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University Physics Volume 2

Additional Problems

University Physics Volume 2Additional Problems
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Additional Problems

65.

Three long, straight, parallel wires, all carrying 20 A, are positioned as shown in the accompanying figure. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field at the point P?

This figure shows three long, straight, parallel wires. Each wire forms a vertex of an equilateral triangle with 10 centimeter sides. Point P is the center of a triangle.
66.

A current I flows around a wire bent into the shape of a square of side a. What is the magnetic field at the point P that is a distance z above the center of the square (see the accompanying figure)?

This figure shows a wire bent into the shape of a rhombus of side a. Point P that is a distance z above the center of the rhombus.
67.

The accompanying figure shows a long, straight wire carrying a current of 10 A. What is the magnetic force on an electron at the instant it is 20 cm from the wire, traveling parallel to the wire with a speed of 2.0×105m/s?2.0×105m/s? Describe qualitatively the subsequent motion of the electron.

Figure shows a long, straight wire carrying a current. An electron is located 20 cm from the wire and travels parallel to it.
68.

Current flows along a thin, infinite sheet as shown in the accompanying figure. The current per unit length along the sheet is J in amperes per meter. (a) Use the Biot-Savart law to show that B=μ0J/2B=μ0J/2 on either side of the sheet. What is the direction of BB on each side? (b) Now use Ampère’s law to calculate the field.

Figure shows current flowing along a thin, infinite sheet.
69.

(a) Use the result of the previous problem to calculate the magnetic field between, above, and below the pair of infinite sheets shown in the accompanying figure. (b) Repeat your calculations if the direction of the current in the lower sheet is reversed.

Figure shows currents flowing along two thin, infinite sheets. Sheets are located in the parallel planes and current flows in the same direction.
70.

We often assume that the magnetic field is uniform in a region and zero everywhere else. Show that in reality it is impossible for a magnetic field to drop abruptly to zero, as illustrated in the accompanying figure. (Hint: Apply Ampère’s law over the path shown.)

Figure shows the magnetic field that is perpendicular to the rectangular current path and intersects it.
71.

How is the fractional change in the strength of the magnetic field across the face of the toroid related to the fractional change in the radial distance from the axis of the toroid?

72.

Show that the expression for the magnetic field of a toroid reduces to that for the field of an infinite solenoid in the limit that the central radius goes to infinity.

73.

A toroid with an inner radius of 20 cm and an outer radius of 22 cm is tightly wound with one layer of wire that has a diameter of 0.25 mm. (a) How many turns are there on the toroid? (b) If the current through the toroid windings is 2.0 A, what is the strength of the magnetic field at the center of the toroid?

74.

A wire element has dl,Idl=JAdl=Jdv,dl,Idl=JAdl=Jdv, where A and dv are the cross-sectional area and volume of the element, respectively. Use this, the Biot-Savart law, and J=nevJ=nev to show that the magnetic field of a moving point charge q is given by:
B=μ04πqv×r^r2B=μ04πqv×r^r2

75.

A reasonably uniform magnetic field over a limited region of space can be produced with the Helmholtz coil, which consists of two parallel coils centered on the same axis. The coils are connected so that they carry the same current I. Each coil has N turns and radius R, which is also the distance between the coils. (a) Find the magnetic field at any point on the z-axis shown in the accompanying figure. (b) Show that dB/dz and d2Bdz2d2Bdz2 are both zero at z = 0. (These vanishing derivatives demonstrate that the magnetic field varies only slightly near z = 0.)

This picture shows two parallel coils centered on the same axis that carry the same current I. Each coil has radius R, which is also the distance between the coils.
76.

A charge of 4.0μC4.0μC is distributed uniformly around a thin ring of insulating material. The ring has a radius of 0.20 m and rotates at 2.0×104rev/min2.0×104rev/min around the axis that passes through its center and is perpendicular to the plane of the ring. What is the magnetic field at the center of the ring?

77.

A thin, nonconducting disk of radius R is free to rotate around the axis that passes through its center and is perpendicular to the face of the disk. The disk is charged uniformly with a total charge q. If the disk rotates at a constant angular velocity ω,ω, what is the magnetic field at its center?

78.

Consider the disk in the previous problem. Calculate the magnetic field at a point on its central axis that is a distance y above the disk.

79.

Consider the axial magnetic field By=μ0IR2/2(y2+R2)3/2By=μ0IR2/2(y2+R2)3/2 of the circular current loop shown below. (a) Evaluate aaBydy.aaBydy. Also show that limaaaBydy=μ0I.limaaaBydy=μ0I. (b) Can you deduce this limit without evaluating the integral? (Hint: See the accompanying figure.)

