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Microbiology

18.2 Major Histocompatibility Complexes and Antigen-Presenting Cells

Microbiology 18.2 Major Histocompatibility Complexes and Antigen-Presenting Cells
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 An Invisible World
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Our Ancestors Knew
    3. 1.2 A Systematic Approach
    4. 1.3 Types of Microorganisms
    5. Summary
    6. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  3. 2 How We See the Invisible World
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Properties of Light
    3. 2.2 Peering Into the Invisible World
    4. 2.3 Instruments of Microscopy
    5. 2.4 Staining Microscopic Specimens
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  4. 3 The Cell
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Spontaneous Generation
    3. 3.2 Foundations of Modern Cell Theory
    4. 3.3 Unique Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells
    5. 3.4 Unique Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  5. 4 Prokaryotic Diversity
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Prokaryote Habitats, Relationships, and Microbiomes
    3. 4.2 Proteobacteria
    4. 4.3 Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria and Phototrophic Bacteria
    5. 4.4 Gram-Positive Bacteria
    6. 4.5 Deeply Branching Bacteria
    7. 4.6 Archaea
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  6. 5 The Eukaryotes of Microbiology
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Unicellular Eukaryotic Parasites
    3. 5.2 Parasitic Helminths
    4. 5.3 Fungi
    5. 5.4 Algae
    6. 5.5 Lichens
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  7. 6 Acellular Pathogens
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Viruses
    3. 6.2 The Viral Life Cycle
    4. 6.3 Isolation, Culture, and Identification of Viruses
    5. 6.4 Viroids, Virusoids, and Prions
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  8. 7 Microbial Biochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Organic Molecules
    3. 7.2 Carbohydrates
    4. 7.3 Lipids
    5. 7.4 Proteins
    6. 7.5 Using Biochemistry to Identify Microorganisms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Matching
      4. Fill in the Blank
      5. Short Answer
      6. Critical Thinking
  9. 8 Microbial Metabolism
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Energy, Matter, and Enzymes
    3. 8.2 Catabolism of Carbohydrates
    4. 8.3 Cellular Respiration
    5. 8.4 Fermentation
    6. 8.5 Catabolism of Lipids and Proteins
    7. 8.6 Photosynthesis
    8. 8.7 Biogeochemical Cycles
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Matching
      4. Fill in the Blank
      5. Short Answer
      6. Critical Thinking
  10. 9 Microbial Growth
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 How Microbes Grow
    3. 9.2 Oxygen Requirements for Microbial Growth
    4. 9.3 The Effects of pH on Microbial Growth
    5. 9.4 Temperature and Microbial Growth
    6. 9.5 Other Environmental Conditions that Affect Growth
    7. 9.6 Media Used for Bacterial Growth
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  11. 10 Biochemistry of the Genome
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Using Microbiology to Discover the Secrets of Life
    3. 10.2 Structure and Function of DNA
    4. 10.3 Structure and Function of RNA
    5. 10.4 Structure and Function of Cellular Genomes
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Matching
      4. Fill in the Blank
      5. Short Answer
      6. Critical Thinking
  12. 11 Mechanisms of Microbial Genetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Functions of Genetic Material
    3. 11.2 DNA Replication
    4. 11.3 RNA Transcription
    5. 11.4 Protein Synthesis (Translation)
    6. 11.5 Mutations
    7. 11.6 How Asexual Prokaryotes Achieve Genetic Diversity
    8. 11.7 Gene Regulation: Operon Theory
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  13. 12 Modern Applications of Microbial Genetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Microbes and the Tools of Genetic Engineering
    3. 12.2 Visualizing and Characterizing DNA, RNA, and Protein
    4. 12.3 Whole Genome Methods and Pharmaceutical Applications of Genetic Engineering
    5. 12.4 Gene Therapy
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  14. 13 Control of Microbial Growth
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Controlling Microbial Growth
    3. 13.2 Using Physical Methods to Control Microorganisms
    4. 13.3 Using Chemicals to Control Microorganisms
    5. 13.4 Testing the Effectiveness of Antiseptics and Disinfectants
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  15. 14 Antimicrobial Drugs
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 History of Chemotherapy and Antimicrobial Discovery
    3. 14.2 Fundamentals of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
    4. 14.3 Mechanisms of Antibacterial Drugs
