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  1. Preface
  2. 1 An Invisible World
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Our Ancestors Knew
    3. 1.2 A Systematic Approach
    4. 1.3 Types of Microorganisms
    5. Summary
    6. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  3. 2 How We See the Invisible World
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Properties of Light
    3. 2.2 Peering Into the Invisible World
    4. 2.3 Instruments of Microscopy
    5. 2.4 Staining Microscopic Specimens
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  4. 3 The Cell
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Spontaneous Generation
    3. 3.2 Foundations of Modern Cell Theory
    4. 3.3 Unique Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells
    5. 3.4 Unique Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  5. 4 Prokaryotic Diversity
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Prokaryote Habitats, Relationships, and Microbiomes
    3. 4.2 Proteobacteria
    4. 4.3 Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria and Phototrophic Bacteria
    5. 4.4 Gram-Positive Bacteria
    6. 4.5 Deeply Branching Bacteria
    7. 4.6 Archaea
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  6. 5 The Eukaryotes of Microbiology
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Unicellular Eukaryotic Parasites
    3. 5.2 Parasitic Helminths
    4. 5.3 Fungi
    5. 5.4 Algae
    6. 5.5 Lichens
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  7. 6 Acellular Pathogens
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Viruses
    3. 6.2 The Viral Life Cycle
    4. 6.3 Isolation, Culture, and Identification of Viruses
    5. 6.4 Viroids, Virusoids, and Prions
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  8. 7 Microbial Biochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Organic Molecules
    3. 7.2 Carbohydrates
    4. 7.3 Lipids
    5. 7.4 Proteins
    6. 7.5 Using Biochemistry to Identify Microorganisms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Matching
      4. Fill in the Blank
      5. Short Answer
      6. Critical Thinking
  9. 8 Microbial Metabolism
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Energy, Matter, and Enzymes
    3. 8.2 Catabolism of Carbohydrates
    4. 8.3 Cellular Respiration
    5. 8.4 Fermentation
    6. 8.5 Catabolism of Lipids and Proteins
    7. 8.6 Photosynthesis
    8. 8.7 Biogeochemical Cycles
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Matching
      4. Fill in the Blank
      5. Short Answer
      6. Critical Thinking
  10. 9 Microbial Growth
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 How Microbes Grow
    3. 9.2 Oxygen Requirements for Microbial Growth
    4. 9.3 The Effects of pH on Microbial Growth
    5. 9.4 Temperature and Microbial Growth
    6. 9.5 Other Environmental Conditions that Affect Growth
    7. 9.6 Media Used for Bacterial Growth
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  11. 10 Biochemistry of the Genome
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Using Microbiology to Discover the Secrets of Life
    3. 10.2 Structure and Function of DNA
    4. 10.3 Structure and Function of RNA
    5. 10.4 Structure and Function of Cellular Genomes
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Matching
      4. Fill in the Blank
      5. Short Answer
      6. Critical Thinking
  12. 11 Mechanisms of Microbial Genetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Functions of Genetic Material
    3. 11.2 DNA Replication
    4. 11.3 RNA Transcription
    5. 11.4 Protein Synthesis (Translation)
    6. 11.5 Mutations
    7. 11.6 How Asexual Prokaryotes Achieve Genetic Diversity
    8. 11.7 Gene Regulation: Operon Theory
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  13. 12 Modern Applications of Microbial Genetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Microbes and the Tools of Genetic Engineering
    3. 12.2 Visualizing and Characterizing DNA, RNA, and Protein
    4. 12.3 Whole Genome Methods and Pharmaceutical Applications of Genetic Engineering
    5. 12.4 Gene Therapy
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  14. 13 Control of Microbial Growth
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Controlling Microbial Growth
