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Microbiology

23.6 Protozoan Infections of the Urogenital System

Microbiology 23.6 Protozoan Infections of the Urogenital System
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 An Invisible World
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Our Ancestors Knew
    3. 1.2 A Systematic Approach
    4. 1.3 Types of Microorganisms
    5. Summary
    6. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  3. 2 How We See the Invisible World
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Properties of Light
    3. 2.2 Peering Into the Invisible World
    4. 2.3 Instruments of Microscopy
    5. 2.4 Staining Microscopic Specimens
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  4. 3 The Cell
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Spontaneous Generation
    3. 3.2 Foundations of Modern Cell Theory
    4. 3.3 Unique Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells
    5. 3.4 Unique Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  5. 4 Prokaryotic Diversity
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Prokaryote Habitats, Relationships, and Microbiomes
    3. 4.2 Proteobacteria
    4. 4.3 Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria and Phototrophic Bacteria
    5. 4.4 Gram-Positive Bacteria
    6. 4.5 Deeply Branching Bacteria
    7. 4.6 Archaea
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  6. 5 The Eukaryotes of Microbiology
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Unicellular Eukaryotic Parasites
    3. 5.2 Parasitic Helminths
    4. 5.3 Fungi
    5. 5.4 Algae
    6. 5.5 Lichens
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  7. 6 Acellular Pathogens
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Viruses
    3. 6.2 The Viral Life Cycle
    4. 6.3 Isolation, Culture, and Identification of Viruses
    5. 6.4 Viroids, Virusoids, and Prions
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  8. 7 Microbial Biochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Organic Molecules
    3. 7.2 Carbohydrates
    4. 7.3 Lipids
    5. 7.4 Proteins
    6. 7.5 Using Biochemistry to Identify Microorganisms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Matching
      4. Fill in the Blank
      5. Short Answer
      6. Critical Thinking
  9. 8 Microbial Metabolism
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Energy, Matter, and Enzymes
    3. 8.2 Catabolism of Carbohydrates
    4. 8.3 Cellular Respiration
    5. 8.4 Fermentation
    6. 8.5 Catabolism of Lipids and Proteins
    7. 8.6 Photosynthesis
    8. 8.7 Biogeochemical Cycles
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Matching
      4. Fill in the Blank
      5. Short Answer
      6. Critical Thinking
  10. 9 Microbial Growth
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 How Microbes Grow
    3. 9.2 Oxygen Requirements for Microbial Growth
    4. 9.3 The Effects of pH on Microbial Growth
    5. 9.4 Temperature and Microbial Growth
    6. 9.5 Other Environmental Conditions that Affect Growth
    7. 9.6 Media Used for Bacterial Growth
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  11. 10 Biochemistry of the Genome
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Using Microbiology to Discover the Secrets of Life
    3. 10.2 Structure and Function of DNA
    4. 10.3 Structure and Function of RNA
    5. 10.4 Structure and Function of Cellular Genomes
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Matching
      4. Fill in the Blank
      5. Short Answer
      6. Critical Thinking
  12. 11 Mechanisms of Microbial Genetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Functions of Genetic Material
    3. 11.2 DNA Replication
    4. 11.3 RNA Transcription
    5. 11.4 Protein Synthesis (Translation)
    6. 11.5 Mutations
    7. 11.6 How Asexual Prokaryotes Achieve Genetic Diversity
    8. 11.7 Gene Regulation: Operon Theory
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  13. 12 Modern Applications of Microbial Genetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Microbes and the Tools of Genetic Engineering
    3. 12.2 Visualizing and Characterizing DNA, RNA, and Protein
    4. 12.3 Whole Genome Methods and Pharmaceutical Applications of Genetic Engineering
    5. 12.4 Gene Therapy
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  14. 13 Control of Microbial Growth
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Controlling Microbial Growth
    3. 13.2 Using Physical Methods to Control Microorganisms
    4. 13.3 Using Chemicals to Control Microorganisms
    5. 13.4 Testing the Effectiveness of Antiseptics and Disinfectants
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  15. 14 Antimicrobial Drugs
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 History of Chemotherapy and Antimicrobial Discovery
    3. 14.2 Fundamentals of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
    4. 14.3 Mechanisms of Antibacterial Drugs
    5. 14.4 Mechanisms of Other Antimicrobial Drugs
    6. 14.5 Drug Resistance
    7. 14.6 Testing the Effectiveness of Antimicrobials
    8. 14.7 Current Strategies for Antimicrobial Discovery
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  16. 15 Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Characteristics of Infectious Disease
    3. 15.2 How Pathogens Cause Disease
    4. 15.3 Virulence Factors of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens
    5. 15.4 Virulence Factors of Eukaryotic Pathogens
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  17. 16 Disease and Epidemiology
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 The Language of Epidemiologists
    3. 16.2 Tracking Infectious Diseases
    4. 16.3 Modes of Disease Transmission
    5. 16.4 Global Public Health
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  18. 17 Innate Nonspecific Host Defenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Physical Defenses
    3. 17.2 Chemical Defenses
    4. 17.3 Cellular Defenses
    5. 17.4 Pathogen Recognition and Phagocytosis
    6. 17.5 Inflammation and Fever
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  19. 18 Adaptive Specific Host Defenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Overview of Specific Adaptive Immunity
    3. 18.2 Major Histocompatibility Complexes and Antigen-Presenting Cells
    4. 18.3 T Lymphocytes and Cellular Immunity
    5. 18.4 B Lymphocytes and Humoral Immunity
    6. 18.5 Vaccines
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  20. 19 Diseases of the Immune System
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Hypersensitivities
    3. 19.2 Autoimmune Disorders
    4. 19.3 Organ Transplantation and Rejection
    5. 19.4 Immunodeficiency
    6. 19.5 Cancer Immunobiology and Immunotherapy
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  21. 20 Laboratory Analysis of the Immune Response
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibody Production
    3. 20.2 Detecting Antigen-Antibody Complexes
    4. 20.3 Agglutination Assays
    5. 20.4 EIAs and ELISAs
    6. 20.5 Fluorescent Antibody Techniques
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  22. 21 Skin and Eye Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Skin and Eyes
    3. 21.2 Bacterial Infections of the Skin and Eyes
    4. 21.3 Viral Infections of the Skin and Eyes
    5. 21.4 Mycoses of the Skin
    6. 21.5 Protozoan and Helminthic Infections of the Skin and Eyes
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  23. 22 Respiratory System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Respiratory Tract
    3. 22.2 Bacterial Infections of the Respiratory Tract
    4. 22.3 Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract
    5. 22.4 Respiratory Mycoses
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  24. 23 Urogenital System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Urogenital Tract
    3. 23.2 Bacterial Infections of the Urinary System
    4. 23.3 Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System
    5. 23.4 Viral Infections of the Reproductive System
    6. 23.5 Fungal Infections of the Reproductive System
    7. 23.6 Protozoan Infections of the Urogenital System
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  25. 24 Digestive System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 24.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Digestive System
    3. 24.2 Microbial Diseases of the Mouth and Oral Cavity
    4. 24.3 Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    5. 24.4 Viral Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    6. 24.5 Protozoan Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    7. 24.6 Helminthic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  26. 25 Circulatory and Lymphatic System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 25.1 Anatomy of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    3. 25.2 Bacterial Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    4. 25.3 Viral Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    5. 25.4 Parasitic Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  27. 26 Nervous System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 26.1 Anatomy of the Nervous System
    3. 26.2 Bacterial Diseases of the Nervous System
    4. 26.3 Acellular Diseases of the Nervous System
    5. 26.4 Fungal and Parasitic Diseases of the Nervous System
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  28. A | Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry Important to Microbiology
  29. B | Mathematical Basics
  30. C | Metabolic Pathways
  31. D | Taxonomy of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms
  32. E | Glossary
  33. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
  34. Index

