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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the function and components of a heat engine
  • Explain the efficiency of an engine
  • Calculate the efficiency of an engine for a given cycle of an ideal gas

A heat engine is a device used to extract heat from a source and then convert it into mechanical work that is used for all sorts of applications. For example, a steam engine on an old-style train can produce the work needed for driving the train. Several questions emerge from the construction and application of heat engines. For example, what is the maximum percentage of the heat extracted that can be used to do work? This turns out to be a question that can only be answered through the second law of thermodynamics.

The second law of thermodynamics can be formally stated in several ways. One statement presented so far is about the direction of spontaneous heat flow, known as the Clausius statement. A couple of other statements are based on heat engines. Whenever we consider heat engines and associated devices such as refrigerators and heat pumps, we do not use the normal sign convention for heat and work. For convenience, we assume that the symbols Qh,Qc,Qh,Qc, and W represent only the amounts of heat transferred and work delivered, regardless what the givers or receivers are. Whether heat is entering or leaving a system and work is done to or by a system are indicated by proper signs in front of the symbols and by the directions of arrows in diagrams.

It turns out that we need more than one heat source/sink to construct a heat engine. We will come back to this point later in the chapter, when we compare different statements of the second law of thermodynamics. For the moment, we assume that a heat engine is constructed between a heat source (high-temperature reservoir or hot reservoir) and a heat sink (low-temperature reservoir or cold reservoir), represented schematically in Figure 4.4. The engine absorbs heat QhQh from a heat source (hot reservoir) of Kelvin temperature Th,Th, uses some of that energy to produce useful work W, and then discards the remaining energy as heat QcQc into a heat sink (cold reservoir) of Kelvin temperature Tc.Tc. Power plants and internal combustion engines are examples of heat engines. Power plants use steam produced at high temperature to drive electric generators, while exhausting heat to the atmosphere or a nearby body of water in the role of the heat sink. In an internal combustion engine, a hot gas-air mixture is used to push a piston, and heat is exhausted to the nearby atmosphere in a similar manner.

The figure shows schematic of an engine with a downward arrow Q subscript h at T subscript h. When this goes through the engine, the arrow splits with a downward arrow Q subscript c at T subscript c and a left arrow W.
Figure 4.4 A schematic representation of a heat engine. Energy flows from the hot reservoir to the cold reservoir while doing work.

Actual heat engines have many different designs. Examples include internal combustion engines, such as those used in most cars today, and external combustion engines, such as the steam engines used in old steam-engine trains. Figure 4.5 shows a photo of a nuclear power plant in operation. The atmosphere around the reactors acts as the cold reservoir, and the heat generated from the nuclear reaction provides the heat from the hot reservoir.

The photo shows gases releasing from a power plant.
Figure 4.5 The heat exhausted from a nuclear power plant goes to the cooling towers, where it is released into the atmosphere.

Heat engines operate by carrying a working substance through a cycle. In a steam power plant, the working substance is water, which starts as a liquid, becomes vaporized, is then used to drive a turbine, and is finally condensed back into the liquid state. As is the case for all working substances in cyclic processes, once the water returns to its initial state, it repeats the same sequence.

For now, we assume that the cycles of heat engines are reversible, so there is no energy loss to friction or other irreversible effects. Suppose that the engine of Figure 4.4 goes through one complete cycle and that Qh,Qc,Qh,Qc, and W represent the heats exchanged and the work done for that cycle. Since the initial and final states of the system are the same, ΔEint=0ΔEint=0 for the cycle. We therefore have from the first law of thermodynamics,

W=QΔEint=(QhQc)0,W=QΔEint=(QhQc)0,

so that

W=QhQc.W=QhQc.
(4.1)

The most important measure of a heat engine is its efficiency (e), which is simply “what we get out” divided by “what we put in” during each cycle, as defined by e=Wout/Qin.e=Wout/Qin.

With a heat engine working between two heat reservoirs, we get out W and put in Qh,Qh, so the efficiency of the engine is

e=WQh=1QcQh.e=WQh=1QcQh.
(4.2)

Here, we used Equation 4.1, W=QhQc,W=QhQc, in the final step of this expression for the efficiency.

Example 4.1

A Lawn Mower A lawn mower is rated to have an efficiency of 25.0%25.0% and an average power of 3.00 kW. What are (a) the average work and (b) the minimum heat discharge into the air by the lawn mower in one minute of use?

Strategy From the average power—that is, the rate of work production—we can figure out the work done in the given elapsed time. Then, from the efficiency given, we can figure out the minimum heat discharge Qc=Qh(1e)Qc=Qh(1e) with Qh=Qc+W.Qh=Qc+W.

Solution

  1. The average work delivered by the lawn mower is
    W=PΔt=3.00×103×60×1.00J=180kJ.W=PΔt=3.00×103×60×1.00J=180kJ.
  2. The minimum heat discharged into the air is given by
    Qc=Qh(1e)=(Qc+W)(1e),Qc=Qh(1e)=(Qc+W)(1e),

    which leads to
    Qc=W(1/e1)=180×(1/0.251)kJ=540kJ.Qc=W(1/e1)=180×(1/0.251)kJ=540kJ.

Significance As the efficiency rises, the minimum heat discharged falls. This helps our environment and atmosphere by not having as much waste heat expelled.

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