    3. 13.2 Using Physical Methods to Control Microorganisms
    4. 13.3 Using Chemicals to Control Microorganisms
    5. 13.4 Testing the Effectiveness of Antiseptics and Disinfectants
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  15. 14 Antimicrobial Drugs
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 History of Chemotherapy and Antimicrobial Discovery
    3. 14.2 Fundamentals of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
    4. 14.3 Mechanisms of Antibacterial Drugs
    5. 14.4 Mechanisms of Other Antimicrobial Drugs
    6. 14.5 Drug Resistance
    7. 14.6 Testing the Effectiveness of Antimicrobials
    8. 14.7 Current Strategies for Antimicrobial Discovery
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  16. 15 Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Characteristics of Infectious Disease
    3. 15.2 How Pathogens Cause Disease
    4. 15.3 Virulence Factors of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens
    5. 15.4 Virulence Factors of Eukaryotic Pathogens
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  17. 16 Disease and Epidemiology
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 The Language of Epidemiologists
    3. 16.2 Tracking Infectious Diseases
    4. 16.3 Modes of Disease Transmission
    5. 16.4 Global Public Health
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  18. 17 Innate Nonspecific Host Defenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Physical Defenses
    3. 17.2 Chemical Defenses
    4. 17.3 Cellular Defenses
    5. 17.4 Pathogen Recognition and Phagocytosis
    6. 17.5 Inflammation and Fever
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  19. 18 Adaptive Specific Host Defenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Overview of Specific Adaptive Immunity
    3. 18.2 Major Histocompatibility Complexes and Antigen-Presenting Cells
    4. 18.3 T Lymphocytes and Cellular Immunity
    5. 18.4 B Lymphocytes and Humoral Immunity
    6. 18.5 Vaccines
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  20. 19 Diseases of the Immune System
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Hypersensitivities
    3. 19.2 Autoimmune Disorders
    4. 19.3 Organ Transplantation and Rejection
    5. 19.4 Immunodeficiency
    6. 19.5 Cancer Immunobiology and Immunotherapy
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  21. 20 Laboratory Analysis of the Immune Response
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibody Production
    3. 20.2 Detecting Antigen-Antibody Complexes
    4. 20.3 Agglutination Assays
    5. 20.4 EIAs and ELISAs
    6. 20.5 Fluorescent Antibody Techniques
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  22. 21 Skin and Eye Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Skin and Eyes
    3. 21.2 Bacterial Infections of the Skin and Eyes
    4. 21.3 Viral Infections of the Skin and Eyes
    5. 21.4 Mycoses of the Skin
    6. 21.5 Protozoan and Helminthic Infections of the Skin and Eyes
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  23. 22 Respiratory System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Respiratory Tract
    3. 22.2 Bacterial Infections of the Respiratory Tract
    4. 22.3 Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract
    5. 22.4 Respiratory Mycoses
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  24. 23 Urogenital System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Urogenital Tract
    3. 23.2 Bacterial Infections of the Urinary System
    4. 23.3 Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System
    5. 23.4 Viral Infections of the Reproductive System
    6. 23.5 Fungal Infections of the Reproductive System
    7. 23.6 Protozoan Infections of the Urogenital System
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  25. 24 Digestive System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 24.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Digestive System
    3. 24.2 Microbial Diseases of the Mouth and Oral Cavity
