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Organic Chemistry

24.6 Synthesis of Amines

Organic Chemistry24.6 Synthesis of Amines

Table of contents
  1. Dedication and Preface
  2. 1 Structure and Bonding
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 1.1 Atomic Structure: The Nucleus
    3. 1.2 Atomic Structure: Orbitals
    4. 1.3 Atomic Structure: Electron Configurations
    5. 1.4 Development of Chemical Bonding Theory
    6. 1.5 Describing Chemical Bonds: Valence Bond Theory
    7. 1.6 sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Methane
    8. 1.7 sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethane
    9. 1.8 sp2 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethylene
    10. 1.9 sp Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Acetylene
    11. 1.10 Hybridization of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
    12. 1.11 Describing Chemical Bonds: Molecular Orbital Theory
    13. 1.12 Drawing Chemical Structures
    14. Chemistry Matters—Organic Foods: Risk versus Benefit
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  3. 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 2.1 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity
    3. 2.2 Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments
    4. 2.3 Formal Charges
    5. 2.4 Resonance
    6. 2.5 Rules for Resonance Forms
    7. 2.6 Drawing Resonance Forms
    8. 2.7 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted–Lowry Definition
    9. 2.8 Acid and Base Strength
    10. 2.9 Predicting Acid–Base Reactions from pKa Values
    11. 2.10 Organic Acids and Organic Bases
    12. 2.11 Acids and Bases: The Lewis Definition
    13. 2.12 Noncovalent Interactions between Molecules
    14. Chemistry Matters—Alkaloids: From Cocaine to Dental Anesthetics
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  4. 3 Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 3.1 Functional Groups
    3. 3.2 Alkanes and Alkane Isomers
    4. 3.3 Alkyl Groups
    5. 3.4 Naming Alkanes
    6. 3.5 Properties of Alkanes
    7. 3.6 Conformations of Ethane
    8. 3.7 Conformations of Other Alkanes
    9. Chemistry Matters—Gasoline
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  5. 4 Organic Compounds: Cycloalkanes and Their Stereochemistry
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 4.1 Naming Cycloalkanes
    3. 4.2 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Cycloalkanes
    4. 4.3 Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain
    5. 4.4 Conformations of Cycloalkanes
    6. 4.5 Conformations of Cyclohexane
    7. 4.6 Axial and Equatorial Bonds in Cyclohexane
    8. 4.7 Conformations of Monosubstituted Cyclohexanes
    9. 4.8 Conformations of Disubstituted Cyclohexanes
    10. 4.9 Conformations of Polycyclic Molecules
    11. Chemistry Matters—Molecular Mechanics
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Additional Problems
  6. 5 Stereochemistry at Tetrahedral Centers
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 5.1 Enantiomers and the Tetrahedral Carbon
    3. 5.2 The Reason for Handedness in Molecules: Chirality
    4. 5.3 Optical Activity
    5. 5.4 Pasteur’s Discovery of Enantiomers
    6. 5.5 Sequence Rules for Specifying Configuration
    7. 5.6 Diastereomers
    8. 5.7 Meso Compounds
    9. 5.8 Racemic Mixtures and the Resolution of Enantiomers
    10. 5.9 A Review of Isomerism
    11. 5.10 Chirality at Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
    12. 5.11 Prochirality
    13. 5.12 Chirality in Nature and Chiral Environments
    14. Chemistry Matters—Chiral Drugs
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  7. 6 An Overview of Organic Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 6.1 Kinds of Organic Reactions
    3. 6.2 How Organic Reactions Occur: Mechanisms
    4. 6.3 Polar Reactions
    5. 6.4 An Example of a Polar Reaction: Addition of HBr to Ethylene
    6. 6.5 Using Curved Arrows in Polar Reaction Mechanisms
    7. 6.6 Radical Reactions
    8. 6.7 Describing a Reaction: Equilibria, Rates, and Energy Changes
    9. 6.8 Describing a Reaction: Bond Dissociation Energies
    10. 6.9 Describing a Reaction: Energy Diagrams and Transition States
    11. 6.10 Describing a Reaction: Intermediates
    12. 6.11 A Comparison Between Biological Reactions and Laboratory Reactions
    13. Chemistry Matters—Where Do Drugs Come From?
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Additional Problems
  8. 7 Alkenes: Structure and Reactivity
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 7.1 Industrial Preparation and Use of Alkenes
