right )=3 "." "20 m/s"} {}
2.79

Discussion

The positive value for v1v1 means that the rock is still heading upward at t=1.00st=1.00s. However, it has slowed from its original 13.0 m/s, as expected.

Solution for Remaining Times

The procedures for calculating the position and velocity at t=2.00st=2.00s size 12{t=2 "." "00"`s} {} and 3.00 s3.00 s size 12{3 "." "00 s"} {} are the same as those above. The results are summarized in Table 2.1 and illustrated in Figure 2.52.

Time, t Position, y Velocity, v Acceleration, a
1 . 00 s 1 . 00 s size 12{1 "." "00 s"} {} 8 . 10 m 8 . 10 m size 12{8 "." "10 m"} {} 3 . 20 m/s 3 . 20 m/s size 12{3 "." "20 m/s"} {} 9 . 80 m/s 2 9 . 80 m/s 2 size 12{-9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
2 . 00 s 2 . 00 s size 12{2 "." "00 s"} {} 6 . 40 m 6 . 40 m size 12{6 "." "40 m"} {} 6 . 60 m/s 6 . 60 m/s size 12{ - 6 "." "60 m/s"} {} 9 . 80 m/s 2 9 . 80 m/s 2 size 12{-9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
3 . 00 s 3 . 00 s size 12{3 "." "00 s"} {} 5 . 10 m 5 . 10 m size 12{ - 5 "." "10 m"} {} 16 . 4 m/s 16 . 4 m/s size 12{ - "16" "." "4 m/s"} {} 9 . 80 m/s 2 9 . 80 m/s 2 size 12{-9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
Table 2.1 Results

Graphing the data helps us understand it more clearly.

Three panels showing three graphs. The top panel shows a graph of vertical position in meters versus time in seconds. The line begins at the origin and has a positive slope that decreases over time until it hits a turning point between seconds 1 and 2. After that it has a negative slope that increases over time. The middle panel shows a graph of velocity in meters per second versus time in seconds. The line is straight, with a negative slope, beginning at time zero velocity of thirteen meters per second and ending at time 3 seconds with a velocity just over negative sixteen meters per second. The bottom panel shows a graph of acceleration in meters per second squared versus time in seconds. The line is straight and flat at a y value of negative 9 point 80 meters per second squared from time 0 to time 3 seconds.
Figure 2.52 Vertical position, vertical velocity, and vertical acceleration vs. time for a rock thrown vertically up at the edge of a cliff. Notice that velocity changes linearly with time and that acceleration is constant. Misconception Alert! Notice that the position vs. time graph shows vertical position only. It is easy to get the impression that the graph shows some horizontal motion—the shape of the graph looks like the path of a projectile. But this is not the case; the horizontal axis is time, not space. The actual path of the rock in space is straight up, and straight down.

Discussion

The interpretation of these results is important. At 1.00 s the rock is above its starting point and heading upward, since y1y1 size 12{y rSub { size 8{1} } } {} and v1v1 size 12{v rSub { size 8{1} } } {} are both positive. At 2.00 s, the rock is still above its starting point, but the negative velocity means it is moving downward. At 3.00 s, both y3y3 size 12{y rSub { size 8{3} } } {} and v3v3 size 12{v rSub { size 8{3} } } {} are negative, meaning the rock is below its starting point and continuing to move downward. Notice that when the rock is at its highest point (at 1.5 s), its velocity is zero, but its acceleration is still 9.80 m/s29.80 m/s2 size 12{-9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}. Its acceleration is 9.80 m/s29.80 m/s2 size 12{-9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} for the whole trip—while it is moving up and while it is moving down. Note that the values for yy size 12{y} {} are the positions (or displacements) of the rock, not the total distances traveled. Finally, note that free-fall applies to upward motion as well as downward. Both have the same acceleration—the acceleration due to gravity, which remains constant the entire time. Astronauts training in the famous Vomit Comet, for example, experience free-fall while arcing up as well as down, as we will discuss in more detail later.

Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment—Reaction Time

A simple experiment can be done to determine your reaction time. Have a friend hold a ruler between your thumb and index finger, separated by about 1 cm. Note the mark on the ruler that is right between your fingers. Have your friend drop the ruler unexpectedly, and try to catch it between your two fingers. Note the new reading on the ruler. Assuming acceleration is that due to gravity, calculate your reaction time. How far would you travel in a car (moving at 30 m/s) if the time it took your foot to go from the gas pedal to the brake was twice this reaction time?

Example 2.15 Calculating Velocity of a Falling Object: A Rock Thrown Down

What happens if the person on the cliff throws the rock straight down, instead of straight up? To explore this question, calculate the velocity of the rock when it is 5.10 m below the starting point, and has been thrown downward with an initial speed of 13.0 m/s.

Strategy

Draw a sketch.

Velocity vector arrow pointing down in the negative y direction and labeled v sub zero equals negative thirteen point 0 meters per second. Acceleration vector arrow also pointing down in the negative y direction, labeled a equals negative 9 point 80 meters per second squared.
Figure 2.53

Since up is positive, the final position of the rock will be negative because it finishes below the starting point at y0=0y0=0 size 12{y rSub { size 8{0} } =0} {}. Similarly, the initial velocity is downward and therefore negative, as is the acceleration due to gravity. We expect the final velocity to be negative since the rock will continue to move downward.

Solution

1. Identify the knowns. y0=0y0=0; y1=5.10 my1=5.10 m; v0=13.0 m/sv0=13.0 m/s; a=g=9.80 m/s2a=g=9.80 m/s2 size 12{a= - g= - 9 "." "80"" m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}.

2. Choose the kinematic equation that makes it easiest to solve the problem. The equation v2=v02+2a(yy0)v2=v02+2a(yy0) works well because the only unknown in it is vv. (We will plug y1y1 in for yy.)

3. Enter the known values

v2=13.0 m/s2+29.80 m/s25.10 m0 m=268.96 m2/s2,v2=13.0 m/s2+29.80 m/s25.10 m0 m=268.96 m2/s2, size 12{v rSup { size 8{2} } = left ( - "13" "." "0 m/s" right ) rSup { size 8{2} } +2 left ( - 9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } right ) left ( - 5 "." "10 m" - "0 m" right )="268" "." "96 m" rSup { size 8{2} } "/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
2.80

where we have retained extra significant figures because this is an intermediate result.

Taking the square root, and noting that a square root can be positive or negative, gives

v=±16.4 m/s.v=±16.4 m/s.
2.81

The negative root is chosen to indicate that the rock is still heading down. Thus,

v=16.4 m/s.v=16.4 m/s. size 12{v= - "16" "." 4`"m/s"} {}
2.82

Discussion

Note that this is exactly the same velocity the rock had at this position when it was thrown straight upward with the same initial speed. (See Example 2.14 and Figure 2.54(a).) This is not a coincidental result. Because we only consider the acceleration due to gravity in this problem, the speed of a falling object depends only on its initial speed and its vertical position relative to the starting point. For example, if the velocity of the rock is calculated at a height of 8.10 m above the starting point (using the method from Example 2.14) when the initial velocity is 13.0 m/s straight up, a result of ±3.20 m/s±3.20 m/s size 12{ +- 3 "." "20"`"m/s"} {} is obtained. Here both signs are meaningful; the positive value occurs when the rock is at 8.10 m and heading up, and the negative value occurs when the rock is at 8.10 m and heading back down. It has the same speed but the opposite direction.

Two figures are shown. At left, a man standing on the edge of a cliff throws a rock straight up with an initial speed of thirteen meters per second. At right, the man throws the rock straight down with a speed of thirteen meters per second. In both figures, a line indicates the rock's trajectory. When the rock is thrown straight up, it has a speed of minus sixteen point four meters per second at minus five point one zero meters below the point where the man released the rock. When the rock is thrown straight down, the velocity is the same at this position.
Figure 2.54 (a) A person throws a rock straight up, as explored in Example 2.14. The arrows are velocity vectors at 0, 1.00, 2.00, and 3.00 s. (b) A person throws a rock straight down from a cliff with the same initial speed as before, as in Example 2.15. Note that at the same distance below the point of release, the rock has the same velocity in both cases.

