Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo
Physics

Index

PhysicsIndex

Menu
Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 What is Physics?
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Physics: Definitions and Applications
    3. 1.2 The Scientific Methods
    4. 1.3 The Language of Physics: Physical Quantities and Units
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  3. 2 Motion in One Dimension
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Relative Motion, Distance, and Displacement
    3. 2.2 Speed and Velocity
    4. 2.3 Position vs. Time Graphs
    5. 2.4 Velocity vs. Time Graphs
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  4. 3 Acceleration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Acceleration
    3. 3.2 Representing Acceleration with Equations and Graphs
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  5. 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Force
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  6. 5 Motion in Two Dimensions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    3. 5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    4. 5.3 Projectile Motion
    5. 5.4 Inclined Planes
    6. 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  7. 6 Circular and Rotational Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Angle of Rotation and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
    4. 6.3 Rotational Motion
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  8. 7 Newton's Law of Gravitation
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 7.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  9. 8 Momentum
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum, Force, and Impulse
    3. 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
    4. 8.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  10. 9 Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem
    3. 9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy
    4. 9.3 Simple Machines
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  11. 10 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
    3. 10.2 Consequences of Special Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  12. 11 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Work
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
    3. 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer
    4. 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium
    3. 12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work
    4. 12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
    5. 12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  14. 13 Waves and Their Properties
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Types of Waves
    3. 13.2 Wave Properties: Speed, Amplitude, Frequency, and Period
    4. 13.3 Wave Interaction: Superposition and Interference
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  15. 14 Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    3. 14.2 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    4. 14.3 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    5. 14.4 Sound Interference and Resonance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  16. 15 Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. 15.2 The Behavior of Electromagnetic Radiation
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  17. 16 Mirrors and Lenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Reflection
    3. 16.2 Refraction
    4. 16.3 Lenses
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  18. 17 Diffraction and Interference
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Understanding Diffraction and Interference
    3. 17.2 Applications of Diffraction, Interference, and Coherence
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  19. 18 Static Electricity
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Electrical Charges, Conservation of Charge, and Transfer of Charge
    3. 18.2 Coulomb's law
    4. 18.3 Electric Field
    5. 18.4 Electric Potential
    6. 18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  20. 19 Electrical Circuits
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Ohm's law
    3. 19.2 Series Circuits
    4. 19.3 Parallel Circuits
    5. 19.4 Electric Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  21. 20 Magnetism
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Magnetic Fields, Field Lines, and Force
    3. 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
    4. 20.3 Electromagnetic Induction
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  22. 21 The Quantum Nature of Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Planck and Quantum Nature of Light
    3. 21.2 Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
    4. 21.3 The Dual Nature of Light
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  23. 22 The Atom
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
    3. 22.2 Nuclear Forces and Radioactivity
    4. 22.3 Half Life and Radiometric Dating
    5. 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
    6. 22.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity: Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  24. 23 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
    3. 23.2 Quarks
    4. 23.3 The Unification of Forces
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  25. A | Reference Tables
  26. Index
A
aberration 16.3 Lenses
absorption spectrum 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
air resistance 5.3 Projectile Motion
alternating current 19.1 Ohm's law
amplitude modulation 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
angle of incidence 16.1 Reflection
angle of reflection 16.1 Reflection
angle of refraction 16.2 Refraction
angular momentum 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
Antimatter 23.2 Quarks
Antoine Henri Becquerel 22.2 Nuclear Forces and Radioactivity
Average acceleration 3.1 Acceleration
Average speed 2.2 Speed and Velocity
Average velocity 2.2 Speed and Velocity
C
central axis 16.1 Reflection
centrifugal force 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
centripetal force 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
charmed 23.2 Quarks
chromatic aberration 16.3 Lenses
circuit diagrams 19.2 Series Circuits
color 23.2 Quarks
complex machine 9.3 Simple Machines
concave lens 16.3 Lenses
concave mirror 16.1 Reflection
conventional current 19.1 Ohm's law
converging lens 16.3 Lenses
convex lens 16.3 Lenses
convex mirror 16.1 Reflection
corner reflector 16.2 Refraction
Coulomb’s constant 18.2 Coulomb's law
Coulomb’s law 18.2 Coulomb's law
critical angle 16.2 Refraction
D
degree Celsius ( °C ( °C ) 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
degree Fahrenheit ( °F ( °F ) 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