    5. 14.4 Mechanisms of Other Antimicrobial Drugs
    6. 14.5 Drug Resistance
    7. 14.6 Testing the Effectiveness of Antimicrobials
    8. 14.7 Current Strategies for Antimicrobial Discovery
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. True/False
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  16. 15 Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Characteristics of Infectious Disease
    3. 15.2 How Pathogens Cause Disease
    4. 15.3 Virulence Factors of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens
    5. 15.4 Virulence Factors of Eukaryotic Pathogens
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  17. 16 Disease and Epidemiology
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 The Language of Epidemiologists
    3. 16.2 Tracking Infectious Diseases
    4. 16.3 Modes of Disease Transmission
    5. 16.4 Global Public Health
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  18. 17 Innate Nonspecific Host Defenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Physical Defenses
    3. 17.2 Chemical Defenses
    4. 17.3 Cellular Defenses
    5. 17.4 Pathogen Recognition and Phagocytosis
    6. 17.5 Inflammation and Fever
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  19. 18 Adaptive Specific Host Defenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Overview of Specific Adaptive Immunity
    3. 18.2 Major Histocompatibility Complexes and Antigen-Presenting Cells
    4. 18.3 T Lymphocytes and Cellular Immunity
    5. 18.4 B Lymphocytes and Humoral Immunity
    6. 18.5 Vaccines
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  20. 19 Diseases of the Immune System
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Hypersensitivities
    3. 19.2 Autoimmune Disorders
    4. 19.3 Organ Transplantation and Rejection
    5. 19.4 Immunodeficiency
    6. 19.5 Cancer Immunobiology and Immunotherapy
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  21. 20 Laboratory Analysis of the Immune Response
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibody Production
    3. 20.2 Detecting Antigen-Antibody Complexes
    4. 20.3 Agglutination Assays
    5. 20.4 EIAs and ELISAs
    6. 20.5 Fluorescent Antibody Techniques
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  22. 21 Skin and Eye Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Skin and Eyes
    3. 21.2 Bacterial Infections of the Skin and Eyes
    4. 21.3 Viral Infections of the Skin and Eyes
    5. 21.4 Mycoses of the Skin
    6. 21.5 Protozoan and Helminthic Infections of the Skin and Eyes
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  23. 22 Respiratory System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Respiratory Tract
    3. 22.2 Bacterial Infections of the Respiratory Tract
    4. 22.3 Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract
    5. 22.4 Respiratory Mycoses
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  24. 23 Urogenital System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Urogenital Tract
    3. 23.2 Bacterial Infections of the Urinary System
    4. 23.3 Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System
    5. 23.4 Viral Infections of the Reproductive System
    6. 23.5 Fungal Infections of the Reproductive System
    7. 23.6 Protozoan Infections of the Urogenital System
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  25. 24 Digestive System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 24.1 Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Digestive System
    3. 24.2 Microbial Diseases of the Mouth and Oral Cavity
    4. 24.3 Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    5. 24.4 Viral Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    6. 24.5 Protozoan Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    7. 24.6 Helminthic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  26. 25 Circulatory and Lymphatic System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 25.1 Anatomy of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    3. 25.2 Bacterial Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    4. 25.3 Viral Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    5. 25.4 Parasitic Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Fill in the Blank
      3. Short Answer
      4. Critical Thinking
  27. 26 Nervous System Infections
    1. Introduction
    2. 26.1 Anatomy of the Nervous System
    3. 26.2 Bacterial Diseases of the Nervous System
    4. 26.3 Acellular Diseases of the Nervous System
    5. 26.4 Fungal and Parasitic Diseases of the Nervous System
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Matching
      3. Fill in the Blank
      4. Short Answer
      5. Critical Thinking
  28. A | Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry Important to Microbiology
  29. B | Mathematical Basics
  30. C | Metabolic Pathways
  31. D | Taxonomy of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms
  32. E | Glossary
  33. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
  34. Index