    3. 7.2 Calculating the Degree of Unsaturation
    4. 7.3 Naming Alkenes
    5. 7.4 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Alkenes
    6. 7.5 Alkene Stereochemistry and the E,Z Designation
    7. 7.6 Stability of Alkenes
    8. 7.7 Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Alkenes
    9. 7.8 Orientation of Electrophilic Additions: Markovnikov’s Rule
    10. 7.9 Carbocation Structure and Stability
    11. 7.10 The Hammond Postulate
    12. 7.11 Evidence for the Mechanism of Electrophilic Additions: Carbocation Rearrangements
    13. Chemistry Matters—Bioprospecting: Hunting for Natural Products
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Additional Problems
  9. 8 Alkenes: Reactions and Synthesis
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 8.1 Preparing Alkenes: A Preview of Elimination Reactions
    3. 8.2 Halogenation of Alkenes: Addition of X2
    4. 8.3 Halohydrins from Alkenes: Addition of HO-X
    5. 8.4 Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of H2O by Oxymercuration
    6. 8.5 Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of H2O by Hydroboration
    7. 8.6 Reduction of Alkenes: Hydrogenation
    8. 8.7 Oxidation of Alkenes: Epoxidation and Hydroxylation
    9. 8.8 Oxidation of Alkenes: Cleavage to Carbonyl Compounds
    10. 8.9 Addition of Carbenes to Alkenes: Cyclopropane Synthesis
    11. 8.10 Radical Additions to Alkenes: Chain-Growth Polymers
    12. 8.11 Biological Additions of Radicals to Alkenes
    13. 8.12 Reaction Stereochemistry: Addition of H2O to an Achiral Alkene
    14. 8.13 Reaction Stereochemistry: Addition of H2O to a Chiral Alkene
    15. Chemistry Matters—Terpenes: Naturally Occurring Alkenes
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Summary of Reactions
    19. Additional Problems
  10. 9 Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 9.1 Naming Alkynes
    3. 9.2 Preparation of Alkynes: Elimination Reactions of Dihalides
    4. 9.3 Reactions of Alkynes: Addition of HX and X2
    5. 9.4 Hydration of Alkynes
    6. 9.5 Reduction of Alkynes
    7. 9.6 Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes
    8. 9.7 Alkyne Acidity: Formation of Acetylide Anions
    9. 9.8 Alkylation of Acetylide Anions
    10. 9.9 An Introduction to Organic Synthesis
    11. Chemistry Matters—The Art of Organic Synthesis
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Summary of Reactions
    15. Additional Problems
  11. 10 Organohalides
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 10.1 Names and Structures of Alkyl Halides
    3. 10.2 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alkanes: Radical Halogenation
    4. 10.3 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alkenes: Allylic Bromination
    5. 10.4 Stability of the Allyl Radical: Resonance Revisited
    6. 10.5 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alcohols
    7. 10.6 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Grignard Reagents
    8. 10.7 Organometallic Coupling Reactions
    9. 10.8 Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry
    10. Chemistry Matters—Naturally Occurring Organohalides
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
  12. 11 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Nucleophilic Substitutions and Eliminations
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 11.1 The Discovery of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
    3. 11.2 The SN2 Reaction
    4. 11.3 Characteristics of the SN2 Reaction
    5. 11.4 The SN1 Reaction
    6. 11.5 Characteristics of the SN1 Reaction
    7. 11.6 Biological Substitution Reactions
    8. 11.7 Elimination Reactions: Zaitsev’s Rule
    9. 11.8 The E2 Reaction and the Deuterium Isotope Effect
    10. 11.9 The E2 Reaction and Cyclohexane Conformation
    11. 11.10 The E1 and E1cB Reactions
    12. 11.11 Biological Elimination Reactions
    13. 11.12 A Summary of Reactivity: SN1, SN2, E1, E1cB, and E2
    14. Chemistry Matters—Green Chemistry
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Summary of Reactions
    18. Additional Problems
  13. 12 Structure Determination: Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 12.1 Mass Spectrometry of Small Molecules: Magnetic-Sector Instruments
    3. 12.2 Interpreting Mass Spectra
    4. 12.3 Mass Spectrometry of Some Common Functional Groups
    5. 12.4 Mass Spectrometry in Biological Chemistry: Time-of-Flight (TOF) Instruments
    6. 12.5 Spectroscopy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    7. 12.6 Infrared Spectroscopy
