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Chemistry: Atoms First

Index

Chemistry: Atoms FirstIndex
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  4. 3 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 3.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 3.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 3.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 3.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. 3.6 The Periodic Table
    8. 3.7 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  5. 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 4.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 4.3 Chemical Nomenclature
    5. 4.4 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    6. 4.5 Formal Charges and Resonance
    7. 4.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  6. 5 Advanced Theories of Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 5.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  7. 6 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Formula Mass
    3. 6.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 6.3 Molarity
    5. 6.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  8. 7 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 7.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 7.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 7.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 7.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  9. 8 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 8.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 8.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 8.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 8.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 8.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  10. 9 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Energy Basics
    3. 9.2 Calorimetry
    4. 9.3 Enthalpy
    5. 9.4 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Spontaneity
    3. 12.2 Entropy
    4. 12.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 12.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salt Solutions
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Multiple Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
    3. 16.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 16.3 Standard Reduction Potentials
    5. 16.4 The Nernst Equation
    6. 16.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 16.6 Corrosion
    8. 16.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  18. 17 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 17.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 17.3 Rate Laws
    5. 17.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 17.5 Collision Theory
    7. 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 17.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 20.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 20.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 20.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 20.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 20.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  22. 21 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 21.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 21.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 21.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index
A
acid-base indicators 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
activated complex 17.5 Collision Theory
activation energy (Ea) 17.5 Collision Theory
active electrode 16.2 Galvanic Cells
addition reaction 21.1 Hydrocarbons
Alpha (α) decay 20.3 Radioactive Decay
Alpha particles 20.2 Nuclear Equations
alpha particles (α particles) 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
amphiphilic 11.5 Colloids
angular momentum quantum number 3.3 Development of Quantum Theory
antibonding orbitals 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
aqueous solution 6.3 Molarity
aromatic hydrocarbons 21.1 Hydrocarbons
Arrhenius equation 17.5 Collision Theory
atmosphere (atm) 8.1 Gas Pressure
Atwater system 9.2 Calorimetry
Avogadro’s number (NA) 2.4 Chemical Formulas
B
base-ionization constant (Kb) 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
Beta (β) decay 20.3 Radioactive Decay
bimolecular reaction 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms
binding energy per nucleon 20.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
body-centered cubic (BCC) solid 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
Bohr’s model 3.2 The Bohr Model
boiling point elevation 11.4 Colligative Properties
boiling point elevation constant 11.4 Colligative Properties
Boltzmann 12.2 Entropy
bomb calorimeter 9.2 Calorimetry
buffer capacity 14.6 Buffers
C
calories (cal) 9.1 Energy Basics
calorimeter 9.2 Calorimetry
calorimetry 9.2 Calorimetry
cathodic protection 16.6 Corrosion
cell notation 16.2 Galvanic Cells
cell potential 16.2 Galvanic Cells
Celsius (°C) 1.4 Measurements
chemical thermodynamics 9.3 Enthalpy
Clausius-Clapeyron equation 10.3 Phase Transitions
colligative properties 11.4 Colligative Properties
Collision theory 17.5 Collision Theory
colloidal dispersions 11.5 Colloids
color-change interval 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
compressibility factor (Z) 8.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
concentrated 6.3 Molarity
concentration 6.3 Molarity
concentration cell 16.4 The Nernst Equation
continuous spectrum 3.1 Electromagnetic Energy
coordinate covalent bond 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
Covalent network solids 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
critical point 10.4 Phase Diagrams
cubic centimeter (cm3) 1.4 Measurements
cubic meter (m3) 1.4 Measurements
D
Dalton’s atomic theory 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
daughter nuclide 20.3 Radioactive Decay
dipole-dipole attraction 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
dispersed phase 11.5 Colloids
dispersion medium 11.5 Colloids
dissociation 11.2 Electrolytes
dissociation constant (Kd) 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
dissolved 6.3 Molarity
dynamic equilibrium 10.3 Phase Transitions
E
electrolysis 16.7 Electrolysis
electrolytes 11.2 Electrolytes
electrolytic cells 16.7 Electrolysis
electromagnetic radiation 3.1 Electromagnetic Energy
electromagnetic spectrum 3.1 Electromagnetic Energy
Electron capture 20.3 Radioactive Decay
electronegativity 4.2 Covalent Bonding
electroplating 16.7 Electrolysis
elementary reaction 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms
empirical formula 2.4 Chemical Formulas
emulsifying agent 11.5 Colloids
endothermic process 9.1 Energy Basics
enthalpy (H) 9.3 Enthalpy
enthalpy change (ΔH) 9.3 Enthalpy
entropy (S) 12.2 Entropy
equilibrium constant (K) 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
excess reactant 7.4 Reaction Yields
excited electronic state 3.2 The Bohr Model
exothermic process 9.1 Energy Basics
expansion work 9.3 Enthalpy
external beam radiation therapy 20.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
F