Learning Objectives

  • Identify the most common protozoan pathogen that causes infections of the reproductive system
  • Summarize the important characteristics of trichomoniasis

Only one major protozoan species causes infections in the urogenital system. Trichomoniasis, or “trich,” is the most common nonviral STI and is caused by a flagellated protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. T. vaginalis has an undulating membrane and, generally, an amoeboid shape when attached to cells in the vagina. In culture, it has an oval shape.

T. vaginalis is commonly found in the normal microbiota of the vagina. As with other vaginal pathogens, it can cause vaginitis when there is disruption to the normal microbiota. It is found only as a trophozoite and does not form cysts. T. vaginalis can adhere to cells using adhesins such as lipoglycans; it also has other cell-surface virulence factors, including tetraspanins that are involved in cell adhesion, motility, and tissue invasion. In addition, T. vaginalis is capable of phagocytosing other microbes of the normal microbiota, contributing to the development of an imbalance that is favorable to infection.

Both men and women can develop trichomoniasis. Men are generally asymptomatic, and although women are more likely to develop symptoms, they are often asymptomatic as well. When symptoms do occur, they are characteristic of urethritis. Men experience itching, irritation, discharge from the penis, and burning after urination or ejaculation. Women experience dysuria; itching, burning, redness, and soreness of the genitalia; and vaginal discharge. The infection may also spread to the cervix. Infection increases the risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV and is associated with pregnancy complications such as preterm birth.

