# Index

A

absolute temperature scale
1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales

absolute zero
1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales

ac current
15.1 AC Sources

ac voltage
15.1 AC Sources

Adiabatic compressions
3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas

adiabatic expansion
3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas

adiabatic process
3.4 Thermodynamic Processes

Alternating current (ac)
15.1 AC Sources

amber
5.1 Electric Charge

Ampère’s law
12.5 Ampère’s Law

analog meter
10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments

anode
10.1 Electromotive Force

area vector
6.1 Electric Flux

average power
15.4 Power in an AC Circuit

Avogadro
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

Avogadro’s number
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

B

bandwidth
15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit

Bardeen
9.6 Superconductors

battery
10.1 Electromotive Force

Battery testers
10.1 Electromotive Force

BCS theory
9.6 Superconductors

Bernoulli
2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed

Biot-Savart law
12.1 The Biot-Savart Law

Bluetooth
16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Boltzmann
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

Boltzmann constant
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

boundary
3.1 Thermodynamic Systems

Boyle’s law
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

braking systems
13.5 Eddy Currents

C

camera flashes
14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors

capacitance
8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance

capacitive reactance
15.2 Simple AC Circuits

Carnot
4.5 The Carnot Cycle

Carnot cycle
4.5 The Carnot Cycle

Carnot engine
4.5 The Carnot Cycle

Carnot’s principle
4.5 The Carnot Cycle

cathode
10.1 Electromotive Force

Cell membranes
8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance

Cell phone
16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Celsius scale
1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales

Chadwick
5.1 Electric Charge

charging by induction
5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction

Charles’s law
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

circuit
9.1 Electrical Current

Clausius statement of the second law of thermodynamics
4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes

closed system
3.1 Thermodynamic Systems

coefficient of linear expansion
1.3 Thermal Expansion

coefficient of performance
4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

coefficient of volume expansion
1.3 Thermal Expansion

cold reservoir
4.2 Heat Engines

Comet McNaught
Introduction

commutator
11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop

compass needle
11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries

condensation
1.5 Phase Changes

conduction
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

conduction electron
5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction

constant-volume gas thermometer
1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales

continuous charge distribution
5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions

convection
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

conventional current
9.1 Electrical Current

Cooper
9.6 Superconductors

Cooper pairs
9.6 Superconductors

coulomb
5.1 Electric Charge
,
5.1 Electric Charge
,
12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents

Coulomb force
5.3 Coulomb's Law

credit card
13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction

critical point
1.5 Phase Changes

Critical pressure
1.5 Phase Changes

current density
9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals

cyclic process
3.4 Thermodynamic Processes

cylindrical symmetry
6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law

D

Dalton’s law of partial pressures
2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed

Debye temperature
1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry

defibrillator
8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor

degree Celsius
1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales

degree Fahrenheit
1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales

degree of freedom
2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy

density of water
1.3 Thermal Expansion

Diamagnetic materials
12.7 Magnetism in Matter

dielectric
8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance

dielectric breakdown
8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric

dielectric constant
8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric

diesel cycle
4 Challenge Problems

digital meter
10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments

Digital signal processing
14.1 Mutual Inductance

diode
9.4 Ohm's Law

dipole antenna
16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves

dipole moment
5.7 Electric Dipoles

Direct current (dc)
15.1 AC Sources

disorder
4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale

displacement current
16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

drift velocity
9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals

dry ice
1.5 Phase Changes

E

eddy current
13.5 Eddy Currents

efficiency (e)
4.2 Heat Engines

electric charge
5.1 Electric Charge

electric dipole
7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential

electric dipole moment
7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential

electric field
5.4 Electric Field

electric force
5.1 Electric Charge

electric potential
7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference

electric potential difference
7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference

electric power
9.5 Electrical Energy and Power

electrical conductivity
9.3 Resistivity and Resistance

electrical current
9.1 Electrical Current

electrical potential energy
7.1 Electric Potential Energy

electrolytic capacitor
8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance

electromotive force (emf)
10.1 Electromotive Force

electron
5.1 Electric Charge

electron-volt
7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference

electrostatic attraction
5.1 Electric Charge

electrostatic force
5.3 Coulomb's Law

electrostatic precipitators
7.6 Applications of Electrostatics

electrostatic repulsion
5.1 Electric Charge

electrostatics
5.3 Coulomb's Law

emissivity
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

energy conservation
3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics

energy flux
16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves

entropy
4.6 Entropy

entropy statement of the second law of thermodynamics
4.6 Entropy

environment
3.1 Thermodynamic Systems

equation of state
3.1 Thermodynamic Systems

equilibrium
3.1 Thermodynamic Systems

equipartition theorem
2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy

equipotential line
7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors

equipotential surface
7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors

equivalent resistance
10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel

escape velocity
2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed

evaporation
1.5 Phase Changes

expansion joints
1.3 Thermal Expansion

extensive variable
3.1 Thermodynamic Systems

F

Fahrenheit scale
1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales

Faraday
8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
,
11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
,
13.1 Faraday’s Law