    4. 24.3 Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    5. 24.4 Viral Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    6. 24.5 Protozoan Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    7. 24.6 Helminthic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  26. 25 Circulatory and Lymphatic System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 25.1 Anatomy of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    3. 25.2 Bacterial Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    4. 25.3 Viral Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    5. 25.4 Parasitic Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  27. 26 Nervous System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 26.1 Anatomy of the Nervous System
    3. 26.2 Bacterial Diseases of the Nervous System
    4. 26.3 Acellular Diseases of the Nervous System
    5. 26.4 Fungal and Parasitic Diseases of the Nervous System
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  28. A | Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry Important to Microbiology
  29. B | Mathematical Basics
  30. C | Metabolic Pathways
  31. D | Taxonomy of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms
  32. E | Glossary
  33. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
  34. Index
Symbols
3-phosphoglycerate 8.6 Photosynthesis
α carbon 7.4 Proteins
β-pleated sheet 7.4 Proteins
A
ABO blood group system 19.1 Hypersensitivities
acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation 8.4 Fermentation
Acetothermus paucivorans 4.5 Deeply Branching Bacteria
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) 19.4 Immunodeficiency
acridine orange 11.5 Mutations
activated macrophages 19.1 Hypersensitivities
activation of cytotoxic T cells 18.3 T Lymphocytes and Cellular Immunity
Active immunity 18.5 Vaccines
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis 24.2 Microbial Diseases of the Mouth and Oral Cavity
adenosine deaminase deficiency 12.4 Gene Therapy
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) 8.1 Energy, Matter, and Enzymes
adenosine monophosphate (AMP) 8.1 Energy, Matter, and Enzymes
adipose tissue 7.3 Lipids
aerial filaments 9.1 How Microbes Grow
affitins 4.6 Archaea
Agrobacterium 4.2 Proteobacteria
Alcanivorax borkumensis 8.7 Biogeochemical Cycles
alcohol fermentation 8.4 Fermentation
Alexandrium 5.4 Algae
algal bloom 5.4 Algae
allergic rhinitis 19.1 Hypersensitivities
alternative pathway 17.2 Chemical Defenses
alternative splicing 11.3 RNA Transcription
amine group 7.4 Proteins
amino groups 7.4 Proteins
aminoacyl tRNA synthetase 11.4 Protein Synthesis (Translation)
aminoglycoside resistance 14.5 Drug Resistance
amphipathic 7.3 Lipids
Analytical epidemiology 16.2 Tracking Infectious Diseases
anaphylactic shock 19.1 Hypersensitivities
anti-AChR antibodies 19.2 Autoimmune Disorders
Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs) 19.2 Autoimmune Disorders
anti-Rh factor antibodies 19.1 Hypersensitivities
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) 18.1 Overview of Specific Adaptive Immunity , 19.1 Hypersensitivities
antifungal medications 5.3 Fungi
antigen presenting cells (APCs) 19.1 Hypersensitivities
antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) 17.2 Chemical Defenses
antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) 14.6 Testing the Effectiveness of Antimicrobials
antisense strand 11.3 RNA Transcription
antivaxxers 18.5 Vaccines
arachadonic acid 19.1 Hypersensitivities
Archaeplastida 5.4 Algae
Archaeplastids 5.4 Algae
Artificial passive immunity 18.5 Vaccines , 19.1 Hypersensitivities
ascocarps 5.3 Fungi
Ascomycota 5.3 Fungi
ascospores 5.3 Fungi
Aspergillus flavus 5.3 Fungi
atomic force microscope 2.3 Instruments of Microscopy
atypical pneumonia 4.4 Gram-Positive Bacteria
autocrine function 17.2 Chemical Defenses
autoimmune hemolytic anemia 20.3 Agglutination Assays
autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS) 19.2 Autoimmune Disorders
avian influenza virus A 16.3 Modes of Disease Transmission
Avocado sunblotch viroid 6.4 Viroids, Virusoids, and Prions
B
B-cell maturation 19.4 Immunodeficiency
Bacillariophyta 5.4 Algae
bacterial toxins 18.5 Vaccines
bacteriochlorophyll 8.6 Photosynthesis
bacteriophage preparation 6.1 Viruses
bacteriorhodopsin 4.6 Archaea
Baltimore classification system 6.1 Viruses
basidia 5.3 Fungi
basidiocarps 5.3 Fungi
Basidiomycota 5.3 Fungi
basidiospores 5.3 Fungi
Beijerinck 6.1 Viruses
binomial nomenclature 1.2 A Systematic Approach
