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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. The Chemistry of Life
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. The Cell
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Genetics
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Evolutionary Processes
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Biological Diversity
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Plant Structure and Function
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Ecology
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
A
acid 2.2 Water
active site 6.5 Enzymes
Active transport 5.3 Active Transport
adenosine triphosphate 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
adhesion 2.2 Water
aerobic respiration 7.2 Glycolysis
aliphatic hydrocarbons 2.3 Carbon
allosteric inhibition 6.5 Enzymes
alternation of generations 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
Amino acids 3.4 Proteins
aminoacyl tRNA synthetases 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
anaerobic 7.2 Glycolysis
anaerobic cellular respiration 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
antibiotic resistance 17.1 Biotechnology
applied science 1.1 The Science of Biology
aromatic hydrocarbons 2.3 Carbon
C
calorie 2.2 Water
cAMP-dependent kinase (A-kinase) 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
capillary action 2.2 Water
Carbohydrates 3.2 Carbohydrates
carrier protein 5.2 Passive Transport
catabolite activator protein (CAP) 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
cell cycle 10.2 The Cell Cycle
cell cycle checkpoints 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
cell plate 10.2 The Cell Cycle
cellular cloning 17.1 Biotechnology
Cellulose 3.2 Carbohydrates
Central Dogma 15.1 The Genetic Code
central vacuole 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
centrioles 10.2 The Cell Cycle
centromere 10.1 Cell Division
Channel proteins 5.2 Passive Transport
chaperones 3.4 Proteins
chlorophyll 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Chloroplasts 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
chromatids 10.1 Cell Division
Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
cleavage furrow 10.2 The Cell Cycle
coenzymes 6.5 Enzymes
cofactors 6.5 Enzymes
cohesion 2.2 Water
competitive inhibition 6.5 Enzymes
complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries 17.2 Mapping Genomes
concentration gradient 5.2 Passive Transport
construct a mathematical model 23 Science Practice Challenge Questions
cyclic AMP (cAMP) 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
cyclin-dependent kinases 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
Cytogenetic mapping 17.2 Mapping Genomes
Cytokinesis 10.2 The Cell Cycle
cytoskeleton 4.5 Cytoskeleton
D
Deductive reasoning 1.1 The Science of Biology
denaturation 3.4 Proteins
denature 6.5 Enzymes
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 3.5 Nucleic Acids
dephosphorylation 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
Descriptive (or discovery) science 1.1 The Science of Biology
diacylglycerol (DAG) 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
dideoxynucleotides 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
diploid-dominant 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
Disaccharides 3.2 Carbohydrates
dissociation 2.2 Water
E
electrochemical gradient 5.3 Active Transport
electrogenic pump 5.3 Active Transport
electron microscopes 4.1 Studying Cells
Enantiomers 2.3 Carbon
Endocytosis 5.4 Bulk Transport
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
Enzymes 3.4 Proteins
eukaryotic cells 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
evaporation 2.2 Water
Exocytosis 5.4 Bulk Transport
expressed sequence tag (EST) 17.2 Mapping Genomes
G
Gel electrophoresis 17.1 Biotechnology
Gene targeting 17.1 Biotechnology
Gene therapy 17.1 Biotechnology
genetic diagnosis 17.1 Biotechnology
Genetic engineering 17.1 Biotechnology
genetic map 17.2 Mapping Genomes
genetic marker 17.2 Mapping Genomes
genetic recombination 17.2 Mapping Genomes
genetic testing 17.1 Biotechnology
genetically modified organism 17.1 Biotechnology
genome annotation 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
Genome mapping 17.2 Mapping Genomes
genomic libraries 17.2 Mapping Genomes
Geometric isomers 2.3 Carbon
Glycolysis 7.2 Glycolysis
glycosidic bond 3.2 Carbohydrates
I
Identify and justify the data 23 Science Practice Challenge Questions
incomplete dominance 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
induced fit 6.5 Enzymes
Induced mutations 14.6 DNA Repair
Inductive reasoning 1.1 The Science of Biology
inositol phospholipids 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
inositol triphosphate (IP3) 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
Integral proteins 5.1 Components and Structure
Intermediate filaments 4.5 Cytoskeleton
interphase 10.2 The Cell Cycle
Ion channel-linked receptors 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
isomerase 7.2 Glycolysis
Isomers 2.3 Carbon
M
materials and methods 1.1 The Science of Biology
messenger RNA (mRNA) 3.5 Nucleic Acids
Metagenomics 17.4 Applying Genomics