Another way to look at it is this: In Example 2.14, the rock is thrown up with an initial velocity of 13.0 m/s13.0 m/s. It rises and then falls back down. When its position is y=0y=0 on its way back down, its velocity is 13.0 m/s13.0 m/s. That is, it has the same speed on its way down as on its way up. We would then expect its velocity at a position of y=5.10 my=5.10 m to be the same whether we have thrown it upwards at +13.0 m/s+13.0 m/s or thrown it downwards at 13.0 m/s13.0 m/s. The velocity of the rock on its way down from y=0y=0 is the same whether we have thrown it up or down to start with, as long as the speed with which it was initially thrown is the same.

Example 2.16 Find g from Data on a Falling Object

The acceleration due to gravity on Earth differs slightly from place to place, depending on topography (e.g., whether you are on a hill or in a valley) and subsurface geology (whether there is dense rock like iron ore as opposed to light rock like salt beneath you.) The precise acceleration due to gravity can be calculated from data taken in an introductory physics laboratory course. An object, usually a metal ball for which air resistance is negligible, is dropped and the time it takes to fall a known distance is measured. See, for example, Figure 2.55. Very precise results can be produced with this method if sufficient care is taken in measuring the distance fallen and the elapsed time.

Figure has four panels. The first panel (on the top) is an illustration of a ball falling toward the ground at intervals of one tenth of a second. The space between the vertical position of the ball at one time step and the next increases with each time step. At time equals 0, position and velocity are also 0. At time equals 0 point 1 seconds, y position equals negative 0 point 049 meters and velocity is negative 0 point 98 meters per second. At 0 point 5 seconds, y position is negative 1 point 225 meters and velocity is negative 4 point 90 meters per second. The second panel (in the middle) is a line graph of position in meters versus time in seconds. Line begins at the origin and slopes down with increasingly negative slope. The third panel (bottom left) is a line graph of velocity in meters per second versus time in seconds. Line is straight, beginning at the origin and with a constant negative slope. The fourth panel (bottom right) is a line graph of acceleration in meters per second squared versus time in seconds. Line is flat, at a constant y value of negative 9 point 80 meters per second squared.
Figure 2.55 Positions and velocities of a metal ball released from rest when air resistance is negligible. Velocity is seen to increase linearly with time while displacement increases with time squared. Acceleration is a constant and is equal to gravitational acceleration.

Suppose the ball falls 1.0000 m in 0.45173 s. Assuming the ball is not affected by air resistance, what is the precise acceleration due to gravity at this location?

Strategy

Draw a sketch.

The figure shows a green dot labeled v sub zero equals zero meters per second, a purple downward pointing arrow labeled a equals question mark, and an x y coordinate system with the y axis pointing vertically up and the x axis pointing horizontally to the right.
Figure 2.56

We need to solve for acceleration aa size 12{a} {}. Note that in this case, displacement is downward and therefore negative, as is acceleration.

Solution

1. Identify the knowns. y0=0y0=0; y=–1.0000 my=–1.0000 m; t=0.45173t=0.45173; v0=0v0=0 size 12{v rSub { size 8{0} } =0} {}.