    8. 12.7 Interpreting Infrared Spectra
    9. 12.8 Infrared Spectra of Some Common Functional Groups
    10. Chemistry Matters—X-Ray Crystallography
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Problems
  14. 13 Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 13.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    3. 13.2 The Nature of NMR Absorptions
    4. 13.3 Chemical Shifts
    5. 13.4 Chemical Shifts in 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    6. 13.5 Integration of 1H NMR Absorptions: Proton Counting
    7. 13.6 Spin–Spin Splitting in 1H NMR Spectra
    8. 13.7 1H NMR Spectroscopy and Proton Equivalence
    9. 13.8 More Complex Spin–Spin Splitting Patterns
    10. 13.9 Uses of 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    11. 13.10 13C NMR Spectroscopy: Signal Averaging and FT–NMR
    12. 13.11 Characteristics of 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    13. 13.12 DEPT 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    14. 13.13 Uses of 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    15. Chemistry Matters—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Additional Problems
  15. 14 Conjugated Compounds and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 14.1 Stability of Conjugated Dienes: Molecular Orbital Theory
    3. 14.2 Electrophilic Additions to Conjugated Dienes: Allylic Carbocations
    4. 14.3 Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control of Reactions
    5. 14.4 The Diels–Alder Cycloaddition Reaction
    6. 14.5 Characteristics of the Diels–Alder Reaction
    7. 14.6 Diene Polymers: Natural and Synthetic Rubbers
    8. 14.7 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
    9. 14.8 Interpreting Ultraviolet Spectra: The Effect of Conjugation
    10. 14.9 Conjugation, Color, and the Chemistry of Vision
    11. Chemistry Matters—Photolithography
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Summary of Reactions
    15. Additional Problems
  16. 15 Benzene and Aromaticity
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 15.1 Naming Aromatic Compounds
    3. 15.2 Structure and Stability of Benzene
    4. 15.3 Aromaticity and the Hückel 4n + 2 Rule
    5. 15.4 Aromatic Ions
    6. 15.5 Aromatic Heterocycles: Pyridine and Pyrrole
    7. 15.6 Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
    8. 15.7 Spectroscopy of Aromatic Compounds
    9. Chemistry Matters—Aspirin, NSAIDs, and COX-2 Inhibitors
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  17. 16 Chemistry of Benzene: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 16.1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions: Bromination
    3. 16.2 Other Aromatic Substitutions
    4. 16.3 Alkylation and Acylation of Aromatic Rings: The Friedel–Crafts Reaction
    5. 16.4 Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Substitutions
    6. 16.5 Trisubstituted Benzenes: Additivity of Effects
    7. 16.6 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution
    8. 16.7 Benzyne
    9. 16.8 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds
    10. 16.9 Reduction of Aromatic Compounds
    11. 16.10 Synthesis of Polysubstituted Benzenes
    12. Chemistry Matters—Combinatorial Chemistry
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  18. 17 Alcohols and Phenols
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 17.1 Naming Alcohols and Phenols
    3. 17.2 Properties of Alcohols and Phenols
    4. 17.3 Preparation of Alcohols: A Review
    5. 17.4 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Reduction
    6. 17.5 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Grignard Reaction
    7. 17.6 Reactions of Alcohols
    8. 17.7 Oxidation of Alcohols
    9. 17.8 Protection of Alcohols
    10. 17.9 Phenols and Their Uses
    11. 17.10 Reactions of Phenols
    12. 17.11 Spectroscopy of Alcohols and Phenols
    13. Chemistry Matters—Ethanol: Chemical, Drug, and Poison
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Summary of Reactions
    17. Additional Problems
  19. 18 Ethers and Epoxides; Thiols and Sulfides
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 18.1 Names and Properties of Ethers
    3. 18.2 Preparing Ethers
    4. 18.3 Reactions of Ethers: Acidic Cleavage
    5. 18.4 Cyclic Ethers: Epoxides
    6. 18.5 Reactions of Epoxides: Ring-Opening
    7. 18.6 Crown Ethers
    8. 18.7 Thiols and Sulfides
    9. 18.8 Spectroscopy of Ethers
    10. Chemistry Matters—Epoxy Resins and Adhesives
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
    15. Preview of Carbonyl Chemistry