Microscopic evaluation of wet mounts is an inexpensive and convenient method of diagnosis, but the sensitivity of this method is low (Figure 23.24). Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is preferred due to its high sensitivity. Using wet mounts and then NAAT for those who initially test negative is one option to improve sensitivity. Samples may be obtained for NAAT using urine, vaginal, or endocervical specimens for women and with urine and urethral swabs for men. It is also possible to use other methods such as the OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test (an immunochromatographic test that detects antigen) and a DNA probe test for multiple species associated with vaginitis (the Affirm VPII Microbial Identification Test discussed in section 23.5).16 T. vaginalis is sometimes detected on a Pap test, but this is not considered diagnostic due to high rates of false positives and negatives. The recommended treatment for trichomoniasis is oral metronidazole or tinidazole. Sexual partners should be treated as well.

Micrograph of small purple cells and larger oval cells.
Figure 23.24 Trichomonas vaginalis is visible in this Gram stained specimen. (credit: modification of work by American Society for Microbiology)

Check Your Understanding

  • What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis?

Eye on Ethics

STIs and Privacy

For many STIs, it is common to contact and treat sexual partners of the patient. This is especially important when a new illness has appeared, as when HIV became more prevalent in the 1980s. But to contact sexual partners, it is necessary to obtain their personal information from the patient. This raises difficult questions. In some cases, providing the information may be embarrassing or difficult for the patient, even though withholding such information could put their sexual partner(s) at risk.

Legal considerations further complicate such situations. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA), passed into law in 1996, sets the standards for the protection of patient information. It requires businesses that use health information, such as insurance companies and healthcare providers, to maintain strict confidentiality of patient records. Contacting a patient’s sexual partners may therefore violate the patient’s privacy rights if the patient’s diagnosis is revealed as a result.

From an ethical standpoint, which is more important: the patient’s privacy rights or the sexual partner’s right to know that they may be at risk of a sexually transmitted disease? Does the answer depend on the severity of the disease or are the rules universal? Suppose the physician knows the identity of the sexual partner but the patient does not want that individual to be contacted. Would it be a violation of HIPPA rules to contact the individual without the patient’s consent?

Questions related to patient privacy become even more complicated when dealing with patients who are minors. Adolescents may be reluctant to discuss their sexual behavior or health with a health professional, especially if they believe that healthcare professionals will tell their parents. This leaves many teens at risk of having an untreated infection or of lacking the information to protect themselves and their partners. On the other hand, parents may feel that they have a right to know what is going on with their child. How should physicians handle this? Should parents always be told even if the adolescent wants confidentiality? Does this affect how the physician should handle notifying a sexual partner?

Clinical Focus

Resolution

Vaginal candidiasis is generally treated using topical antifungal medications such as butoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, ticonozole, nystatin, or oral fluconazole. However, it is important to be careful in selecting a treatment for use during pregnancy. Nadia’s doctor recommended treatment with topical clotrimazole. This drug is classified as a category B drug by the FDA for use in pregnancy, and there appears to be no evidence of harm, at least in the second or third trimesters of pregnancy. Based on Nadia’s particular situation, her doctor thought that it was suitable for very short-term use even though she was still in the first trimester. After a seven-day course of treatment, Nadia’s yeast infection cleared. She continued with a normal pregnancy and delivered a healthy baby eight months later.

Higher levels of hormones during pregnancy can shift the typical microbiota composition and balance in the vagina, leading to high rates of infections such as candidiasis or vaginosis. Topical treatment has an 80–90% success rate, with only a small number of cases resulting in recurrent or persistent infections. Longer term or intermittent treatment is usually effective in these cases.

Go back to the previous Clinical Focus box.

Disease Profile

Fungal and Protozoan Reproductive Tract Infections

Figure 23.25 summarizes the most important features of candidiasis and trichomoniasis.

Table titled: Fungal and Protozoan Infections of the Reproductive Tract. Columns: Disease, Pathogen, Signs and Symptoms, Transmission, Diagnostic Tests, Antimicrobial Drugs. Disease – Trichomoniasis; Trichomonas vaginalis; Urethritis, vaginal or penile discharge; redness or soreness of female genitalia; Sexual contact; Wet mounts, NAAT of urine or vaginal samples; OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test, Affirm; VPII Microbial Identification Test; Metronidazole, tinidazole. Disease - Vaginal candidiasis (yeast infection); Candida spp., especially C. albicans; Dysuria; vaginal burning, itching, discharge; Transmissible by sexual contact, but typically only causes opportunistic infections after immunosuppresion or disruption of vaginal microbiota; Culture, Affirm VPII Microbial Identification Test Fluconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, tioconazole, nystatin.
Figure 23.25

Footnotes

  • 16 Association of Public Health Laboratories. “Advances in Laboratory Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis,” 2013. http://www.aphl.org/AboutAPHL/publications/Documents/ID_2013August_Advances-in-Laboratory-Detection-of-Trichomonas-vaginalis.pdf.
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