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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Check Your Understanding

16.1

It is greatest immediately after the current is switched on. The displacement current and the magnetic field from it are proportional to the rate of change of electric field between the plates, which is greatest when the plates first begin to charge.

16.2

No. The changing electric field according to the modified version of Ampère’s law would necessarily induce a changing magnetic field.

16.3

(1) Faraday’s law, (2) the Ampère-Maxwell law

16.4

a. The directions of wave propagation, of the E field, and of B field are all mutually perpendicular. b. The speed of the electromagnetic wave is the speed of light c=1/ε0μ0c=1/ε0μ0 independent of frequency. c. The ratio of electric and magnetic field amplitudes is E/B=c.E/B=c.

16.5

Its acceleration would decrease because the radiation force is proportional to the intensity of light from the Sun, which decreases with distance. Its speed, however, would not change except for the effects of gravity from the Sun and planets.

16.6

They fall into different ranges of wavelength, and therefore also different corresponding ranges of frequency.

Conceptual Questions

1.

The current into the capacitor to change the electric field between the plates is equal to the displacement current between the plates.

3.

The first demonstration requires simply observing the current produced in a wire that experiences a changing magnetic field. The second demonstration requires moving electric charge from one location to another, and therefore involves electric currents that generate a changing electric field. The magnetic fields from these currents are not easily separated from the magnetic field that the displacement current produces.

5.

in (a), because the electric field is parallel to the wire, accelerating the electrons

7.

A steady current in a dc circuit will not produce electromagnetic waves. If the magnitude of the current varies while remaining in the same direction, the wires will emit electromagnetic waves, for example, if the current is turned on or off.

9.

The amount of energy (about 100W/m2100W/m2) is can quickly produce a considerable change in temperature, but the light pressure (about 3.00×10−7N/m23.00×10−7N/m2) is much too small to notice.

11.

It has the magnitude of the energy flux and points in the direction of wave propagation. It gives the direction of energy flow and the amount of energy per area transported per second.

13.

The force on a surface acting over time ΔtΔt is the momentum that the force would impart to the object. The momentum change of the light is doubled if the light is reflected back compared with when it is absorbed, so the force acting on the object is twice as great.

15.

a. According to the right hand rule, the direction of energy propagation would reverse. b. This would leave the vector SS, and therefore the propagation direction, the same.

17.

a. Radio waves are generally produced by alternating current in a wire or an oscillating electric field between two plates; b. Infrared radiation is commonly produced by heated bodies whose atoms and the charges in them vibrate at about the right frequency.

19.

a. blue; b. Light of longer wavelengths than blue passes through the air with less scattering, whereas more of the blue light is scattered in different directions in the sky to give it is blue color.

21.

A typical antenna has a stronger response when the wires forming it are orientated parallel to the electric field of the radio wave.

23.

No, it is very narrow and just a small portion of the overall electromagnetic spectrum.

25.

Visible light is typically produced by changes of energies of electrons in randomly oriented atoms and molecules. Radio waves are typically emitted by an ac current flowing along a wire, that has fixed orientation and produces electric fields pointed in particular directions.

27.

Radar can observe objects the size of an airplane and uses radio waves of about 0.5 cm in wavelength. Visible light can be used to view single biological cells and has wavelengths of about 10−7m10−7m.

29.

ELF radio waves

31.

The frequency of 2.45 GHz of a microwave oven is close to the specific frequencies in the 2.4 GHz band used for WiFi.

Problems

33.

Bind=μ02πrIind=μ02πrε0ΦEt=μ02πrε0(AEt)=μ02πrε0A(1ddV(t)dt)=μ02πr[ε0Ad][1CdQ(t)dt]=μ02πrdQ(t)dtbecauseC=ε0AdBind=μ02πrIind=μ02πrε0ΦEt=μ02πrε0(AEt)=μ02πrε0A(1ddV(t)dt)=μ02πr[ε0Ad][1CdQ(t)dt]=μ02πrdQ(t)dtbecauseC=ε0Ad

35.

a. Ires=V0sinωtRIres=V0sinωtR; b. Id=CV0ωcosωtId=CV0ωcosωt;
c. Ireal=Ires+dQdt=V0sinωtR+CV0ddtsinωt=V0sinωtR+CV0ωcosωtIreal=Ires+dQdt=V0sinωtR+CV0ddtsinωt=V0sinωtR+CV0ωcosωt; which is the sum of IresIres and Ireal,Ireal, consistent with how the displacement current maintaining the continuity of current.

37.

1.77×10−3A1.77×10−3A

39.

Id=(7.97×10−10A)sin(150t)Id=(7.97×10−10A)sin(150t)

41.

499 s

43.