differential interference contrast (DIC) 17.2 Applications of Diffraction, Interference, and Coherence
diffused 16.1 Reflection
direct current 19.1 Ohm's law
dispersion 16.2 Refraction
diverging lens 16.3 Lenses
E
efficiency output 9.3 Simple Machines
electric circuits 19.2 Series Circuits
Electric current 19.1 Ohm's law
electric potential 18.4 Electric Potential
Electric potential energy 18.4 Electric Potential
electric power 19.4 Electric Power
electrical charge 18.2 Coulomb's law
electromagnetic force 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
electromagnetic radiation (EMR) 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
electron cloud model 1.2 The Scientific Methods
Electroweak Epoch 23.3 The Unification of Forces
electroweak theory 23.3 The Unification of Forces
emission spectrum 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
energy-level diagram 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
equilibrium position 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
equivalent resistor 19.2 Series Circuits
Ernest Rutherford 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
external force 4.1 Force
eyepiece 16.3 Lenses
G
Galilei Introduction
General relativity Introduction
geometric optics 16.1 Reflection
George Zweig 23.2 Quarks
gluon 23.2 Quarks
Grand Unification Epoch 23.3 The Unification of Forces
Grand Unified Theory (GUT) 23.3 The Unification of Forces
Gravitational potential energy 9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem
I
ideal mechanical advantage 9.3 Simple Machines
impulse-momentum theorem 8.1 Linear Momentum, Force, and Impulse
incident ray 16.2 Refraction
inclined plane 9.3 Simple Machines
independent 5.3 Projectile Motion
index of refraction 16.2 Refraction
inertial reference frame 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
Inflationary Epoch 23.3 The Unification of Forces
infrared (IR) radiation 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
input work 9.3 Simple Machines
instantaneous acceleration 3.1 Acceleration
instantaneous speed 2.2 Speed and Velocity
instantaneous velocity 2.2 Speed and Velocity
inverse-square law 18.2 Coulomb's law
Inversely proportional 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
L
laminated-coil transformer 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
Large Hadron Collider 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
latent heat of fusion 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
latent heat of vaporization 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
law of conservation of energy 9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy
law of reflection 16.1 Reflection
law of refraction 16.1 Reflection
Leptons 23.2 Quarks
linear acceleration 6.3 Rotational Motion
longitudinal wave 13.1 Types of Waves
M
magnetic induction 20.3 Electromagnetic Induction
maximum height 5.3 Projectile Motion
maximum height of a projectile 5.3 Projectile Motion
Maxwell’s equations 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
mechanical advantage 9.3 Simple Machines
mechanical waves 13.1 Types of Waves
mesons 23.2 Quarks
Michelson–Morley experiment 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
microwave radiation 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
moment of inertia 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
Murray Gell-Mann 23.2 Quarks
N
negative acceleration 3.1 Acceleration
Newton’s first law of motion 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
Newton’s laws of motion Introduction, 4.1 Force
Newton’s third law of motion 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion
nonohmic 19.1 Ohm's law
nuclear strong force 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
P
pair production 23.2 Quarks
parfocal 16.3 Lenses
Particle physics Introduction
particle-wave duality 21.3 The Dual Nature of Light
Pascal’s principle 1.2 The Scientific Methods
Periodic motion 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
periodic wave 13.1 Types of Waves
permittivity of free space 18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
Peter Higgs 23.2 Quarks
physical models 1.2 The Scientific Methods
pivot point 6.3 Rotational Motion
planetary model of the atom 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
plum pudding model 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
point charge 18.3 Electric Field
positron 23.2 Quarks
potential difference 18.4 Electric Potential
primary and secondary coils 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
Projectile motion 5.3 Projectile Motion
proton-proton cycle 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
pulse wave 13.1 Types of Waves
R
real image 16.1 Reflection
refracted ray 16.2 Refraction
Relativity Introduction
Resistance 19.1 Ohm's law
restoring force 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
rotational inertia 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
Rutherford scattering 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
S
scientific method 1.2 The Scientific Methods
Scientific models 1.2 The Scientific Methods
second law of thermodynamics 12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
simple harmonic motion 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
Simple machines 9.3 Simple Machines
simple pendulum 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
Snell’s law 16.2 Refraction
sound intensity level 14.2 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
specular 16.1 Reflection
Standard Model 23.2 Quarks
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
static friction 5.4 Inclined Planes
steady state 19.2 Series Circuits
strange 23.2 Quarks
systems 4.1 Force
T
tangential acceleration 6.3 Rotational Motion
test charge 18.3 Electric Field
The net external force 4.1 Force
Theory of Everything 23.3 The Unification of Forces
thermonuclear bomb 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
three-dimensional models 1.2 The Scientific Methods
torsion balance 18.2 Coulomb's law
total internal reflection 16.2 Refraction
translational acceleration 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
transverse wave 13.1 Types of Waves
Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.

Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute Texas Education Agency (TEA). The original material is available at: https://www.texasgateway.org/book/tea-physics . Changes were made to the original material, including updates to art, structure, and other content updates.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/physics/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/physics/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Jun 2, 2022 Texas Education Agency (TEA). The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.