  20. 19 Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 19.1 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
    3. 19.2 Preparing Aldehydes and Ketones
    4. 19.3 Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    5. 19.4 Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
    6. 19.5 Nucleophilic Addition of H2O: Hydration
    7. 19.6 Nucleophilic Addition of HCN: Cyanohydrin Formation
    8. 19.7 Nucleophilic Addition of Hydride and Grignard Reagents: Alcohol Formation
    9. 19.8 Nucleophilic Addition of Amines: Imine and Enamine Formation
    10. 19.9 Nucleophilic Addition of Hydrazine: The Wolff–Kishner Reaction
    11. 19.10 Nucleophilic Addition of Alcohols: Acetal Formation
    12. 19.11 Nucleophilic Addition of Phosphorus Ylides: The Wittig Reaction
    13. 19.12 Biological Reductions
    14. 19.13 Conjugate Nucleophilic Addition to α,β‑Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones
    15. 19.14 Spectroscopy of Aldehydes and Ketones
    16. Chemistry Matters—Enantioselective Synthesis
    17. Key Terms
    18. Summary
    19. Summary of Reactions
    20. Additional Problems
  21. 20 Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 20.1 Naming Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    3. 20.2 Structure and Properties of Carboxylic Acids
    4. 20.3 Biological Acids and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    5. 20.4 Substituent Effects on Acidity
    6. 20.5 Preparing Carboxylic Acids
    7. 20.6 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids: An Overview
    8. 20.7 Chemistry of Nitriles
    9. 20.8 Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    10. Chemistry Matters—Vitamin C
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
  22. 21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 21.1 Naming Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    3. 21.2 Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions
    4. 21.3 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids
    5. 21.4 Chemistry of Acid Halides
    6. 21.5 Chemistry of Acid Anhydrides
    7. 21.6 Chemistry of Esters
    8. 21.7 Chemistry of Amides
    9. 21.8 Chemistry of Thioesters and Acyl Phosphates: Biological Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    10. 21.9 Polyamides and Polyesters: Step-Growth Polymers
    11. 21.10 Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    12. Chemistry Matters—β-Lactam Antibiotics
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  23. 22 Carbonyl Alpha-Substitution Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 22.1 Keto–Enol Tautomerism
    3. 22.2 Reactivity of Enols: α-Substitution Reactions
    4. 22.3 Alpha Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    5. 22.4 Alpha Bromination of Carboxylic Acids
    6. 22.5 Acidity of Alpha Hydrogen Atoms: Enolate Ion Formation
    7. 22.6 Reactivity of Enolate Ions
    8. 22.7 Alkylation of Enolate Ions
    9. Chemistry Matters—Barbiturates
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Summary of Reactions
    13. Additional Problems
  24. 23 Carbonyl Condensation Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 23.1 Carbonyl Condensations: The Aldol Reaction
    3. 23.2 Carbonyl Condensations versus Alpha Substitutions
    4. 23.3 Dehydration of Aldol Products: Synthesis of Enones
    5. 23.4 Using Aldol Reactions in Synthesis
    6. 23.5 Mixed Aldol Reactions
    7. 23.6 Intramolecular Aldol Reactions
    8. 23.7 The Claisen Condensation Reaction
    9. 23.8 Mixed Claisen Condensations
    10. 23.9 Intramolecular Claisen Condensations: The Dieckmann Cyclization
    11. 23.10 Conjugate Carbonyl Additions: The Michael Reaction
    12. 23.11 Carbonyl Condensations with Enamines: The Stork Enamine Reaction
    13. 23.12 The Robinson Annulation Reaction
    14. 23.13 Some Biological Carbonyl Condensation Reactions
    15. Chemistry Matters—A Prologue to Metabolism
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Summary of Reactions
    19. Additional Problems
  25. 24 Amines and Heterocycles
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 24.1 Naming Amines
    3. 24.2 Structure and Properties of Amines
    4. 24.3 Basicity of Amines
    5. 24.4 Basicity of Arylamines
    6. 24.5 Biological Amines and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    7. 24.6 Synthesis of Amines
    8. 24.7 Reactions of Amines
    9. 24.8 Reactions of Arylamines
    10. 24.9 Heterocyclic Amines
    11. 24.10 Spectroscopy of Amines
    12. Chemistry Matters—Green Chemistry II: Ionic Liquids
