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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Check Your Understanding

12.1

1.41 meters

12.2

μ0I2Rμ0I2R

12.3

4 amps flowing out of the page

12.4

Both have a force per unit length of 9.23×10−12N/m9.23×10−12N/m

12.5

0.608 meters

12.6

In these cases the integrals around the Ampèrian loop are very difficult because there is no symmetry, so this method would not be useful.

12.7

a. 1.00382; b. 1.00015

12.8

a. 1.0×10−4T1.0×10−4T; b. 0.60 T; c. 6.0×1036.0×103

Conceptual Questions

1.

Biot-Savart law’s advantage is that it works with any magnetic field produced by a current loop. The disadvantage is that it can take a long time.

3.

If you were to go to the start of a line segment and calculate the angle θθ to be approximately 0°0°, the wire can be considered infinite. This judgment is based also on the precision you need in the result.

5.

You would make sure the currents flow perpendicular to one another.

7.

A magnetic field line gives the direction of the magnetic field at any point in space. The density of magnetic field lines indicates the strength of the magnetic field.

9.

The spring reduces in length since each coil with have a north pole-produced magnetic field next to a south pole of the next coil.

11.

Ampère’s law is valid for all closed paths, but it is not useful for calculating fields when the magnetic field produced lacks symmetry that can be exploited by a suitable choice of path.

13.

If there is no current inside the loop, there is no magnetic field (see Ampère’s law). Outside the pipe, there may be an enclosed current through the copper pipe, so the magnetic field may not be zero outside the pipe.

15.

The bar magnet will then become two magnets, each with their own north and south poles. There are no magnetic monopoles or single pole magnets.

Problems

17.

5.66×10−5T5.66×10−5T

19.

B=μoI8(1a1b)B=μoI8(1a1b) out of the page

21.

a=2Rπa=2Rπ; the current in the wire to the right must flow up the page.

23.

20 A

25.

Both answers have the magnitude of magnetic field of 4.5×10−5T.4.5×10−5T.

27.

At P1, the net magnetic field is zero. At P2, B=3μoI8πaB=3μoI8πa into the page.

29.

The magnetic field is at a minimum at distance a from the top wire, or half-way between the wires.

31.

a. F/l=8×10−6N/mF/l=8×10−6N/m away from the other wire; b. F/l=8×10−6N/mF/l=8×10−6N/m toward the other wire

33.

B=μoI2πa2b((a2+b2)i^+b(a2b2)j^)B=μoI2πa2b((a2+b2)i^+b(a2b2)j^)

35.

0.019 m

37.

N×6.28×10−5TN×6.28×10−5T

39.

B=μoIR2((d2)2+R2)3/2B=μoIR2((d2)2+R2)3/2

41.

a. μ0I;μ0I; b. 0; c. μ0I;μ0I; d. 0

43.

a. 3μ0I;3μ0I; b. 0; c. 7μ0I;7μ0I; d. −2μ0I−2μ0I

45.

at the radius R

47.
Graph shows the variation of B with r. B linearly increases with r until the point a. Then it starts to decreases proportionally to the inverse of r.
49.

B=1.3×10−2TB=1.3×10−2T

51.

roughly eight turns per cm

53.

B=12μ0nIB=12μ0nI

55.

0.0181 A

57.

0.0008 T

59.

317.31

61.

2.1×10−4A·m22.1×10−4A·m2
2.7A2.7A

63.

0.18 T

Additional Problems

65.

B=1.4×10−4TB=1.4×10−4T

67.

3.2×10−19N3.2×10−19N in an arc away from the wire

69.

a. above and below B=μ0j,B=μ0j, in the middle B=0;B=0; b. above and below B=0,B=0, in the middle B=μ0jB=μ0j

71.

dBB=drrdBB=drr

73.

a. 5026 turns; b. 0.00957 T

75.

B1(x)=μ0IR22(R2+z2)3/2B1(x)=μ0IR22(R2+z2)3/2

77.

B=μ0σω2RB=μ0σω2R

79.

derivation

81.

derivation

83.

As the radial distance goes to infinity, the magnetic fields of each of these formulae go to zero.

85.

a. B=μ0I2πrB=μ0I2πr; b. B=μ0J0r23RB=μ0J0r23R

87.

B(r)=μ0NI/2πrB(r)=μ0NI/2πr

This figure shows a torus with the inner radius a and an outer radius b. A thin wire is wound evenly on the torus.

Challenge Problems

89.

B=μ0I2πalnx+ax.B=μ0I2πalnx+ax.

91.

a. B=μ0σω2[2h2+R2R2+h2−2h]B=μ0σω2[2h2+R2R2+h2−2h]; b. B=4.09×10−5T,B=4.09×10−5T, 82% of Earth’s magnetic field

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