Faraday’s law
14.1 Mutual Inductance

ferromagnetic material
12.7 Magnetism in Matter

field line
5.6 Electric Field Lines

field line density
5.6 Electric Field Lines

first law of thermodynamics
3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics

flash camera
10.5 RC Circuits

flux
6.1 Electric Flux

forced convection
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

free electrons
6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium

freezing
1.5 Phase Changes

freezing of water
1.3 Thermal Expansion

G

gamma ray (γγ ray)
16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Gaussian surface
6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law

Gay-Lussac’s law
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

generators
13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf

giant magnetoresistance
11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
,
13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction

Gilbert
5.1 Electric Charge

gradient
7.4 Determining Field from Potential

greenhouse effect
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

ground fault circuit interrupter
10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety

H

half-wave antenna
16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves

Hall
11.6 The Hall Effect

Hall effect
11.6 The Hall Effect

hard drives
13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction

heat engine
4.2 Heat Engines

heat of fusion
1.5 Phase Changes

heat of sublimation
1.5 Phase Changes

heat of vaporization
1.5 Phase Changes

heat transfer
1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium

helical motion
11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field

Henry
14.1 Mutual Inductance

henry (H)
14.1 Mutual Inductance

hot reservoir
4.2 Heat Engines

hybrid vehicles
13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction

hysteresis
12.7 Magnetism in Matter

I

ideal gas
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

ideal gas law
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

impedance
15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC

induced dipole
5.7 Electric Dipoles

induced electric field
13.4 Induced Electric Fields

induced electric-dipole moment
8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric

induced electrical field
8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric

induced emf
13.1 Faraday’s Law

induced surface charges
8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric

Inductance
14.1 Mutual Inductance

inductive reactance
15.2 Simple AC Circuits

inductive time constant
14.4 RL Circuits

infinite plane
5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions

infinite straight wire
5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions

infrared radiation
16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

ink jet printer
7.6 Applications of Electrostatics

insulation
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

intensive variable
3.1 Thermodynamic Systems

internal combustion engine
4.2 Heat Engines

internal energy
1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
,
2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
,
3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy

internal resistance
10.1 Electromotive Force

irreversibility
4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes

irreversible process
4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes

isentropic
4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale

isobaric process
3.4 Thermodynamic Processes

isochoric process
3.4 Thermodynamic Processes

isothermal expansion
3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy

isothermal process
3.4 Thermodynamic Processes

K

Kamerlingh Onnes
9.6 Superconductors

Kelvin scale
1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales

Kelvin statement of the second law of thermodynamics
4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

kinetic theory of gases
2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed

Kirchhoff
10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules

Kirchhoff’s rules
10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules

L

laser printer
7.6 Applications of Electrostatics

latent heat coefficient
1.5 Phase Changes

law of conservation of charge
5.1 Electric Charge

Law of Dulong and Petit
2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy

LC circuit
14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit

lead acid battery
10.1 Electromotive Force

Lenz
13.2 Lenz's Law

Lenz’s law
13.2 Lenz's Law

Leyden jar
5.1 Electric Charge

light sail
16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure

lightning rod
7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors

linear charge density
5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions

loop rule
10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules

Lorentz force equation
16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

M

magnetic dipole
11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop

magnetic dipole moment
11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop

magnetic domains
12.7 Magnetism in Matter

magnetic energy density
14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field

magnetic field lines
11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines

magnetic flux
13.1 Faraday’s Law

magnetic force
11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines

magnetic monopoles
11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines

magnetic resonance imaging
12.6 Solenoids and Toroids

magnetic susceptibility
12.7 Magnetism in Matter

mass spectrometer
11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields

Maxwell
2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
,
16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds

Maxwell’s equations
16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

mean free path
2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed

mean free time
2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed

mechanical equivalent of heat
1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry