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  26. 25 Biomolecules: Carbohydrates
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 25.1 Classification of Carbohydrates
    3. 25.2 Representing Carbohydrate Stereochemistry: Fischer Projections
    4. 25.3 D,L Sugars
    5. 25.4 Configurations of the Aldoses
    6. 25.5 Cyclic Structures of Monosaccharides: Anomers
    7. 25.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides
    8. 25.7 The Eight Essential Monosaccharides
    9. 25.8 Disaccharides
    10. 25.9 Polysaccharides and Their Synthesis
    11. 25.10 Some Other Important Carbohydrates
    12. Chemistry Matters—Sweetness
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  27. 26 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 26.1 Structures of Amino Acids
    3. 26.2 Amino Acids and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation: Isoelectric Points
    4. 26.3 Synthesis of Amino Acids
    5. 26.4 Peptides and Proteins
    6. 26.5 Amino Acid Analysis of Peptides
    7. 26.6 Peptide Sequencing: The Edman Degradation
    8. 26.7 Peptide Synthesis
    9. 26.8 Automated Peptide Synthesis: The Merrifield Solid-Phase Method
    10. 26.9 Protein Structure
    11. 26.10 Enzymes and Coenzymes
    12. 26.11 How Do Enzymes Work? Citrate Synthase
    13. Chemistry Matters—The Protein Data Bank
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Summary of Reactions
    17. Additional Problems
  28. 27 Biomolecules: Lipids
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 27.1 Waxes, Fats, and Oils
    3. 27.2 Soap
    4. 27.3 Phospholipids
    5. 27.4 Prostaglandins and Other Eicosanoids
    6. 27.5 Terpenoids
    7. 27.6 Steroids
    8. 27.7 Biosynthesis of Steroids
    9. Chemistry Matters—Saturated Fats, Cholesterol, and Heart Disease
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  29. 28 Biomolecules: Nucleic Acids
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 28.1 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
    3. 28.2 Base Pairing in DNA
    4. 28.3 Replication of DNA
    5. 28.4 Transcription of DNA
    6. 28.5 Translation of RNA: Protein Biosynthesis
    7. 28.6 DNA Sequencing
    8. 28.7 DNA Synthesis
    9. 28.8 The Polymerase Chain Reaction
    10. Chemistry Matters—DNA Fingerprinting
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Problems
  30. 29 The Organic Chemistry of Metabolic Pathways
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 29.1 An Overview of Metabolism and Biochemical Energy
    3. 29.2 Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: The Fate of Glycerol
    4. 29.3 Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: β-Oxidation
    5. 29.4 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids
    6. 29.5 Catabolism of Carbohydrates: Glycolysis
    7. 29.6 Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
    8. 29.7 The Citric Acid Cycle
    9. 29.8 Carbohydrate Biosynthesis: Gluconeogenesis
    10. 29.9 Catabolism of Proteins: Deamination
    11. 29.10 Some Conclusions about Biological Chemistry
    12. Chemistry Matters—Statin Drugs
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Additional Problems
  31. 30 Orbitals and Organic Chemistry: Pericyclic Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 30.1 Molecular Orbitals of Conjugated Pi Systems
    3. 30.2 Electrocyclic Reactions
    4. 30.3 Stereochemistry of Thermal Electrocyclic Reactions
    5. 30.4 Photochemical Electrocyclic Reactions
    6. 30.5 Cycloaddition Reactions
    7. 30.6 Stereochemistry of Cycloadditions
    8. 30.7 Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    9. 30.8 Some Examples of Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    10. 30.9 A Summary of Rules for Pericyclic Reactions
    11. Chemistry Matters—Vitamin D, the Sunshine Vitamin
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Additional Problems
  32. 31 Synthetic Polymers
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 31.1 Chain-Growth Polymers
    3. 31.2 Stereochemistry of Polymerization: Ziegler–Natta Catalysts
    4. 31.3 Copolymers
    5. 31.4 Step-Growth Polymers
    6. 31.5 Olefin Metathesis Polymerization
    7. 31.6 Intramolecular Olefin Metathesis
    8. 31.7 Polymer Structure and Physical Properties
    9. Chemistry Matters—Degradable Polymers
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  33. A | Nomenclature of Polyfunctional Organic Compounds
  34. B | Acidity Constants for Some Organic Compounds
  35. C | Glossary
  36. D | Periodic Table
  37. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
  38. Index

