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Microbiology

24.5 Protozoan Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Microbiology 24.5 Protozoan Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 An Invisible World
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Our Ancestors Knew
    3. 1.2 A Systematic Approach
    4. 1.3 Types of Microorganisms
    5. Summary
    6. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  3. 2 How We See the Invisible World
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Properties of Light
    3. 2.2 Peering Into the Invisible World
    4. 2.3 Instruments of Microscopy
    5. 2.4 Staining Microscopic Specimens
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  4. 3 The Cell
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Spontaneous Generation
    3. 3.2 Foundations of Modern Cell Theory
    4. 3.3 Unique Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells
    5. 3.4 Unique Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  5. 4 Prokaryotic Diversity
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Prokaryote Habitats, Relationships, and Microbiomes
    3. 4.2 Proteobacteria
    4. 4.3 Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria and Phototrophic Bacteria
    5. 4.4 Gram-Positive Bacteria
    6. 4.5 Deeply Branching Bacteria
    7. 4.6 Archaea
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  6. 5 The Eukaryotes of Microbiology
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Unicellular Eukaryotic Parasites
    3. 5.2 Parasitic Helminths
    4. 5.3 Fungi
    5. 5.4 Algae
    6. 5.5 Lichens
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  7. 6 Acellular Pathogens
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Viruses
    3. 6.2 The Viral Life Cycle
    4. 6.3 Isolation, Culture, and Identification of Viruses
    5. 6.4 Viroids, Virusoids, and Prions
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  8. 7 Microbial Biochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Organic Molecules
    3. 7.2 Carbohydrates
    4. 7.3 Lipids
    5. 7.4 Proteins
    6. 7.5 Using Biochemistry to Identify Microorganisms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Matching
      4. Fill in the Blank
      5. Short Answer
      6. Critical Thinking
  9. 8 Microbial Metabolism
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Energy, Matter, and Enzymes
    3. 8.2 Catabolism of Carbohydrates
    4. 8.3 Cellular Respiration
    5. 8.4 Fermentation
    6. 8.5 Catabolism of Lipids and Proteins
    7. 8.6 Photosynthesis
    8. 8.7 Biogeochemical Cycles
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Matching
      4. Fill in the Blank
      5. Short Answer
      6. Critical Thinking
  10. 9 Microbial Growth
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 How Microbes Grow
    3. 9.2 Oxygen Requirements for Microbial Growth
    4. 9.3 The Effects of pH on Microbial Growth
    5. 9.4 Temperature and Microbial Growth
    6. 9.5 Other Environmental Conditions that Affect Growth
    7. 9.6 Media Used for Bacterial Growth
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  11. 10 Biochemistry of the Genome
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Using Microbiology to Discover the Secrets of Life
    3. 10.2 Structure and Function of DNA
    4. 10.3 Structure and Function of RNA
    5. 10.4 Structure and Function of Cellular Genomes
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Matching
      4. Fill in the Blank
      5. Short Answer
      6. Critical Thinking
  12. 11 Mechanisms of Microbial Genetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Functions of Genetic Material
    3. 11.2 DNA Replication
    4. 11.3 RNA Transcription
    5. 11.4 Protein Synthesis (Translation)
    6. 11.5 Mutations
    7. 11.6 How Asexual Prokaryotes Achieve Genetic Diversity
    8. 11.7 Gene Regulation: Operon Theory
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  13. 12 Modern Applications of Microbial Genetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Microbes and the Tools of Genetic Engineering
    3. 12.2 Visualizing and Characterizing DNA, RNA, and Protein
    4. 12.3 Whole Genome Methods and Pharmaceutical Applications of Genetic Engineering
    5. 12.4 Gene Therapy
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  14. 13 Control of Microbial Growth
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Controlling Microbial Growth
    3. 13.2 Using Physical Methods to Control Microorganisms
    4. 13.3 Using Chemicals to Control Microorganisms
    5. 13.4 Testing the Effectiveness of Antiseptics and Disinfectants
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  15. 14 Antimicrobial Drugs
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 History of Chemotherapy and Antimicrobial Discovery
    3. 14.2 Fundamentals of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