biological safety levels 13.1 Controlling Microbial Growth
Biological transmission 16.3 Modes of Disease Transmission
bioluminescence 4.2 Proteobacteria
biopolymers 7.4 Proteins
Blastomyces dermatitidis 5.3 Fungi , 22.4 Respiratory Mycoses
blocking antibodies 19.1 Hypersensitivities
blood-group antigens 19.1 Hypersensitivities
blood-spinal cord barrier 26.1 Anatomy of the Nervous System
bone marrow ablation 19.4 Immunodeficiency
brightfield microscope 2.3 Instruments of Microscopy
Broad Street cholera epidemic 16.2 Tracking Infectious Diseases
bronchoalveolar lavage 19.1 Hypersensitivities
brown algae 5.4 Algae
Bruton X-linked agammaglobulinemia 19.4 Immunodeficiency
budding yeasts 5.3 Fungi
Burkholderia cepacia 7.4 Proteins
Burkholderiales 4.2 Proteobacteria
C
C-reactive protein (CRP) 19.2 Autoimmune Disorders
calibration curve 9.1 How Microbes Grow
Calvin-Benson cycle 8.6 Photosynthesis
capsomere 6.1 Viruses
carbapenem resistance 14.5 Drug Resistance
carbapenemases 14.5 Drug Resistance
carbohydrates 7.3 Lipids
carbonyl group 7.4 Proteins
carboxyl group 7.4 Proteins
carboxylic acid 7.4 Proteins
catabolite activator protein (CAP) 11.7 Gene Regulation: Operon Theory
CCA amino acid binding end 11.4 Protein Synthesis (Translation)
cell-mediated immune response 19.4 Immunodeficiency
cellular respiration 8.6 Photosynthesis
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) 12.4 Gene Therapy
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 16.1 The Language of Epidemiologists
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 16.1 The Language of Epidemiologists
central nervous system (CNS) 26.1 Anatomy of the Nervous System
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 26.1 Anatomy of the Nervous System
Chamberland filters 6.1 Viruses
Charophyta 5.4 Algae
Cheese handler’s disease 19.1 Hypersensitivities
chemical mediators 17.2 Chemical Defenses
chemically defined medium 9.6 Media Used for Bacterial Growth
Chlamydomonas 5.4 Algae
Chlorella 5.4 Algae
Chlorophyta 5.4 Algae
Chromobacterium violaceum 19.4 Immunodeficiency
chronic granulomatous disease 19.4 Immunodeficiency
chronic infection 6.2 The Viral Life Cycle
chronic inflammation 17.5 Inflammation and Fever
chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis 19.2 Autoimmune Disorders
chronic myelogenous leukemia 19.4 Immunodeficiency
Chrysophyta 5.4 Algae
chytrids 5.3 Fungi
ciliated epithelial cells 17.1 Physical Defenses
citrus tristeza virus 6.2 The Viral Life Cycle
classical complement cascade 19.1 Hypersensitivities
Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis 24.3 Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules 18.3 T Lymphocytes and Cellular Immunity
coarse focusing knob 2.3 Instruments of Microscopy
coenocytic hyphae 5.3 Fungi
colony-forming unit 9.1 How Microbes Grow
commercial sterilization 13.1 Controlling Microbial Growth
competitive inhibitor 8.1 Energy, Matter, and Enzymes
complement activation 17.2 Chemical Defenses
complementary base pairing 10.2 Structure and Function of DNA
complementary base pairs 10.2 Structure and Function of DNA
complementary strand 11.2 DNA Replication
concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) 14.5 Drug Resistance
conditional mutation 11.5 Mutations
confocal microscopy 9.1 How Microbes Grow
conidia 5.3 Fungi
conjugated proteins 7.4 Proteins
constitutive secretory pathways 3.4 Unique Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells
constitutively expressed 11.7 Gene Regulation: Operon Theory
continuous common source spread 16.2 Tracking Infectious Diseases
convalescent phase 20.3 Agglutination Assays
Coulter counter 9.1 How Microbes Grow
Crenarchaeota 4.6 Archaea
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) 1.3 Types of Microorganisms
cross-resistance 14.5 Drug Resistance
crustose lichens 5.5 Lichens
cucumber mosaic virus 6.2 The Viral Life Cycle
culture density 9.1 How Microbes Grow
cutaneous mycoses 21.4 Mycoses of the Skin
cyclic photophosphorylation 8.6 Photosynthesis
cytochrome oxidase 8.3 Cellular Respiration
Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) 4.1 Prokaryote Habitats, Relationships, and Microbiomes
cytotoxic hypersensitivities 19.1 Hypersensitivities
cytotoxic T lymphocyte 19.1 Hypersensitivities