24.6 • Synthesis of Amines

Reduction of Nitriles, Amides, and Nitro Compounds

We’ve already seen in Section 20.7 and Section 21.7 how amines can be prepared by reduction of nitriles and amides with LiAlH4. The two-step sequence of SN2 displacement with CN followed by reduction thus converts an alkyl halide into a primary alkylamine having an additional carbon atom. Amide reduction converts carboxylic acids and their derivatives into amines with the same number of carbon atoms.

Alkyl halide reacts with sodium cyanide, then lithium aluminum hydride, then water. Carboxylic acid reacts with thionyl chloride, then ammonium, then lithium aluminum hydride, then water. Both form primary amine.

Arylamines are usually prepared by nitration of an aromatic starting material, followed by reduction of the nitro group (Section 16.2). The reduction step can be carried out in many different ways, depending on the circumstances. Catalytic hydrogenation over platinum works well but is often incompatible with the presence elsewhere in the molecule of other reducible groups, such as C=CC=C bonds or carbonyl groups. Iron, zinc, tin, and tin(II) chloride (SnCl2) are also effective when used in acidic aqueous solution. Tin(II) chloride is particularly mild and is often used when other reducible functional groups are present.

p-tert-Butylnitrobenzene reacts with hydrogen, platinum catalyst, and ethanol to form p-tert-butylaniline (100%). Meta-nitrobenzaldehyde reacts with tin(2) chloride and hydronium ion, then sodium hydroxide to form m-aminobenzaldehyde (90%).
Problem 24-8
Propose structures for either a nitrile or an amide that might be a precursor of each of the following amines:
Benzylamine, C6H5CH2NH2

SN2 Reactions of Alkyl Halides

Ammonia and other amines are good nucleophiles in SN2 reactions. As a result, the simplest method of alkylamine synthesis is by SN2 alkylation of ammonia or an alkylamine with an alkyl halide. If ammonia is used, a primary amine results; if a primary amine is used, a secondary amine results; and so on. Even tertiary amines react rapidly with alkyl halides to yield quaternary ammonium salts, R4N+ X.

Four reactions show formation of primary, secondary, tertiary amines and quaternary ammonium salt. Amine reacts with an alkyl halide to form a salt; reaction with sodium hydroxide forms an amine.

Unfortunately, these reactions don’t stop cleanly after a single alkylation has occurred. Because ammonia and primary amines have similar reactivity, the initially formed monoalkylated substance often undergoes further reaction to yield a mixture of products. Even secondary and tertiary amines undergo further alkylation, although to a lesser extent. For example, treatment of 1-bromooctane with a twofold excess of ammonia leads to a mixture containing only 45% octylamine. A nearly equal amount of dioctylamine is produced by double alkylation, along with smaller amounts of trioctylamine and tetraoctylammonium bromide.

1-Bromooctane reacts with ammonia to form octylamine with a 45 percent yield, and dioctylamine with a 43 percent yield. Trace amounts of trioctylamine and tetraoctylammonium bromide are formed.

A better method for preparing primary amines is to use azide ion, N3, rather than ammonia, as the nucleophile for SN2 reaction with a primary or secondary alkyl halide. The product is an alkyl azide, which is not nucleophilic, so overalkylation can’t occur. Subsequent reduction of the alkyl azide with LiAlH4 then leads to the desired primary amine. Although this method works well, low-molecular-weight alkyl azides are explosive and must be handled carefully.