Learning Objectives

  • Identify cells that express MHC I and/or MHC II molecules and describe the structures and cellular location of MHC I and MHC II molecules
  • Identify the cells that are antigen-presenting cells
  • Describe the process of antigen processing and presentation with MHC I and MHC II

As discussed in Cellular Defenses, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are expressed on the surface of healthy cells, identifying them as normal and “self” to natural killer (NK) cells. MHC molecules also play an important role in the presentation of foreign antigens, which is a critical step in the activation of T cells and thus an important mechanism of the adaptive immune system.

Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a collection of genes coding for MHC molecules found on the surface of all nucleated cells of the body. In humans, the MHC genes are also referred to as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Mature red blood cells, which lack a nucleus, are the only cells that do not express MHC molecules on their surface.

There are two classes of MHC molecules involved in adaptive immunity, MHC I and MHC II (Figure 18.11). MHC I molecules are found on all nucleated cells; they present normal self-antigens as well as abnormal or nonself pathogens to the effector T cells involved in cellular immunity. In contrast, MHC II molecules are only found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells; they present abnormal or nonself pathogen antigens for the initial activation of T cells.

Both types of MHC molecules are transmembrane glycoproteins that assemble as dimers in the cytoplasmic membrane of cells, but their structures are quite different. MHC I molecules are composed of a longer α protein chain coupled with a smaller β2 microglobulin protein, and only the α chain spans the cytoplasmic membrane. The α chain of the MHC I molecule folds into three separate domains: α1, α2 and α3. MHC II molecules are composed of two protein chains (an α and a β chain) that are approximately similar in length. Both chains of the MHC II molecule possess portions that span the plasma membrane, and each chain folds into two separate domains: α1 and α2, and β1, and β2. In order to present abnormal or non-self-antigens to T cells, MHC molecules have a cleft that serves as the antigen-binding site near the “top” (or outermost) portion of the MHC-I or MHC-II dimer. For MHC I, the antigen-binding cleft is formed by the α1 and α2 domains, whereas for MHC II, the cleft is formed by the α1 and β1 domains (Figure 18.11).

Drawing of a phospholipid bilayer (plasma membrane). An MHC Class I protein molecule is found in all nucleated body cells. It has a linear portion in the membrane and four portions on the outer side of the cell. One of these portions connects to the membrane spanning portion; two form the antigen binding site; and the fourth is labeled the Beta-2 microglobulin. MHC Class II protein molecules are found in lymphocytes and macrophages. This has two membrane spanning portions (each attached to a portion on the outside of the cell). The two portions attached to these form the antigen binding site.
Figure 18.11 MHC I are found on all nucleated body cells, and MHC II are found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells (along with MHC I). The antigen-binding cleft of MHC I is formed by domains α1 and α2. The antigen-binding cleft of MHC II is formed by domains α1 and β1.

Check Your Understanding

  • Compare the structures of the MHC I and MHC II molecules.

Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs)

All nucleated cells in the body have mechanisms for processing and presenting antigens in association with MHC molecules. This signals the immune system, indicating whether the cell is normal and healthy or infected with an intracellular pathogen. However, only macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells have the ability to present antigens specifically for the purpose of activating T cells; for this reason, these types of cells are sometimes referred to as antigen-presenting cells (APCs).

While all APCs play a similar role in adaptive immunity, there are some important differences to consider. Macrophages and dendritic cells are phagocytes that ingest and kill pathogens that penetrate the first-line barriers (i.e., skin and mucous membranes). B cells, on the other hand, do not function as phagocytes but play a primary role in the production and secretion of antibodies. In addition, whereas macrophages and dendritic cells recognize pathogens through nonspecific receptor interactions (e.g., PAMPs, toll-like receptors, and receptors for opsonizing complement or antibody), B cells interact with foreign pathogens or their free antigens using antigen-specific immunoglobulin as receptors (monomeric IgD and IgM). When the immunoglobulin receptors bind to an antigen, the B cell internalizes the antigen by endocytosis before processing and presentting the antigen to T cells.