    4. 14.3 Mechanisms of Antibacterial Drugs
    5. 14.4 Mechanisms of Other Antimicrobial Drugs
    6. 14.5 Drug Resistance
    7. 14.6 Testing the Effectiveness of Antimicrobials
    8. 14.7 Current Strategies for Antimicrobial Discovery
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  16. 15 Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Characteristics of Infectious Disease
    3. 15.2 How Pathogens Cause Disease
    4. 15.3 Virulence Factors of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens
    5. 15.4 Virulence Factors of Eukaryotic Pathogens
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  17. 16 Disease and Epidemiology
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 The Language of Epidemiologists
    3. 16.2 Tracking Infectious Diseases
    4. 16.3 Modes of Disease Transmission
    5. 16.4 Global Public Health
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  18. 17 Innate Nonspecific Host Defenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Physical Defenses
    3. 17.2 Chemical Defenses
    4. 17.3 Cellular Defenses
    5. 17.4 Pathogen Recognition and Phagocytosis
    6. 17.5 Inflammation and Fever
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  19. 18 Adaptive Specific Host Defenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Overview of Specific Adaptive Immunity
    3. 18.2 Major Histocompatibility Complexes and Antigen-Presenting Cells
    4. 18.3 T Lymphocytes and Cellular Immunity
    5. 18.4 B Lymphocytes and Humoral Immunity
    6. 18.5 Vaccines
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  20. 19 Diseases of the Immune System
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Hypersensitivities
    3. 19.2 Autoimmune Disorders
    4. 19.3 Organ Transplantation and Rejection
    5. 19.4 Immunodeficiency
    6. 19.5 Cancer Immunobiology and Immunotherapy
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  21. 20 Laboratory Analysis of the Immune Response
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibody Production
    3. 20.2 Detecting Antigen-Antibody Complexes
    4. 20.3 Agglutination Assays
    5. 20.4 EIAs and ELISAs
    6. 20.5 Fluorescent Antibody Techniques
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  22. 21 Skin and Eye Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Skin and Eyes
    3. 21.2 Bacterial Infections of the Skin and Eyes
    4. 21.3 Viral Infections of the Skin and Eyes
    5. 21.4 Mycoses of the Skin
    6. 21.5 Protozoan and Helminthic Infections of the Skin and Eyes
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  23. 22 Respiratory System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Respiratory Tract
    3. 22.2 Bacterial Infections of the Respiratory Tract
    4. 22.3 Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract
    5. 22.4 Respiratory Mycoses
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  24. 23 Urogenital System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Urogenital Tract
    3. 23.2 Bacterial Infections of the Urinary System
    4. 23.3 Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System
    5. 23.4 Viral Infections of the Reproductive System
    6. 23.5 Fungal Infections of the Reproductive System
    7. 23.6 Protozoan Infections of the Urogenital System
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  25. 24 Digestive System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 24.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Digestive System
    3. 24.2 Microbial Diseases of the Mouth and Oral Cavity
    4. 24.3 Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    5. 24.4 Viral Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    6. 24.5 Protozoan Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    7. 24.6 Helminthic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  26. 25 Circulatory and Lymphatic System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 25.1 Anatomy of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    3. 25.2 Bacterial Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    4. 25.3 Viral Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    5. 25.4 Parasitic Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  27. 26 Nervous System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 26.1 Anatomy of the Nervous System
    3. 26.2 Bacterial Diseases of the Nervous System
    4. 26.3 Acellular Diseases of the Nervous System
    5. 26.4 Fungal and Parasitic Diseases of the Nervous System
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  28. A | Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry Important to Microbiology
  29. B | Mathematical Basics
  30. C | Metabolic Pathways
  31. D | Taxonomy of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms
  32. E | Glossary
  33. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
  34. Index

