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Biology for AP® Courses

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Biology for AP® CoursesScience Practice Challenge Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
41.

Consider a polymorphic gene with three alleles: A, B, and C.

A. If the frequencies of the alleles A and B are 0.2 and 0.3, the frequency of allele C is closest to ___.

  1. 0.25
  2. 0.5
  3. 0.2
  4. 0.3

Consider a gene with only two alleles: dominant A and recessive a. In a population of 1,000 organisms, the fraction expressing the homozygous recessive phenotype is 0.37.

B. The calculated allele frequencies p and q have values that are closest to ___.

  1. 0.69 and 0.31
  2. 0.31 and 0.69
  3. 0.37 and 0.63
  4. 0.63 and 0.37
Genotype C1 C1 C2 C2 C3 C3 C1 C2 C1 C3 C2 C3 Total
Observed 120 230 112 175 198 165 1,000
Table 19.3

C. The calculated number of individuals in this population that are heterozygotes is closest to ___.

  1. 240
  2. 230
  3. 430
  4. 476

Mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) were collected from a one-acre tract of lodge pole pine trees (Pinus contorta) in a region of British Columbia where the forests are under temperature stress. The beetles were crushed, and a cellulase enzyme was extracted. Three polymorphs of the enzyme were observed when separated by gel electrophoresis. The three proteins observed correspond to alleles labeled C1, C2, and C3. The numbers of beetles with each allele are shown in the following table.

D. The calculated allelic frequencies pC1, pC2, and pC3 are closest to ___.

  1. pC1 = 0.57 pC2 = 0.57 pC3 = 0.59
  2. pC1 = 0.29 pC2 = 0.29 pC3 = 0.42
  3. pC1 = 0.61 pC2 = 0.80 pC3 = 0.59
  4. pC1 = 0.31 pC2 = 0.40 pC3 = 0.29

E. In order to investigate the presence of selection at the cellulase locus due to changing temperature, a biologist should:

  1. calculate the values of the sums pC1 + pC2 + pC3 and (pC1 + pC2 + pC3)2. If these numbers are not equal to 1, the gene is not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and the gene is evolving.
  2. return next year and repeat this examination of the enzyme, calculating frequencies of each allele each year. Then calculate the values of the sums pC1 + pC2 + pC3 and (pC1 + pC2 + pC3)2. If these numbers are not the same each year, the gene is not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and the gene is evolving.
  3. return each year for several years and repeat this examination of the enzyme, calculating frequencies of each allele each year. If the allele frequencies are changing, the gene is not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and temperature is exerting a selection pressure.
  4. return each year for several years and repeat this examination of the enzyme, calculating frequencies of each allele each year. If the allele frequencies are changing, the gene is not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Analysis of the dependence of allele frequencies on temperature could indicate selection.
42.

Calamus finmarchicus is the dominant copepod in the Gulf of Maine. The polymorphic aminopeptidase locus, Lap-1, has been shown to be useful for the genetic differentiation of populations of this organism. By examining the population dynamics of copepods, the dynamics of the fin fish on which they feed can be predicted. The aerial photograph shows a landmass separating two coastal estuarine habits, the mud flats of Egypt Bay and the Mount Desert Narrows. For the past 40 years, transport between the two habits has been hindered by a dam over the Carrying Place Inlet. However, small volumes of water occasionally crest the dam.

This is a colored aerial picture pointing out a land mass that separates two coastal estuarine habitats, the mud flats of Egypt Bay and the Mount Desert Narrows. The figures mark two locations on the map, the Mount Desert Narrow and the Carrying Place Inlet, where the water transport has been hindered by a dam at the Carrying Place Inlet.
Figure 19.12

To evaluate the geographic isolation of invertebrate populations in these two habitats, copepods are sampled at the points labeled 1 and 2 on the photograph. These points lie at either ends of the Carrying Place Inlet. Enzymes encoded by three alleles, labeled A, B, and C, were determined by gel electrophoresis of equal numbers of the organisms collected at the two sites. Numbers of each genotype are given in the following table:

Site 1 2
AA 82 96
AB 114 108
AC 102 92
BB 74 54
BC 98 110
CC 30 40
Total 500 500
Table 19.4

A. Calculate the frequencies, f, of each allele and complete the following table:

Site f(A) f(B) f(C)
1
2
Table 19.5

B. Using a χ 2 χ 2 test, evaluate these data to determine if the aminopeptidase gene in these two populations is evolving. State your conclusion as claims supported by evidence at both the 95% and 99% confidence levels. The formula for the χ 2 χ 2 test is provided on the AP Biology Exam.

