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Chemistry: Atoms First

5.1 Valence Bond Theory

Chemistry: Atoms First5.1 Valence Bond Theory
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  4. 3 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 3.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 3.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 3.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 3.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. 3.6 The Periodic Table
    8. 3.7 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  5. 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 4.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 4.3 Chemical Nomenclature
    5. 4.4 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    6. 4.5 Formal Charges and Resonance
    7. 4.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  6. 5 Advanced Theories of Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 5.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  7. 6 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Formula Mass
    3. 6.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 6.3 Molarity
    5. 6.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  8. 7 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 7.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 7.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 7.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 7.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  9. 8 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 8.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 8.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 8.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 8.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 8.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  10. 9 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Energy Basics
    3. 9.2 Calorimetry
    4. 9.3 Enthalpy
    5. 9.4 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Spontaneity
    3. 12.2 Entropy
    4. 12.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 12.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salt Solutions
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Multiple Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
    3. 16.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 16.3 Standard Reduction Potentials
    5. 16.4 The Nernst Equation
    6. 16.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 16.6 Corrosion
    8. 16.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  18. 17 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 17.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 17.3 Rate Laws
    5. 17.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 17.5 Collision Theory
    7. 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 17.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 20.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 20.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 20.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 20.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 20.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  22. 21 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 21.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 21.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 21.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index

5.1 Valence Bond Theory

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the formation of covalent bonds in terms of atomic orbital overlap
  • Define and give examples of σ and π bonds

As we know, a scientific theory is a strongly supported explanation for observed natural laws or large bodies of experimental data. For a theory to be accepted, it must explain experimental data and be able to predict behavior. For example, VSEPR theory has gained widespread acceptance because it predicts three-dimensional molecular shapes that are consistent with experimental data collected for thousands of different molecules. However, VSEPR theory does not provide an explanation of chemical bonding.

Atomic Orbital Overlap

There are successful theories that describe the electronic structure of atoms. We can use quantum mechanics to predict the specific regions around an atom where electrons are likely to be located: A spherical shape for an s orbital, a dumbbell shape for a p orbital, and so forth. However, these predictions only describe the orbitals around free atoms. When atoms bond to form molecules, atomic orbitals are not sufficient to describe the regions where electrons will be located in the molecule. A more complete understanding of electron distributions requires a model that can account for the electronic structure of molecules. One popular theory holds that a covalent bond forms when a pair of electrons is shared by two atoms and is simultaneously attracted by the nuclei of both atoms. In the following sections, we will discuss how such bonds are described by valence bond theory and hybridization.

Valence bond theory describes a covalent bond as the overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals (each containing a single electron) that yield a pair of electrons shared between the two bonded atoms. We say that orbitals on two different atoms overlap when a portion of one orbital and a portion of a second orbital occupy the same region of space. According to valence bond theory, a covalent bond results when two conditions are met: (1) an orbital on one atom overlaps an orbital on a second atom and (2) the single electrons in each orbital combine to form an electron pair. The mutual attraction between this negatively charged electron pair and the two atoms’ positively charged nuclei serves to physically link the two atoms through a force we define as a covalent bond. The strength of a covalent bond depends on the extent of overlap of the orbitals involved. Orbitals that overlap extensively form bonds that are stronger than those that have less overlap.

The energy of the system depends on how much the orbitals overlap. Figure 5.2 illustrates how the sum of the energies of two hydrogen atoms (the colored curve) changes as they approach each other. When the atoms are far apart there is no overlap, and by convention we set the sum of the energies at zero. As the atoms move together, their orbitals begin to overlap. Each electron begins to feel the attraction of the nucleus in the other atom. In addition, the electrons begin to repel each other, as do the nuclei. While the atoms are still widely separated, the attractions are slightly stronger than the repulsions, and the energy of the system decreases. (A bond begins to form.) As the atoms move closer together, the overlap increases, so the attraction of the nuclei for the electrons continues to increase (as do the repulsions among electrons and between the nuclei). At some specific distance between the atoms, which varies depending on the atoms involved, the energy reaches its lowest (most stable) value. This optimum distance between the two bonded nuclei is the bond distance between the two atoms. The bond is stable because at this point, the attractive and repulsive forces combine to create the lowest possible energy configuration. If the distance between the nuclei were to decrease further, the repulsions between nuclei and the repulsions as electrons are confined in closer proximity to each other would become stronger than the attractive forces. The energy of the system would then rise (making the system destabilized), as shown at the far left of Figure 5.2.