Learning Objectives

  • Identify the most common protozoans that can cause infections of the GI tract
  • Compare the major characteristics of specific protozoan diseases affecting the GI tract

Like other microbes, protozoa are abundant in natural microbiota but can also be associated with significant illness. Gastrointestinal diseases caused by protozoa are generally associated with exposure to contaminated food and water, meaning that those without access to good sanitation are at greatest risk. Even in developed countries, infections can occur and these microbes have sometimes caused significant outbreaks from contamination of public water supplies.

Giardiasis

Also called backpacker’s diarrhea or beaver fever, giardiasis is a common disease in the United States caused by the flagellated protist Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis (Figure 1.16). To establish infection, G. lamblia uses a large adhesive disk to attach to the intestinal mucosa. The disk is comprised of microtubules. During adhesion, the flagella of G. lamblia move in a manner that draws fluid out from under the disk, resulting in an area of lower pressure that promotes its adhesion to the intestinal epithelial cells. Due to its attachment, Giardia also blocks absorption of nutrients, including fats.

Transmission occurs through contaminated food or water or directly from person to person. Children in day-care centers are at risk due to their tendency to put items into their mouths that may be contaminated. Large outbreaks may occur if a public water supply becomes contaminated. Giardia have a resistant cyst stage in their life cycle that is able to survive cold temperatures and the chlorination treatment typically used for drinking water in municipal reservoirs. As a result, municipal water must be filtered to trap and remove these cysts. Once consumed by the host, Giardia develops into the active tropozoite.

Infected individuals may be asymptomatic or have gastrointestinal signs and symptoms, sometimes accompanied by weight loss. Common symptoms, which appear one to three weeks after exposure, include diarrhea, nausea, stomach cramps, gas, greasy stool (because fat absorption is being blocked), and possible dehydration. The parasite remains in the colon and does not cause systemic infection. Signs and symptoms generally clear within two to six weeks. Chronic infections may develop and are often resistant to treatment. These are associated with weight loss, episodic diarrhea, and malabsorption syndrome due to the blocked nutrient absorption.

Diagnosis may be made using observation under the microscope. A stool ova and parasite (O&P) exam involves direct examination of a stool sample for the presence of cysts and trophozoites; it can be used to distinguish common parasitic intestinal infections. ELISA and other immunoassay tests, including commercial direct fluorescence antibody kits, are also used. The most common treatments use metronidazole as the first-line choice, followed by tinidazole. If the infection becomes chronic, the parasites may become resistant to medications.

Cryptosporidiosis

Another protozoan intestinal illness is cryptosporidiosis, which is usually caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis. (Figure 24.29) These pathogens are commonly found in animals and can be spread in feces from mice, birds, and farm animals. Contaminated water and food are most commonly responsible for transmission. The protozoan can also be transmitted through human contact with infected animals or their feces.

In the United States, outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis generally occur through contamination of the public water supply or contaminated water at water parks, swimming pools, and day-care centers. The risk is greatest in areas with poor sanitation, making the disease more common in developing countries.

Signs and symptoms include watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fever, dehydration, and weight loss. The illness is generally self-limiting within a month. However, immunocompromised patients, such as those with HIV/AIDS, are at particular risk of severe illness or death.

Diagnosis involves direct examination of stool samples, often over multiple days. As with giardiasis, a stool O&P exam may be helpful. Acid fast staining is often used. Enzyme immunoassays and molecular analysis (PCR) are available.

The first line of treatment is typically oral rehydration therapy. Medications are sometimes used to treat the diarrhea. The broad-range anti-parasitic drug nitazoxanide can be used to treat cryptosporidiosis. Other anti-parasitic drugs that can be used include azithromycin and paromomycin.

Micrograph of green glowing circles on a dark background.
Figure 24.29 Immunofluorescent staining allows for visualization of Cryptosporidium spp. (credit: modification of work by EPA/H.D.A. Lindquist)

Amoebiasis (Amebiasis)

The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, which is known as amoebic dysentery in severe cases. E. histolytica is generally transmitted through water or food that has fecal contamination. The disease is most widespread in the developing world and is one of the leading causes of mortality from parasitic disease worldwide. Disease can be caused by as few as 10 cysts being transmitted.