χ 2 = (oe) 2 e χ 2 = (oe) 2 e

This table of critical p values is also provided on the AP Biology Exam.

Degrees of Freedom
p 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0.05 3.84 5.99 7.82 9.49 11.07 12.59 14.07 15.51
0.01 6.64 9.32 11.34 13.28 15.09 16.81 18.48 20.09
Table 19.6

C. Based on these data, predict, with justification, changes over time in the aminopeptidase enzyme for these populations.

D. The B form of this aminopeptidase is slightly more efficient at extracting nutritional leucine from a protein than the A and C forms but slightly less efficient at extracting valine and serine. Describe an investigation of the two habitats that could suggest a causal relationship between changes in allele frequency and characteristics of the environment.

E. Single-nucleotide mutations are neutral when they encode changes in proteins that result in no significant differential selection. If differences in environmental factors between sites 1 and 2 are not observed, predict what other factors could result in departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for aminopeptidase.

43.

Bioluminescence is an example of convergent evolution; 30 distinct lineages have acquired this characteristic, and all involve some form of a class of molecules called luciferins. Sexual selection pressures are strong for light-emitting organisms. Ellis and Oakley (Curr Biol, 2016) examined the number of species that lack luminosity in groups of closest evolutionary relation (sister linear) with those species that are luminous. Similarly, scientists made the same comparison between groups that use luminosity for concealment (counter-illumination) and their sister lineages. The graphs summarize their results, comparing the natural logarithm of the number of species in each lineage.

The right side of the table shows the comparison between species that are Luminous and their sister lineages that lack luminosity. The key for this being a: Bolitaenin octopus. B: Sylid polychaete. C: Gazzin ponyfish. D. etmopterus shark. E: cypridinid ostracod f: pyrophorin click beetle g: Rhagophthalmid railroad beetle, h: myctophid lanterfish i: stomiid dragonfish j: firefly. The verticle axis of the graph is labeled Number of species (natural log) it is labeled from 0 to 7. The x axis is labeled on the right side non-luminous sister lineage and the left side luminous lineage. The first diagonal red line goes from 0 to 1 and is labeled a. The second line goes from 0 up to 2.5 and is labeled c. the third line is from a and is labeled b. the next line goes up from 1.5 and is labeled d. The next line is from 1.7 and is labeled e. Two lines go diagonally up from 2 and are labeled with h and I. and finally the last line that goes up from 5 is labeled
Figure 19.13

Based on the data shown in the graphs, describe a model that can account for the increased speciation of bioluminescent lineages, including the mechanism of speciation.

44.
A graph showing the relationship between the number cells and cell size. The Y axis is labeled Number of cells. The X axis is labeled Cell size. The two bell shaped distribution curves are t 1 and t 2. T 1 is red and within T 2 which is purple.
Figure 19.14

A biologist is using a simulation to model populations of African hornbills (Bycanistes spp. and Ceratogymna spp.), a keystone species of the savanna. Populations of the birds are declining due to habitat loss. The hornbill’s diet consists primarily of termites and fruit. A critical component of termite digestion is chitin deacetylase, an enzyme whose mutation rate is a model parameter. The other model parameter is population size, N. In the results of the simulation study shown above, there is no selection, and the mutation rate is fixed. Although both population size and mutation rate are fixed, randomness results in the five different outcomes shown in each graph above.

A. Select the graph displaying the results that are closer to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Justify the selection of the graph.

B. Based on these simulations, predict the future heterozygosity, 2pq, of the smaller populations, as shown in graph A.

C. Justify the use of a simulation study with no selection under environmental conditions in which the availability of both termites and fruit is high.

D. If a change in the environment occurs suddenly, such as an increase in average temperature, where fruit production declines, analyze the effect of the change on allele frequency in the large and small populations.

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