A pair of diagrams are shown and labeled “a” and “b”. Diagram a shows three consecutive images. The first image depicts two separated blurry circles, each labeled with a positive sign and the term “H atom.” The phrase written under them reads, “Sufficiently far apart to have no interaction.” The second image shows the same two circles, but this time they are much closer together and are labeled, “Atoms begin to interact as they move closer together.” The third image shows the two circles overlapping, labeled, “H subscript 2,” and, “Optimum distance to achieve lowest overall energy of system.” Diagram b shows a graph on which the y-axis is labeled “Energy ( J ),” and the x-axis is labeled, “Internuclear distance ( p m ).” The midpoint of the y-axis is labeled as zero. The curve on the graph begins at zero p m and high on the y-axis. The graph slopes downward steeply to a point far below the zero joule line on the y-axis and the lowest point reads “0.74 p m” and “H bonded to H bond length.” It is also labeled “ negative 7.24 times 10 superscript negative 19 J.” The graph then rises again to zero J. The graph is accompanied by the same images from diagram a; the first image correlates to the point in the graph where it crosses the zero point on the y-axis, the third image where the graph is lowest.
Figure 5.2 (a) The interaction of two hydrogen atoms changes as a function of distance. (b) The energy of the system changes as the atoms interact. The lowest (most stable) energy occurs at a distance of 74 pm, which is the bond length observed for the H2 molecule.

In addition to the distance between two orbitals, the orientation of orbitals also affects their overlap (other than for two s orbitals, which are spherically symmetric). Greater overlap is possible when orbitals are oriented such that they overlap on a direct line between the two nuclei. Figure 5.3 illustrates this for two p orbitals from different atoms; the overlap is greater when the orbitals overlap end to end rather than at an angle.

Two diagrams are shown. Diagram a contains two molecules whose p orbitals, which are depicted as two balloon-shaped structures that meet together to form a peanut shape, are laid end over end, creating an area of overlap. In diagram b, the same two molecules are shown, but this time, they are laid out in a way so as to form a near-ninety degree angle. In this diagram, the ends of two of these peanut-shaped orbitals do not overlap nearly as much.
Figure 5.3 (a) The overlap of two p orbitals is greatest when the orbitals are directed end to end. (b) Any other arrangement results in less overlap. The dots indicate the locations of the nuclei.

The overlap of two s orbitals (as in H2), the overlap of an s orbital and a p orbital (as in HCl), and the end-to-end overlap of two p orbitals (as in Cl2) all produce sigma bonds (σ bonds), as illustrated in Figure 5.4. A σ bond is a covalent bond in which the electron density is concentrated in the region along the internuclear axis; that is, a line between the nuclei would pass through the center of the overlap region. Single bonds in Lewis structures are described as σ bonds in valence bond theory.

Three diagrams are shown and labeled “a,” “b,” and “c.” Diagram a shows two spherical orbitals lying side by side and overlapping. Diagram b shows one spherical and one peanut-shaped orbital lying near one another so that the spherical orbital overlaps with one end of the peanut-shaped orbital. Diagram c shows two peanut-shaped orbitals lying end to end so that one end of each orbital overlaps the other.
Figure 5.4 Sigma (σ) bonds form from the overlap of the following: (a) two s orbitals, (b) an s orbital and a p orbital, and (c) two p orbitals. The dots indicate the locations of the nuclei.

A pi bond (π bond) is a type of covalent bond that results from the side-by-side overlap of two p orbitals, as illustrated in Figure 5.5. In a π bond, the regions of orbital overlap lie on opposite sides of the internuclear axis. Along the axis itself, there is a node, that is, a plane with no probability of finding an electron.