2. Choose the equation that allows you to solve for aa size 12{a} {} using the known values.

y = y 0 + v 0 t + 1 2 at 2 y = y 0 + v 0 t + 1 2 at 2 size 12{y=y rSub { size 8{0} } +v rSub { size 8{0} } t+ { {1} over {2} } ital "at" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
2.83

3. Substitute 0 for v0v0 size 12{v rSub { size 8{0} } } {} and rearrange the equation to solve for aa size 12{a} {}. Substituting 0 for v0v0 size 12{v rSub { size 8{0} } } {} yields

y = y 0 + 1 2 at 2 . y = y 0 + 1 2 at 2 . size 12{y=y rSub { size 8{0} } + { {1} over {2} } ital "at" rSup { size 8{2} } "." } {}
2.84

Solving for aa size 12{a} {} gives

a = 2 y y 0 t 2 . a = 2 y y 0 t 2 . size 12{a= { {2 left (y - y rSub { size 8{0} } right )} over {t rSup { size 8{2} } } } "." } {}
2.85

4. Substitute known values yields

a = 2 ( 1 . 0000 m – 0 ) ( 0 . 45173 s ) 2 = 9 . 8010 m/s 2 , a = 2 ( 1 . 0000 m – 0 ) ( 0 . 45173 s ) 2 = 9 . 8010 m/s 2 , size 12{a= { {2 \( - 1 "." "0000 m–0" \) } over { \( 0 "." "45173 s" \) rSup { size 8{2} } } } = - 9 "." "8010 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } ,} {}
2.86

so, because a=ga=g size 12{a= - g} {} with the directions we have chosen,

g=9.8010 m/s2.g=9.8010 m/s2. size 12{g=9 "." "8010 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
2.87

Discussion

The negative value for aa size 12{a} {} indicates that the gravitational acceleration is downward, as expected. We expect the value to be somewhere around the average value of 9.80 m/s29.80 m/s2 size 12{9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}, so 9.8010 m/s29.8010 m/s2 size 12{9 "." "8010 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} makes sense. Since the data going into the calculation are relatively precise, this value for gg size 12{g} {} is more precise than the average value of 9.80 m/s29.80 m/s2 size 12{9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}; it represents the local value for the acceleration due to gravity.

Applying the Science Practices: Finding Acceleration Due to Gravity

While it is well established that the acceleration due to gravity is quite nearly 9.8 m/s2 at all locations on Earth, you can verify this for yourself with some basic materials.

Your task is to find the acceleration due to gravity at your location. Achieving an acceleration of precisely 9.8 m/s2 will be difficult. However, with good preparation and attention to detail, you should be able to get close. Before you begin working, consider the following questions.

What measurements will you need to take in order to find the acceleration due to gravity?

What relationships and equations found in this chapter may be useful in calculating the acceleration?

What variables will you need to hold constant?

What materials will you use to record your measurements?

Upon completing these four questions, record your procedure. Once recorded, you may carry out the experiment. If you find that your experiment cannot be carried out, you may revise your procedure.

Once you have found your experimental acceleration, compare it to the assumed value of 9.8 m/s2. If error exists, what were the likely sources of this error? How could you change your procedure in order to improve the accuracy of your findings?

Check Your Understanding

A chunk of ice breaks off a glacier and falls 30.0 meters before it hits the water. Assuming it falls freely (there is no air resistance), how long does it take to hit the water?

Solution

We know that initial position y0=0y0=0, final position y=−30.0 my=−30.0 m, and a=g=9.80 m/s2a=g=9.80 m/s2. We can then use the equation y=y0+v0t+12 at2y=y0+v0t+12 at2 to solve for tt. Inserting a=ga=g, we obtain

y = 0 + 0 1 2 gt 2 t 2 = 2y g t = ± 2y g = ± 2 ( 30.0 m ) 9.80 m /s 2 = ± 6.12 s 2 = 2.47 s 2.5 s y = 0 + 0 1 2 gt 2 t 2 = 2y g t = ± 2y g = ± 2 ( 30.0 m ) 9.80 m /s 2 = ± 6.12 s 2 = 2.47 s 2.5 s
2.88

where we take the positive value as the physically relevant answer. Thus, it takes about 2.5 seconds for the piece of ice to hit the water.

PhET Explorations: Equation Grapher

Learn about graphing polynomials. The shape of the curve changes as the constants are adjusted. View the curves for the individual terms (e.g. y=bxy=bx size 12{y= ital "bx"} {}) to see how they add to generate the polynomial curve.

Figure 2.57
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