In this section, you will explore the following questions:
- What are the components of the extracellular matrix?
- What are the roles of tight junctions, gap junctions, and plasmodesmata in allowing cells to exchange materials with the environment and communicate with other cells?
Connection for AP® Courses
With the exception of gap junctions between animal cells and plasmodesmata between plant cells that facilitate the exchange of substances, the information presented in Section 4.6| Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities is not required for AP®. Concepts about cell communication and signaling processes that are required for AP®, including the features of cells that make communication possible, are covered in Chapter 9.
You already know that a group of similar cells working together is called a tissue. As you might expect that, if cells are to work together, they must communicate with one another, just as you need to communicate with others when you work on a group project. Let’s take a look at how cells communicate with one another.
Review the role of the extracellular matrix by comparing it to a scaffold outside of a building that buttresses and supports the main structure. It is an extension of the cell in animal tissues and provides essential functions in mechanical support, cell-cell communication, wound healing, and organism development.
Cell junctions can be compared to the piecing together of fabric. Pieces of fabric are tightly joined by a seam. Tight junctions similarly “glue” cells together. Rivets and snaps bind fabric tightly in specific spots as desmosomes form close associations in specific areas. Gap junctions are almost like pins and allow trafficking between the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
Cells in tissues are usually inadequately visualized as puzzle pieces that interlock but that are functionally independent. Dispel this notion by stressing the importance of cell junctions. In multicellular organisms, cells interact with their neighboring cells.
You already know that a group of similar cells working together is called a tissue. As you might expect, if cells are to work together, they must communicate with each other, just as you need to communicate with others if you work on a group project. Let’s take a look at how cells communicate with each other.
The Science Practice Challenge Questions contain additional test questions for this section that will help you prepare for the AP exam. These questions address the following standards:
[APLO 4.5][APLO 3.32][APLO 1.16][APLO 3.33][APLO 1.14][APLO 2.7][APLO 4.4]
Extracellular Matrix of Animal Cells
Most animal cells release materials into the extracellular space. The primary components of these materials are proteins, and the most abundant protein is collagen. Collagen fibers are interwoven with carbohydrate-containing protein molecules called proteoglycans. Collectively, these materials are called the extracellular matrix (Figure 4.27). Not only does the extracellular matrix hold the cells together to form a tissue, but it also allows the cells within the tissue to communicate with each other. How can this happen?
Cells have protein receptors on the extracellular surfaces of their plasma membranes. When a molecule within the matrix binds to the receptor, it changes the molecular structure of the receptor. The receptor, in turn, changes the conformation of the microfilaments positioned just inside the plasma membrane. These conformational changes induce chemical signals inside the cell that reach the nucleus and turn “on” or “off” the transcription of specific sections of DNA, which affects the production of associated proteins, thus changing the activities within the cell.
Blood clotting provides an example of the role of the extracellular matrix in cell communication. When the cells lining a blood vessel are damaged, they display a protein receptor called tissue factor. When tissue factor binds with another factor in the extracellular matrix, it causes platelets to adhere to the wall of the damaged blood vessel, stimulates the adjacent smooth muscle cells in the blood vessel to contract (thus constricting the blood vessel), and initiates a series of steps that stimulate the platelets to produce clotting factors.
Cells can also communicate with each other via direct contact, referred to as intercellular junctions. There are some differences in the ways that plant and animal cells do this. Plasmodesmata are junctions between plant cells, whereas animal cell contacts include tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes.
In general, long stretches of the plasma membranes of neighboring plant cells cannot touch one another because they are separated by the cell wall that surrounds each cell (Figure 4.8b). How then, can a plant transfer water and other soil nutrients from its roots, through its stems, and to its leaves? Such transport uses the vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) primarily. There also exist structural modifications called plasmodesmata (singular = plasmodesma), numerous channels that pass between cell walls of adjacent plant cells, connect their cytoplasm, and enable materials to be transported from cell to cell, and thus throughout the plant (Figure 4.28).
A tight junction is a watertight seal between two adjacent animal cells (Figure 4.29). The cells are held tightly against each other by proteins (predominantly two proteins called claudins and occludins).
This tight adherence prevents materials from leaking between the cells; tight junctions are typically found in epithelial tissues that line internal organs and cavities, and comprise most of the skin. For example, the tight junctions of the epithelial cells lining your urinary bladder prevent urine from leaking out into the extracellular space.
Also found only in animal cells are desmosomes, which act like spot welds between adjacent epithelial cells (Figure 4.30). Short proteins called cadherins in the plasma membrane connect to intermediate filaments to create desmosomes. The cadherins join two adjacent cells together and maintain the cells in a sheet-like formation in organs and tissues that stretch, like the skin, heart, and muscles.
Gap junctions in animal cells are like plasmodesmata in plant cells in that they are channels between adjacent cells that allow for the transport of ions, nutrients, and other substances that enable cells to communicate (Figure 4.31). Structurally, however, gap junctions and plasmodesmata differ.
Gap junctions develop when a set of six proteins (called connexins) in the plasma membrane arrange themselves in an elongated donut-like configuration called a connexon. When the pores (“doughnut holes”) of connexons in adjacent animal cells align, a channel between the two cells forms. Gap junctions are particularly important in cardiac muscle: The electrical signal for the muscle to contract is passed efficiently through gap junctions, allowing the heart muscle cells to contract in tandem.
Link to Learning
To conduct a virtual microscopy lab and review the parts of a cell, work through the steps of this interactive assignment.
- Plant cells have cell walls which provide structure to the plant and also chloroplasts which allow for photosynthesis. Animal cells do not have either of these structures. Both cells have nuclei, the command center of the cell, and cytoplasm, the gel-like solution that fills the cell.
- Plant cells and animal cells have cell walls as well as nuclei. Plant cells have chloroplasts as well as plasmodesmata which are lacking in animal cells.
- Plant cells have cell walls which provide structure to the plant and also chloroplasts which allow for photosynthesis. Animal cells do not have either of these structures. Animal cells and plant cells both have glyoxysomes as well cytoplasm.
- Plant cells and animal cells both have a rigid plasma membrane as well as cytoplasm which is the gel-like solution that fills the cell. Plant cells have cell walls which provide structure to the plant and also chloroplasts which allow for photosynthesis. Animal cells do not have either of these structures.