Two peanut-shaped orbitals are shown, lying vertically and parallel with one another. They overlap one another along the top and bottom of the orbital.
Figure 5.5 Pi (π) bonds form from the side-by-side overlap of two p orbitals. The dots indicate the location of the nuclei.

While all single bonds are σ bonds, multiple bonds consist of both σ and π bonds. As the Lewis structures below suggest, O2 contains a double bond, and N2 contains a triple bond. The double bond consists of one σ bond and one π bond, and the triple bond consists of one σ bond and two π bonds. Between any two atoms, the first bond formed will always be a σ bond, but there can only be one σ bond in any one location. In any multiple bond, there will be one σ bond, and the remaining one or two bonds will be π bonds. These bonds are described in more detail later in this chapter.

A diagram contains three Lewis structures. The left most structure shows an H atom bonded to a C l atom by a single bond. The C l atom has three lone pairs of electrons. The phrase “One sigma bond No pi bonds” is written below the drawing. The center structure shows two O atoms bonded by a double bond. The O atoms each have two lone pairs of electrons. The phrase “One sigma bond One pi bond” is written below the drawing. The right most structure shows two N atoms bonded by a triple bond. Each N atom has a lone pairs of electrons. The phrase “One sigma bond Two pi bonds” is written below the drawing.

Example 5.1

Counting σ and π Bonds

This figure shows a molecule composed of four carbon atoms. There is a double bond between carbons one and two and three and four, while a single bond holds carbon two and three together. Carbons one and four are also bonded to two hydrogens with a single bond while carbons two and three are each bonded to one hydrogen each by a single bond.

Butadiene, C4H6, is used to make synthetic rubber. Identify the number of σ and π bonds contained in this molecule.


There are six σ C–H bonds and one σ C–C bond, for a total of seven from the single bonds. There are two double bonds that each have a π bond in addition to the σ bond. This gives a total nine σ and two π bonds overall.

Check Your Learning

Identify each illustration as depicting a σ or π bond:

(a) side-by-side overlap of a 4p and a 2p orbital

(b) end-to-end overlap of a 4p and 4p orbital

(c) end-to-end overlap of a 4p and a 2p orbital

Three diagrams are shown and labeled “a,” “b,” and “c.” Diagram a depicts two peanut-shaped orbitals lying vertically side-by-side and overlapping. One orbital is smaller than the other. Diagram b shows two peanut-shaped orbitals lying end-to-end and overlapping. Diagram c shows two unequally sized peanut-shaped orbitals lying end-to-end and overlapping.


(a) is a π bond with a node along the axis connecting the nuclei while (b) and (c) are σ bonds that overlap along the axis.

Dipole Moments and Ionic Character

Now that we have seen the importance of understanding the connection between the location of electrons in atoms and the properties of elements, we can expand our understanding of the connection between atoms. This will be an introduction to more advanced aspects of the chemical bond, which is the very heart of chemistry itself. With the sole exception of the noble gases, atoms by themselves do not possess the most stable possible electron configuration. That is where the concept of chemical bonding comes into its own: atoms can attain a stable configuration by exchanging electrons with another atom, resulting in the formation of ions.

Ions, in turn, can associate by charge – simple Coulombic attraction – resulting in the formation of compounds we call ionic compounds. We will look at the ionic nature of bonds first, from a simple positive-negative attraction standpoint. Just as important is that some atoms bond by sharing rather than exchanging electrons; the sharing of electrons gives rise to the covalent bond. To add just one more dimension, some chemical species are neither completely ionic nor completely covalent; these species possess a permanent dipole, and are classified as polar.

In your introductory physics course, you will likely discuss the concept of Coulombic interactions in much more rigorous detail than we will do here. We are interested primarily in the differences in properties between species that arise from their relative covalent, ionic, or polar nature – not in a rigorous model of those properties. We are concerned with the connection between potential energy and force and the relative separation (or lack of separation) between charges. We begin by defining the electric or Coulomb force as the product of the charges divided by the square of the distance between those charges:


Here, Q is taken to be the fundamental constant of electron charge: one electron has a charge of 1.60218×10−19C1.60218×10−19C. (We will work exclusively in the SI system, so distances will be measured in meters (m)).