Meissner effect
9.6 Superconductors

melting
1.5 Phase Changes

microwaves
16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

molar heat capacity at constant pressure
3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas

molar heat capacity at constant volume
2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
,
3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas

most probable speed
2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds

motionally induced emf
13.3 Motional Emf

multi-loop circuit
10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules

mutual inductance (M)
14.1 Mutual Inductance

N

natural convection
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

net rate of heat transfer by radiation
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

neutron
5.1 Electric Charge

non-quasi-static processes
3.4 Thermodynamic Processes

nonohmic
9.4 Ohm's Law

normal vector
6.1 Electric Flux

north magnetic pole
11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries

nucleus
5.1 Electric Charge

P

pacemaker
10.5 RC Circuits

parallel circuit
10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel

parallel combination
8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel

parallel-plate capacitor
8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance

paramagnetic material
12.7 Magnetism in Matter

partial pressure
2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed

peak speed
2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds

perfect engine
4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

perfect refrigerator
4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

permanent dipole
5.7 Electric Dipoles

permeability of free space
12.1 The Biot-Savart Law

permittivity of free space
16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

permittivity of vacuum
5.3 Coulomb's Law

phase angle
15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC

phase diagram
1.5 Phase Changes

phase transition
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

Phase transitions
1.5 Phase Changes

phasor diagrams
15.2 Simple AC Circuits

photoconductor
7.6 Applications of Electrostatics

pinch effect
12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents

planar symmetry
6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law

polarization
5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
,
6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium

potential difference
10.1 Electromotive Force

power factor
15.4 Power in an AC Circuit

Power plants
4.2 Heat Engines

Poynting vector
16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves

principle of superposition
5.3 Coulomb's Law

proton
5.1 Electric Charge

pV diagram
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

Q

quality factor
15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit

R

R factor
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

radiation
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

radiation pressure
16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure

radio waves
16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

rail gun
13.3 Motional Emf

rate of conductive heat transfer
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

RC circuit
10.5 RC Circuits

relative humidity
2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed

resistance
9.3 Resistivity and Resistance

resistivity
9.3 Resistivity and Resistance

resistor
15.2 Simple AC Circuits

resonant frequency
15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit

right-hand rule
12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire

right-hand rule 2
13.2 Lenz's Law

right-hand rule-1
11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines

RLC circuit
14.6 RLC Series Circuits

RLC series circuit
15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC

rms current
15.2 Simple AC Circuits

rms voltage
15.2 Simple AC Circuits

root-mean-square (rms) speed
2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed

Rutherford
5.1 Electric Charge

S

scalar field
5.4 Electric Field

schematic
9.1 Electrical Current

Schrieffer
9.6 Superconductors

self-inductance
14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors

series circuit
10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel

series combination
8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel

shock hazard
10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety

short circuit
10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety

smartphone
Introduction

Snow
Introduction

solar cells
10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules

south magnetic pole
11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries

spark chamber
7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference

specific heat
1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry

speed of light
16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves

spherical symmetry
6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law

SQUID
9.6 Superconductors

standard temperature and pressure (STP)
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

starter motor
9.1 Electrical Current

state functions
3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics

state variable
1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry

static electricity
5.1 Electric Charge

Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

step-down transformer
15.6 Transformers

step-up transformer
15.6 Transformers

Stirling engine
4.6 Entropy

sublimation
1.5 Phase Changes

superconductivity
9.6 Superconductors

supercritical
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

supercritical fluid
1.5 Phase Changes

superposition
5.4 Electric Field

surface charge density
5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions

surroundings
3.1 Thermodynamic Systems

T

tablet computers
13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction

television
16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

temperature
1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium

terminal voltage
10.1 Electromotive Force

thermal agitation
16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

thermal conductivity
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

thermal energy
1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry

thermal expansion
1.3 Thermal Expansion

thermal hazard
10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety

thermal stress
1.3 Thermal Expansion

thermodynamic process
3.4 Thermodynamic Processes

thermodynamic system
3.1 Thermodynamic Systems

thermodynamic variables
3.4 Thermodynamic Processes

thermographs
1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

Thermometers
1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales

third law of thermodynamics
4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale

Thomson
5.1 Electric Charge

three-wire system
10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety

time constant
10.5 RC Circuits

traffic signals
14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction

transformer
15.6 Transformers

transformer equation
15.6 Transformers

transmission lines
15.6 Transformers

U

ultraviolet radiation
16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

unified atomic mass unit (u)
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

universal gas constant
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

V

Van Allen radiation belts
11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field

van der Waals
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

van der Waals equation of state
2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

van der Waals gas
3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy

vapor
1.5 Phase Changes

variable air capacitor
8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance

vector field
5.4 Electric Field

velocity selector
11.6 The Hall Effect

Visible light
16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

voltaic pile
10.1 Electromotive Force

voltmeter
10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments

volume charge density
5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions

Z