metaphase plate 10.2 The Cell Cycle
micelle 3.3 Lipids
microfilaments 4.5 Cytoskeleton
microsatellite polymorphisms 17.2 Mapping Genomes
microscope 4.1 Studying Cells
microtubules 4.5 Cytoskeleton
mismatch repair 14.6 DNA Repair
Mitochondria 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
mitotic phase 10.2 The Cell Cycle
mitotic spindle 10.2 The Cell Cycle
Monosaccharides 3.2 Carbohydrates
multiple cloning site (MCS) 17.1 Biotechnology
Mutations 14.6 DNA Repair
P
pairwise-end sequencing 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
Passive transport 5.2 Passive Transport
Peer-reviewed manuscripts 1.1 The Science of Biology
peptide bond 3.4 Proteins
Peripheral proteins 5.1 Components and Structure
Peroxisomes 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
pH scale 2.2 Water
Pharmacogenomics 17.4 Applying Genomics
phosphoanhydride bonds 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
phosphodiester 3.5 Nucleic Acids
phosphodiesterase 9.3 Response to the Signal
Phospholipids 3.3 Lipids
physical map 17.2 Mapping Genomes
physical sciences 1.1 The Science of Biology
pinocytosis 5.4 Bulk Transport
plasma membrane 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
plasmolysis 5.2 Passive Transport
Point mutations 14.6 DNA Repair
polynucleotide 3.5 Nucleic Acids
polysaccharide 3.2 Carbohydrates
Possible answers: 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
post-transcriptional 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
potocytosis 5.4 Bulk Transport
preinitiation complex 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
Primary active transport 5.3 Active Transport
primary structure 3.4 Proteins
prometaphase 10.2 The Cell Cycle
proofreading 14.6 DNA Repair
proteases 17.1 Biotechnology
protein signature 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
Proteins 3.4 Proteins
pure culture 17.4 Applying Genomics
pyrimidines 3.5 Nucleic Acids
pyruvate 7.2 Glycolysis
R
Radiation hybrid mapping 17.2 Mapping Genomes
reading frame 15.1 The Genetic Code
receptor-mediated endocytosis 5.4 Bulk Transport
recombinant DNA 17.1 Biotechnology
recombinant proteins 17.1 Biotechnology
recombination nodules 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
reduction division 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
Reproductive cloning 17.1 Biotechnology
Restriction endonucleases 17.1 Biotechnology
restriction fragment length polymorphisms 17.2 Mapping Genomes
retinoblastoma protein (Rb) 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) 17.1 Biotechnology
Review articles 1.1 The Science of Biology
Rho-dependent termination 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
Rho-independent termination 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
ribonucleases 17.1 Biotechnology
ribonucleic acid (RNA) 3.5 Nucleic Acids
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 3.5 Nucleic Acids
RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
S
saturated fatty acid 3.3 Lipids
scientific method 1.1 The Science of Biology
Second messengers 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
Secondary active transport 5.3 Active Transport
secondary structure 3.4 Proteins
selectively permeable 5.2 Passive Transport
Sequence mapping 17.2 Mapping Genomes
Shine-Dalgarno sequence 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
shotgun sequencing 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
signal integration 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
signal transduction 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
signaling pathway 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
silent mutations 14.6 DNA Repair
single nucleotide polymorphisms 17.2 Mapping Genomes
Single-strand binding proteins 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
solvent 2.2 Water
Southern blotting 17.1 Biotechnology
specific heat capacity 2.2 Water
sphere of hydration 2.2 Water
Spontaneous mutations 14.6 DNA Repair
steroids 3.3 Lipids
Structural isomers 2.3 Carbon
substituted hydrocarbons 2.3 Carbon
substrate-level phosphorylation 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
substrates 6.5 Enzymes
surface tension 2.2 Water
synaptonemal complex 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
T
tertiary structure 3.4 Proteins
Ti plasmids 17.1 Biotechnology
to construct a cladogram 20 Science Practice Challenge Questions
trans fat 3.3 Lipids
transcription 3.5 Nucleic Acids
transcription bubble. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
transcription factor binding site 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
transcriptional start site 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
Transfer RNA (tRNA) 3.5 Nucleic Acids
transgenic 17.1 Biotechnology
Transition substitution 14.6 DNA Repair
translation 3.5 Nucleic Acids
transport proteins 5.2 Passive Transport
transporters 5.3 Active Transport
Transversion substitution 14.6 DNA Repair
triacylglycerols 3.3 Lipids
triglycerides 3.3 Lipids
tryptophan (trp) operon 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
Tumor suppressor genes 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
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