1-Bromo-2-phenylethane reacts with sodium azide and ethanol to form 2-phenylethyl azide. This reacts with lithium aluminum hydride in ether, then water to form 2-phenylethylamine with 89 percent yield.

Another alternative for preparing a primary amine from an alkyl halide is the Gabriel amine synthesis, which uses a phthalimide alkylation. An imide (O=C–N–C=OO=C–N–C=O) is similar to a β-keto ester in that the acidic N–H hydrogen is flanked by two carbonyl groups. Thus, imides are deprotonated by such bases as KOH, and the resultant anions are readily alkylated in a reaction similar to acetoacetic ester synthesis (Section 22.7). Basic hydrolysis of the N-alkylated imide then yields a primary amine product. The imide hydrolysis step is analogous to the hydrolysis of an amide (Section 21.7).

Phthalimide reacts with potassium hydroxide and ethanol, then alkyl halide and N,N-dimethylformamide, then sodium hydroxide and water to form a primary amine.
Problem 24-9
Write the mechanism of the last step in Gabriel amine synthesis, the base-promoted hydrolysis of a phthalimide to yield an amine plus phthalate ion.
Problem 24-10

Show two methods for the synthesis of dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in regulation of the central nervous system. Use any alkyl halide needed.

The ball-and-stick model of dopamine. It comprises benzene ring with hydroxyl groups on C 1 and C 2, and C 4 has two methylene groups linked to an amine group.

Reductive Amination of Aldehydes and Ketones

Amines can be synthesized in a single step by treatment of an aldehyde or ketone with ammonia or an amine in the presence of a reducing agent, a process called reductive amination. For example, amphetamine, a central nervous system stimulant, is prepared commercially by reductive amination of phenyl-2-propanone with ammonia using hydrogen gas over a nickel catalyst as the reducing agent. In the laboratory, either NaBH4 or the related NaBH(OAc)3 is commonly used (OAc = acetate).

Phenyl-2-propanone reacts with ammonia, hydrogen, nickel or sodium borohydride to form amphetamine and water.

Reductive amination takes place by the pathway shown in Figure 24.6. An imine intermediate is first formed by a nucleophilic addition reaction (Section 19.8), and the C═NC═N bond of the imine is then reduced to the amine, much as the C═OC═O bond of a ketone can be reduced to an alcohol.

Figure 24.6 MECHANISM
Mechanism for reductive amination of a ketone to yield an amine. Details of the imine-forming step are shown in Figure 19.7.
A three-step mechanism shows the reductive amination of a ketone using sodium borohydride or hydrogen, nickel to form an amine.

Ammonia, primary amines, and secondary amines can all be used in the reductive amination reaction, yielding primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, respectively.

A carbonyl compound reacts with ammonia and sodium borohydride to form a primary amine. It undergoes two reaction with primary and secondary amine to form secondary and tertiary amine, respectively.

Reductive aminations also occur in various biological pathways. In the biosynthesis of the amino acid proline, for instance, glutamate 5-semialdehyde undergoes internal imine formation to give 1-pyrrolinium 5-carboxylate, which is then reduced by nucleophilic addition of hydride ion to the C═NC═N bond. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NADH, acts as the biological reducing agent.

Glutamate-5-semialdehyde releases water to form 1-pyrrolinium-5-carboxylate. This reacts to form proline as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen converts to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cation.

Worked Example 24.1

Using a Reductive Amination Reaction

How might you prepare N-methyl-2-phenylethylamine using a reductive amination reaction?

The structure of N-methyl-2-phenylethylamine. It is a benzene ring with the substituent C H 2 C H 2 N H C H 3.


Look at the target molecule, and identify the groups attached to nitrogen. One of the groups must be derived from the aldehyde or ketone component, and the other must be derived from the amine component. In the case of N-methyl-2-phenylethylamine, two combinations can lead to the product: phenylacetaldehyde plus methylamine or formaldehyde plus 2-phenylethylamine. It’s usually better to choose the combination with the simpler amine component—methylamine in this case—and to use an excess of that amine as reactant.