25 m

45.

a. 5.00 V/m; b. 9.55×108Hz9.55×108Hz; c. 31.4 cm; d. toward the +x-axis;
e. B=(1.67×10−8T)cos[kx(6×109s−1)t+0.40]k^B=(1.67×10−8T)cos[kx(6×109s−1)t+0.40]k^

47.

Id=πε0ωR2E0sin(kxωt)Id=πε0ωR2E0sin(kxωt)

49.

The magnetic field is downward, and it has magnitude 2.00×10−8T2.00×10−8T.

51.

a. 6.45×10−3V/m;6.45×10−3V/m; b. 394 m

53.

11.5 m

55.

5.97×10−3W/m25.97×10−3W/m2

57.

a.E0=1027V/m,B0=3.42×10−6T;b.3.96×1026Wa.E0=1027V/m,B0=3.42×10−6T;b.3.96×1026W

59.

20.8W/m220.8W/m2

61.

a. 4.42×10‒6W/m24.42×10‒6W/m2; b. 5.77×10‒2V/m5.77×10‒2V/m

63.

a. 7.47×10−14W/m27.47×10−14W/m2; b. 3.66×1013W3.66×1013W; c. 1.12 W

65.

1.99×10−11N/m21.99×10−11N/m2

67.

F=ma=(p)(πr2),p=maπr2=ε02E02E0=2maε0πr2=2(10−8kg)(0.30m/s2)(8.854×10−12C2/N·m2)(π)(2×10−6m)2E0=7.34×106V/mF=ma=(p)(πr2),p=maπr2=ε02E02E0=2maε0πr2=2(10−8kg)(0.30m/s2)(8.854×10−12C2/N·m2)(π)(2×10−6m)2E0=7.34×106V/m

69.

a. 4.50×10−6N;4.50×10−6N; b. it is reduced to half the pressure, 2.25×10−6N2.25×10−6N

71.

a. W=12π2r4mc2I2t2; b.E=πr2ItW=12π2r4mc2I2t2; b.E=πr2It

73.

a. 1.5×1018Hz1.5×1018Hz; b. X-rays

75.

a. The wavelength range is 187 m to 556 m. b. The wavelength range is 2.78 m to 3.41 m.

77.

P=(12m30m)2(100mW)=16mWP=(12m30m)2(100mW)=16mW

79.

time for 1bit=1.27×10−8s,1bit=1.27×10−8s, difference in travel time is 5.34×10−8s5.34×10−8s

81.

a. 1.5×10−9m;1.5×10−9m; b. 5.9×10−7m;5.9×10−7m; c. 3.0×10−15m3.0×10−15m

83.

5.17×10−12T,5.17×10−12T, the non-oscillating geomagnetic field of 25–65 μTμT is much larger

85.

a. 1.33×102V/m1.33×102V/m; b. 4.44×1011T4.44×1011T; c. 3.00×108m3.00×108m

87.

a. 5.00×106m5.00×106m; b. radio wave; c. 4.33×10−5T4.33×10−5T

Additional Problems

89.

Id=(10N/C)(8.845×10−12C2/N·m2)π(0.03m)2(50001s)=1.25×10−9AId=(10N/C)(8.845×10−12C2/N·m2)π(0.03m)2(50001s)=1.25×10−9A

91.

3.75×107km3.75×107km, which is much greater than Earth’s circumference

93.

a. 564 W; b. 1.80×104W/m21.80×104W/m2; c. 3.68×103V/m3.68×103V/m; d. 1.23×10−5T1.23×10−5T

95.

a. 5.00×103W/m25.00×103W/m2; b. 3.88×106N3.88×106N; c. 5.18×1012N5.18×1012N

97.

a. I=PA=P4πr21r2I=PA=P4πr21r2; b. IE02,B02E02,B021r2E0,B01rIE02,B02E02,B021r2E0,B01r

99.

Power into the wire=S·dA=(1μ0EB)(2πrL)=1μ0(VL)(μ0i2πr)(2πrL)=iV=i2RPower into the wire=S·dA=(1μ0EB)(2πrL)=1μ0(VL)(μ0i2πr)(2πrL)=iV=i2R

101.

0.431

103.

a. 1.5×1011m1.5×1011m; b. 5.0×10−7s5.0×10−7s; c. 33 ns

105.

sound:λsound=vsf=343m/s20.0Hz=17.2mradio:λradio=cf=3.00×108m/s1030×103Hz=291m; or17.1λsoundsound:λsound=vsf=343m/s20.0Hz=17.2mradio:λradio=cf=3.00×108m/s1030×103Hz=291m; or17.1λsound

Challenge Problems

107.

a. 0.29μm0.29μm; b. The radiation pressure is greater than the Sun’s gravity if the particle size is smaller, because the gravitational force varies as the radius cubed while the radiation pressure varies as the radius squared. c. The radiation force outward implies that particles smaller than this are less likely to be near the Sun than outside the range of the Sun’s radiation pressure.

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