And as you may recall, energy is force times distance, so


To illustrate the trend in attractive force, we will consider first the attractive force between two ions of single charge separated by a distance of 2d:


And then the attractive force between two ions of double charge separated by a distance d:


The force of attraction increases with the charge and decreases with increased distance. If all matter were composed of ions that would be the end of the story, but it clearly is not. There are molecules for which the charge – either positive or negative – is permanently concentrated more on one atom than the other. Notice we say atom, because these compounds are not composed of ions but rather of atoms sharing electrons through covalent bonds.

Bond Dipole Moments

The concept of a bond dipole moment allows us to examine the partial separation of charge between atoms. It is a simple model when applied to diatomic molecules, which will be more than sufficient for our purposes. The dipole moment of a bond is defined as the charge times the distance – charge once again being measured in multiples of the charge on an electron, or coulombs. The distance will always be in meters. Because we are considering very small charges and distances, and because it is the relative separation of charge rather than the actual value for it that we are interested in, we will introduce a new unit called the Debye, named after the physical chemist Peter Debye:


The usefulness of the Debye unit will be shown by example:
For HCl, the bond dipole moment is known to be 1.08 D
For HI, the bond dipole moment is known to be 0.44 D

Comparing the two, we can see that HI is less polar than HCl, which is what we would expect based on electronegativity values.

We have now made a transition between the concept of an ionic compound and a partially ionic one. Of course, the partially ionic compound must also by definition be partially covalent.

Partial Ionic Character

The concept of the bond dipole moment helps bridge the concepts of ionic and covalent bonding. Because there is a separation of charge that is less complete than it is in an ionic bond, we can refer to polar bonds as being partially ionic in nature. In contrast to sodium chloride, hydrogen chloride shows partial charges (indicated with a delta notation) on the hydrogen and chlorine. As you would expect from the electronegativity values, hydrogen carries a partial positive charge, while chlorine carries a partial negative charge. Where do these charges come from?

It is easy to come up with the partial charges by comparing the actual dipole moments (which can be obtained experimentally, using spectroscopy) with the dipole expected in the limiting case (that is, if we were to consider the molecule ionic). The actual dipole moment is 1.03 D.

Example 5.2

Finding the Partial Ionic Character

What are the partial charges of an HCl molecule, whose bond length is 0.127 nm?


The bond dipole moment is (1.60218×1019C)(0.127×10−9m)(1.60218×1019C)(0.127×10−9m) or 2.03×10−29C-m2.03×10−29C-m. Converted to D, this is (2.03×10−29C-m)(1Debye3.336×10−30C-m)(2.03×10−29C-m)(1Debye3.336×10−30C-m) or 6.09 D. Were HCl completely ionic, this would be its molecular dipole moment. To get the partial ionic character, we divide This means the bond is about 17% ionic – or, put another way, the positive charge in H is +0.17 and the partial negative charge on chlorine, –0.17.

Check Your Learning

Repeat the calculation for HI, which has a dipole moment of 0.42 D and a bond length of 0.161 nm.

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Answer: Calculated 7.73, percent 5.43

What does the result suggest about the relative polarity of the HI bond vs. that of the HCl bond? Does the calculated dipole and percent ionic character reconcile with the difference in electronegativity between Cl and I?

The electron configuration of an atom or ion is key to understanding the chemical behavior of an element. The atoms that make up the element combine in various ways, ranging from the mostly ionic (NaCl) to the partially ionic (HCl) to what we will call purely covalent. At the most fundamental level, all chemical bonds involve electrons, and a significant percentage of chemical and physical properties can be explained by considering the location and separation of charge in a species. By understanding the structure of matter at the atomic level, we can begin to build an understanding of the behavior of matter at both the microscopic and macroscopic levels.

An understanding of dipoles and partial ionic character is fundamental to understanding the interactions between particles, which we will examine in the chapter on liquids and solids. These intermolecular forces become important in the liquid and solid states of matter.

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