Antigen Presentation with MHC II Molecules

MHC II molecules are only found on the surface of APCs. Macrophages and dendritic cells use similar mechanisms for processing and presentation of antigens and their epitopes in association with MHC II; B cells use somewhat different mechanisms that will be described further in B Lymphocytes and Humoral Immunity. For now, we will focus on the steps of the process as they pertain to dendritic cells.

After a dendritic cell recognizes and attaches to a pathogen cell, the pathogen is internalized by phagocytosis and is initially contained within a phagosome. Lysosomes containing antimicrobial enzymes and chemicals fuse with the phagosome to create a phagolysosome, where degradation of the pathogen for antigen processing begins. Proteases (protein-degrading) are especially important in antigen processing because only protein antigen epitopes are presented to T cells by MHC II (Figure 18.12).

APCs do not present all possible epitopes to T cells; only a selection of the most antigenic or immunodominant epitopes are presented. The mechanism by which epitopes are selected for processing and presentation by an APC is complicated and not well understood; however, once the most antigenic, immunodominant epitopes have been processed, they associate within the antigen-binding cleft of MHC II molecules and are translocated to the cell surface of the dendritic cell for presentation to T cells.

The process of phagocytosis. 1: A bacterium is engulfed by phagocytosis into a dendritic cell and is encased in a phagosome. 2: Lysosomes fuse with the phagosome and digest the bacterium. 3: Immunodominant epitopes are associated with MHC II and presented on the cell surface.
Figure 18.12 A dendritic cell phagocytoses a bacterial cell and brings it into a phagosome. Lysosomes fuse with the phagosome to create a phagolysosome, where antimicrobial chemicals and enzymes degrade the bacterial cell. Proteases process bacterial antigens, and the most antigenic epitopes are selected and presented on the cell’s surface in conjunction with MHC II molecules. T cells recognize the presented antigens and are thus activated.

Check Your Understanding

  • What are the three kinds of APCs?
  • What role to MHC II molecules play in antigen presentation?
  • What is the role of antigen presentation in adaptive immunity?

Antigen Presentation with MHC I Molecules

MHC I molecules, found on all normal, healthy, nucleated cells, signal to the immune system that the cell is a normal “self” cell. In a healthy cell, proteins normally found in the cytoplasm are degraded by proteasomes (enzyme complexes responsible for degradation and processing of proteins) and processed into self-antigen epitopes; these self-antigen epitopes bind within the MHC I antigen-binding cleft and are then presented on the cell surface. Immune cells, such as NK cells, recognize these self-antigens and do not target the cell for destruction. However, if a cell becomes infected with an intracellular pathogen (e.g., a virus), protein antigens specific to the pathogen are processed in the proteasomes and bind with MHC I molecules for presentation on the cell surface. This presentation of pathogen-specific antigens with MHC I signals that the infected cell must be targeted for destruction along with the pathogen.

Before elimination of infected cells can begin, APCs must first activate the T cells involved in cellular immunity. If an intracellular pathogen directly infects the cytoplasm of an APC, then the processing and presentation of antigens can occur as described (in proteasomes and on the cell surface with MHC I). However, if the intracellular pathogen does not directly infect APCs, an alternative strategy called cross-presentation is utilized. In cross-presentation, antigens are brought into the APC by mechanisms normally leading to presentation with MHC II (i.e., through phagocytosis), but the antigen is presented on an MHC I molecule for CD8 T cells. The exact mechanisms by which cross-presentation occur are not yet well understood, but it appears that cross-presentation is primarily a function of dendritic cells and not macrophages or B cells.

Check Your Understanding

  • Compare and contrast antigen processing and presentation associated with MHC I and MHC II molecules.
  • What is cross-presentation, and when is it likely to occur?
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