Signs and symptoms range from nonexistent to mild diarrhea to severe amoebic dysentery. Severe infection causes the abdomen to become distended and may be associated with fever. The parasite may live in the colon without causing signs or symptoms or may invade the mucosa to cause colitis. In some cases, the disease spreads to the spleen, brain, genitourinary tract, or lungs. In particular, it may spread to the liver and cause an abscess. When a liver abscess develops, fever, nausea, liver tenderness, weight loss, and pain in the right abdominal quadrant may occur. Chronic infection may occur and is associated with intermittent diarrhea, mucus, pain, flatulence, and weight loss.

Direct examination of fecal specimens may be used for diagnosis. As with cryptosporidiosis, samples are often examined on multiple days. A stool O&P exam of fecal or biopsy specimens may be helpful. Immunoassay, serology, biopsy, molecular, and antibody detection tests are available. Enzyme immunoassay may not distinguish current from past illness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to detect any liver abscesses. The first line of treatment is metronidazole or tinidazole, followed by diloxanide furoate, iodoquinol, or paromomycin to eliminate the cysts that remain.

Cyclosporiasis

The intestinal disease cyclosporiasis is caused by the protozoan Cyclospora cayetanensis. It is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions and therefore uncommon in the United States, although there have been outbreaks associated with contaminated produce imported from regions where the protozoan is more common.

This protist is transmitted through contaminated food and water and reaches the lining of the small intestine, where it causes infection. Signs and symptoms begin within seven to ten days after ingestion. Based on limited data, it appears to be seasonal in ways that differ regionally and that are poorly understood.19

Some individuals do not develop signs or symptoms. Those who do may exhibit explosive and watery diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, cramps, loss of appetite, fatigue, and bloating. These symptoms may last for months without treatment. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the recommended treatment.

Microscopic examination is used for diagnosis. A stool O&P examination may be helpful. The oocysts have a distinctive blue halo when viewed using ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy (Figure 24.30).

Micrograph of a blue glowing sphere labeled C. cayetanensis on a black background.
Figure 24.30 Cyclospora cayetanensis are autofluorescent under ultraviolet light. (credit: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Check Your Understanding

  • Which protozoan GI infections are common in the United States?

Disease Profile

Protozoan Gastrointestinal Infections

Protozoan GI infections are generally transmitted through contaminated food or water, triggering diarrhea and vomiting that can lead to dehydration. Rehydration therapy is an important aspect of treatment, but most protozoan GI infections can also be treated with drugs that target protozoans.

Table titled: Protozoan Infections of the GI Tract. Columns: Disease, Pathogen, Signs and Symptoms, Transmission, Diagnostic Tests, Antimicrobial Drugs. Amoebiasis (amoebic dysentery); Entamoeba histolytica; From mild diarrhea to severe dysentery and colitis; may cause abscess on the liver; Fecal-oral route; ingestion of cysts from fecally contaminated water, food, or hands Stool O&P exam, enzyme immunoassay; Metronidazole, tinidazole, diloxanide furoate, iodoquinol, paromomycin. Cryptosporidiosis; Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis; Watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fever, dehydration, and weight loss; Contact with feces of infected mice, birds, farm animals; ingestion of contaminated food or water; exposure to contaminated water while swimming or bathing ; Stool O&P exam, enzyme immunoassay, PCR; Nitazoxanide, azithromycin, and paromomycin. Cyclosporiasis; Cyclospora cayetanensis; Explosive diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, cramps, loss of appetite, fatigue, bloating; Ingestion of contaminated food or water; Stool O&P exam using ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy; Trimethoprim-sulfmethoxazole. Giardiasis; Giardia lamblia; Diarrhea, nausea, stomach cramps, gas, greasy stool, dehydration if severe; sometimes malabsorption syndrome; Contact with infected individual or contaminated fomites; ingestion of contaminated food or water; Stool O&P exam; ELISA, direct fluorescence antibody assays; Metronidazole, tinidazole.
Figure 24.31

Footnotes

  • 19 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Cyclosporiasis FAQs for Health Professionals.” Updated June 13, 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/cyclosporiasis/health_professionals/hp-faqs.html.
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