face-centered cubic (FCC) solid 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
Faraday’s constant 16.4 The Nernst Equation
first law of thermodynamics 9.3 Enthalpy
formation constant (Kf) 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
formula mass 6.1 Formula Mass
freezing point depression 11.4 Colligative Properties
freezing point depression constant 11.4 Colligative Properties
frequency factor 17.5 Collision Theory
functional group 21.1 Hydrocarbons
fundamental unit of charge (e) 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
H
half-life of a reaction (t1/2) 17.4 Integrated Rate Laws
Hasselbalch 14.6 Buffers
heat capacity (C) 9.1 Energy Basics
Heisenberg uncertainty principle 3.3 Development of Quantum Theory
Henderson 14.6 Buffers
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation 14.6 Buffers
heterogeneous catalyst 17.7 Catalysis
heterogeneous equilibrium 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
hexagonal closest packing (HCP) 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
homogeneous catalyst 17.7 Catalysis
homogeneous equilibrium 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
homonuclear diatomic molecules 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
hydrocarbons 9.3 Enthalpy
hydrostatic pressure 8.1 Gas Pressure
I
Inert electrodes 16.2 Galvanic Cells
inert pair effect 4.1 Ionic Bonding
inner transition metals 3.6 The Periodic Table
instantaneous dipole 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
integrated rate laws 17.4 Integrated Rate Laws
interference patterns 3.1 Electromagnetic Energy
intermolecular forces 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
internal energy (U) 9.3 Enthalpy
internal radiation therapy (brachytherapy) 20.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
International System of Units 1.4 Measurements
ion-dipole attraction 11.2 Electrolytes
ion-product constant for water (Kw) 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
L
law of conservation of matter 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
law of constant composition 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
law of definite proportions 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
law of mass action 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
law of multiple proportions 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
Lewis acid-base adduct 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
limiting reactant 7.4 Reaction Yields
linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
Lithium ion batteries 16.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
London dispersion force 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
M
macroscopic domain 1.1 Chemistry in Context
magnetic quantum number 3.3 Development of Quantum Theory
main-group elements 3.6 The Periodic Table
mass-energy equivalence equation 20.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
method of initial rates 17.3 Rate Laws
microscopic domain 1.1 Chemistry in Context
microstate (W) 12.2 Entropy
milliliter (mL) 1.4 Measurements
Molarity (M) 6.3 Molarity
molecular formula 2.4 Chemical Formulas
molecular orbital (Ψ2) 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
molecular orbital diagram 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
Molecular orbital theory 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
monoprotic acids 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
multiple equilibria 15.3 Multiple Equilibria
P
partially miscible 11.3 Solubility
pascal (Pa) 8.1 Gas Pressure
passivation 18.1 Periodicity
Pauli exclusion principle 3.3 Development of Quantum Theory
percent yield 7.4 Reaction Yields
phase diagram 10.4 Phase Diagrams
pi (π) bonding molecular orbital 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
pi bond (π bond) 5.1 Valence Bond Theory
polar covalent bond 4.2 Covalent Bonding
Positron emission (β+ decay 20.3 Radioactive Decay
potential energy 9.1 Energy Basics
pounds per square inch (psi) 8.1 Gas Pressure
principal quantum number 3.3 Development of Quantum Theory
pure covalent bond 4.2 Covalent Bonding
R
radiation absorbed dose (rad) 20.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
radioactive decay 20.3 Radioactive Decay
radioactive decay series 20.3 Radioactive Decay
radioactive tracer 20.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
radiocarbon dating 20.3 Radioactive Decay
radiometric dating 20.3 Radioactive Decay
rate constant 17.3 Rate Laws
rate equations 17.3 Rate Laws
rate-limiting step 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms
reaction mechanism 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms
reaction order 17.3 Rate Laws
reaction quotient (Q) 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
reducing agent (reductant) 7.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
relative biological effectiveness 20.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
representative metals 18.1 Periodicity
reversible process 12.2 Entropy
reversible reaction 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
roentgen equivalent for man (rem) 20.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
root mean square velocity 8.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
S
sacrificial anodes 16.6 Corrosion
saturated hydrocarbons 21.1 Hydrocarbons
scientific method 1.1 Chemistry in Context
selective precipitation 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
semipermeable membranes 11.4 Colligative Properties
sigma bonds (σ bonds) 5.1 Valence Bond Theory
Single-displacement (replacement) reactions 7.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
skeletal structure 21.1 Hydrocarbons
solubility product (Ksp) 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
sp hybrid orbitals 5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
sp2 hybrid orbitals 5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
sp3 hybrid orbitals 5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
sp3d hybrid orbitals 5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
sp3d2 hybrid orbitals 5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
spatial isomers 2.4 Chemical Formulas
specific heat capacity (c) 9.1 Energy Basics
standard cell potential 16.3 Standard Reduction Potentials
Standard enthalpy of combustion 9.3 Enthalpy
standard enthalpy of formation ΔHf°ΔHf° 9.3 Enthalpy
standard free energy change (ΔG°) 12.4 Free Energy
standard free energy of formation 12.4 Free Energy
standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) 16.3 Standard Reduction Potentials
standard state 9.3 Enthalpy
state function 9.3 Enthalpy
stepwise ionization 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
stoichiometric factors 7.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
strong electrolyte 11.2 Electrolytes
structural formula 2.4 Chemical Formulas
structural isomers 2.4 Chemical Formulas
substituents 21.1 Hydrocarbons
substitution reaction 21.1 Hydrocarbons
supercritical fluid 10.4 Phase Diagrams
supersaturated 11.3 Solubility
surroundings 9.2 Calorimetry
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