2-Phenylacetaldehyde reacts with methylamine in the presence of sodium borohydride to form N-methyl-2-phenylethanamine. The product is also formed by the reaction of 2-phenylethanamine and formaldehyde with sodium borohydride.
Problem 24-11
How might the following amines be prepared using reductive amination reactions? Show all precursors if more than one is possible.
The structure of N-ethylpropan-2-amine.
The structure of N-ethylaniline.
The structure of N-methylcyclopentanamine.
Problem 24-12

How could you prepare the following amine using a reductive amination reaction?

The ball-and-stick model of a benzene ring with methyl on C 1, and C 3 linked to a methylene. This is connected to nitrogen with two methyl groups.

Hofmann and Curtius Rearrangements

Carboxylic acid derivatives can be converted into primary amines with loss of one carbon atom by both the Hofmann rearrangement and the Curtius rearrangement. Although the Hofmann rearrangement involves a primary amide and the Curtius rearrangement involves an acyl azide, both proceed through similar mechanisms.

Hofmann rearrangement: An amide reacts with sodium hydroxide, bromine, and water to form an amine. Curtius rearrangement: An acyl azide reacts with water and heat to form an amine.

Hofmann rearrangement occurs when a primary amide, RCONH2, is treated with Br2 and base (Figure 24.7). The overall mechanism is lengthy, but most of the individual steps have been encountered before. Thus, the bromination of an amide in steps 1 and 2 is analogous to the base-promoted bromination of a ketone enolate ion (Section 22.6), and the rearrangement of the bromoamide anion in step 4 is analogous to a carbocation rearrangement (Section 7.11). Nucleophilic addition of water to the isocyanate carbonyl group in step 5 is a typical carbonyl-group process (Section 19.4), as is the final decarboxylation step 6 (Section 22.7).

Figure 24.7 MECHANISM
Mechanism of the Hofmann rearrangement of an amide to an amine. Each step is analogous to a reaction studied previously.
A six-step mechanism shows a Hoffman rearrangement, where an amide reacts with hydroxide ion, bromine, and water to form an amine.

Despite its mechanistic complexity, the Hofmann rearrangement often gives high yields of both arylamines and alkylamines. For example, the appetite-suppressant drug phentermine is prepared commercially by Hofmann rearrangement of a primary amide. Commonly known by the name Fen-Phen, the combination of phentermine with another appetite-suppressant, fenfluramine, is suspected of causing heart damage.

2,2-Dimethyl-3-phenylpropanamide reacts with sodium hydroxide, chlorine, and water to form phentermine (2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine) and carbon dioxide.

The Curtius rearrangement, like the Hofmann rearrangement, involves migration of an –R group from the C═OC═O carbon atom to the neighboring nitrogen with simultaneous loss of a leaving group. The reaction takes place on heating an acyl azide that is itself prepared by nucleophilic acyl substitution of an acid chloride.

Acid chloride reacts with sodium azide to form acyl azide which leads to isocyanate and nitrogen. This further reacts with water to form an amine and carbon dioxide.

Also like the Hofmann rearrangement, the Curtius rearrangement is often used commercially. The antidepressant drug tranylcypromine, for instance, is made by Curtius rearrangement of 2-phenylcyclopropanecarbonyl chloride.

trans-2-Phenylcyclopropanecarbonyl chloride reacts with sodium azide, then heat, and finally with water to form tranylcypromine.

Worked Example 24.2

Using the Hofmann and Curtius Rearrangements

How would you prepare o-methylbenzylamine from a carboxylic acid, using both Hofmann and Curtius rearrangements?


Both Hofmann and Curtius rearrangements convert a carboxylic acid derivative—either an amide (Hofmann) or an acid chloride (Curtius)—into a primary amine with loss of one carbon, RCOY → RNH2. Both reactions begin with the same carboxylic acid, which can be identified by replacing the –NH2 group of the amine product by a –CO2H group. In the present instance, o-methylphenylacetic acid is needed.


o-Methylphenylacetic acid reacts with thionyl chloride to form an intermediate. This reacts with ammonia, then bromine, sodium hydroxide and water or sodium azide, then water and heat to form o-methylbenzylamine.
Problem 24-13
How would you prepare the following amines, using both Hofmann and Curtius rearrangements on a carboxylic acid derivative?
The structure of a four-carbon chain with an amino group on C 1 and two methyl groups on C 3.
The structure of the benzene ring with an amino group on C 1 and a methyl group on C 4.

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