This picture shows the circular current loop I with the magnetic field B perpendicular to the plane of the loop.
80.

The current density in the long, cylindrical wire shown in the accompanying figure varies with distance r from the center of the wire according to J=cr,J=cr, where c is a constant. (a) What is the current through the wire? (b) What is the magnetic field produced by this current for rR?rR? For rR?rR?

This figure shows a long, straight, cylindrical wire with a radius R that has current I flowing through it.
81.

A long, straight, cylindrical conductor contains a cylindrical cavity whose axis is displaced by a from the axis of the conductor, as shown in the accompanying figure. The current density in the conductor is given by J=J0k^,J=J0k^, where J0J0 is a constant and k^k^ is along the axis of the conductor. Calculate the magnetic field at an arbitrary point P in the cavity by superimposing the field of a solid cylindrical conductor with radius R1R1 and current density JJ onto the field of a solid cylindrical conductor with radius R2R2 and current density J.J. Then use the fact that the appropriate azimuthal unit vectors can be expressed as θ^1=k^×r^1θ^1=k^×r^1 and θ^2=k^×r^2θ^2=k^×r^2 to show that everywhere inside the cavity the magnetic field is given by the constant B=12μ0J0k×a,B=12μ0J0k×a, where a=r1r2a=r1r2 and r1=r1r^1r1=r1r^1 is the position of P relative to the center of the conductor and r2=r2r^2r2=r2r^2 is the position of P relative to the center of the cavity.

This figure shows a large circle with a radius R1 that has a circular hole of radius R2 in it at a distance a from the center. Point P is located in a hole at the distance r2 from the center of a hole and at a distance r1 from the center of a large circle.
82.

Between the two ends of a horseshoe magnet the field is uniform as shown in the diagram. As you move out to outside edges, the field bends. Show by Ampère’s law that the field must bend and thereby the field weakens due to these bends.

This figure shows a horse shoe magnet with the magnetic lines going from the North end to the South end.
83.

Show that the magnetic field of a thin wire and that of a current loop are zero if you are infinitely far away.

84.

An Ampère loop is chosen as shown by dashed lines for a parallel constant magnetic field as shown by solid arrows. Calculate B·dlB·dl for each side of the loop then find the entire B·dl.B·dl. Can you think of an Ampère loop that would make the problem easier? Do those results match these?

This figure shows an Ampere loop that is located in the constant magnetic field. One of the sides of the loop forms an angle theta with the magnetic line.
85.

A very long, thick cylindrical wire of radius R carries a current density J that varies across its cross-section. The magnitude of the current density at a point a distance r from the center of the wire is given by J=J0rR,J=J0rR, where J0J0 is a constant. Find the magnetic field (a) at a point outside the wire and (b) at a point inside the wire. Write your answer in terms of the net current I through the wire.

86.

A very long, cylindrical wire of radius a has a circular hole of radius b in it at a distance d from the center. The wire carries a uniform current of magnitude I through it. The direction of the current in the figure is out of the paper. Find the magnetic field (a) at a point at the edge of the hole closest to the center of the thick wire, (b) at an arbitrary point inside the hole, and (c) at an arbitrary point outside the wire. (Hint: Think of the hole as a sum of two wires carrying current in the opposite directions.)

This figure shows a circle with a radius a that has a circular hole of radius b in it at a distance d from the center.
87.

Magnetic field inside a torus. Consider a torus of rectangular cross-section with inner radius a and outer radius b. N turns of an insulated thin wire are wound evenly on the torus tightly all around the torus and connected to a battery producing a steady current I in the wire. Assume that the current on the top and bottom surfaces in the figure is radial, and the current on the inner and outer radii surfaces is vertical. Find the magnetic field inside the torus as a function of radial distance r from the axis.

88.

Two long coaxial copper tubes, each of length L, are connected to a battery of voltage V. The inner tube has inner radius a and outer radius b, and the outer tube has inner radius c and outer radius d. The tubes are then disconnected from the battery and rotated in the same direction at angular speed of ωω radians per second about their common axis. Find the magnetic field (a) at a point inside the space enclosed by the inner tube r<a,r<a, and (b) at a point between the tubes b<r<c,b<r<c, and (c) at a point outside the tubes r>d.r>d. (Hint: Think of copper tubes as a capacitor and find the charge density based on the voltage applied, Q=VC,Q=VC, C=2πε0Lln(c/b).)C=2πε0Lln(c/b).)

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