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Chemistry: Atoms First

14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Chemistry: Atoms First14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  4. 3 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 3.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 3.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 3.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 3.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. 3.6 The Periodic Table
    8. 3.7 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  5. 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 4.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 4.3 Chemical Nomenclature
    5. 4.4 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    6. 4.5 Formal Charges and Resonance
    7. 4.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  6. 5 Advanced Theories of Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 5.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  7. 6 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept
    3. 6.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 6.3 Molarity
    5. 6.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  8. 7 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 7.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 7.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 7.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 7.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  9. 8 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 8.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 8.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 8.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 8.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 8.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  10. 9 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Energy Basics
    3. 9.2 Calorimetry
    4. 9.3 Enthalpy
    5. 9.4 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Spontaneity
    3. 12.2 Entropy
    4. 12.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 12.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salt Solutions
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Multiple Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
    3. 16.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 16.3 Standard Reduction Potentials
    5. 16.4 The Nernst Equation
    6. 16.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 16.6 Corrosion
    8. 16.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  18. 17 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 17.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 17.3 Rate Laws
    5. 17.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 17.5 Collision Theory
    7. 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 17.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 20.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 20.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 20.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 20.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 20.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  22. 21 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 21.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 21.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 21.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Identify acids, bases, and conjugate acid-base pairs according to the Brønsted-Lowry definition
  • Write equations for acid and base ionization reactions
  • Use the ion-product constant for water to calculate hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations
  • Describe the acid-base behavior of amphiprotic substances

Acids and bases have been known for a long time. When Robert Boyle characterized them in 1680, he noted that acids dissolve many substances, change the color of certain natural dyes (for example, they change litmus from blue to red), and lose these characteristic properties after coming into contact with alkalis (bases). In the eighteenth century, it was recognized that acids have a sour taste, react with limestone to liberate a gaseous substance (now known to be CO2), and interact with alkalis to form neutral substances. In 1815, Humphry Davy contributed greatly to the development of the modern acid-base concept by demonstrating that hydrogen is the essential constituent of acids. Around that same time, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac concluded that acids are substances that can neutralize bases and that these two classes of substances can be defined only in terms of each other. The significance of hydrogen was reemphasized in 1884 when Svante Arrhenius defined an acid as a compound that dissolves in water to yield hydrogen cations (now recognized to be hydronium ions) and a base as a compound that dissolves in water to yield hydroxide anions.

In an earlier chapter on chemical reactions, we defined acids and bases as Arrhenius did: We identified an acid as a compound that dissolves in water to yield hydronium ions (H3O+) and a base as a compound that dissolves in water to yield hydroxide ions (OH). This definition is not wrong; it is simply limited.

Later, we extended the definition of an acid or a base using the more general definition proposed in 1923 by the Danish chemist Johannes Brønsted and the English chemist Thomas Lowry. Their definition centers on the proton, H+. A proton is what remains when the most common isotope of hydrogen, 11H,11H, loses an electron. A compound that donates a proton to another compound is called a Brønsted-Lowry acid, and a compound that accepts a proton is called a Brønsted-Lowry base. An acid-base reaction is the transfer of a proton from a proton donor (acid) to a proton acceptor (base). In a subsequent chapter of this text we will introduce the most general model of acid-base behavior introduced by the American chemist G. N. Lewis.

Acids may be compounds such as HCl or H2SO4, organic acids like acetic acid (CH3COOH) or ascorbic acid (vitamin C), or H2O. Anions (such as HSO4,HSO4, H2PO4,H2PO4, HS, and HCO3)HCO3) and cations (such as H3O+, NH4+,NH4+, and [Al(H2O)6]3+)[Al(H2O)6]3+) may also act as acids. Bases fall into the same three categories. Bases may be neutral molecules (such as H2O, NH3, and CH3NH2), anions (such as OH, HS, HCO3,HCO3, CO32−,CO32−, F, and PO43−),PO43−), or cations (such as [Al(H2O)5OH]2+).[Al(H2O)5OH]2+). The most familiar bases are ionic compounds such as NaOH and Ca(OH)2, which contain the hydroxide ion, OH. The hydroxide ion in these compounds accepts a proton from acids to form water:

H++OHH2OH++OHH2O

We call the product that remains after an acid donates a proton the conjugate base of the acid. This species is a base because it can accept a proton (to re-form the acid):

acidproton+conjugate baseHFH++FH2SO4H++HSO4H2OH++OHHSO4H++SO42−NH4+H++NH3acidproton+conjugate baseHFH++FH2SO4H++HSO4H2OH++OHHSO4H++SO42−NH4+H++NH3

We call the product that results when a base accepts a proton the base’s conjugate acid. This species is an acid because it can give up a proton (and thus re-form the base):

base+protonconjugate acidOH+H+H2OH2O+H+H3O+NH3+H+NH4+S2−+H+HSCO32−+H+HCO3F+H+HFbase+protonconjugate acidOH+H+H2OH2O+H+H3O+NH3+H+NH4+S2−+H+HSCO32−+H+HCO3F+H+HF

In these two sets of equations, the behaviors of acids as proton donors and bases as proton acceptors are represented in isolation. In reality, all acid-base reactions involve the transfer of protons between acids and bases. For example, consider the acid-base reaction that takes place when ammonia is dissolved in water. A water molecule (functioning as an acid) transfers a proton to an ammonia molecule (functioning as a base), yielding the conjugate base of water, OH, and the conjugate acid of ammonia, NH4+NH4+:

This figure has three parts in two rows. In the first row, two diagrams of acid-base pairs are shown. On the left, a space filling model of H subscript 2 O is shown with a red O atom at the center and two smaller white H atoms attached in a bent shape. Above this model is the label “H subscript 2 O (acid)” in purple. An arrow points right, which is labeled “Remove H superscript plus.” To the right is another space filling model with a single red O atom to which a single smaller white H atom is attached. The label in purple above this model reads, “O H superscript negative (conjugate base).” Above both of these red and white models is an upward pointing bracket that is labeled “Conjugate acid-base pair.” To the right is a space filling model with a central blue N atom to which three smaller white H atoms are attached in a triangular pyramid arrangement. A label in green above reads “N H subscript 3 (base).” An arrow labeled “Add H superscript plus” points right. To the right of the arrow is another space filling model with a blue central N atom and four smaller white H atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The green label above reads “N H subscript 3 superscript plus (conjugate acid).” Above both of these blue and white models is an upward pointing bracket that is labeled “Conjugate acid-base pair.” The second row of the figure shows the chemical reaction, H subscript 2 O ( l ) is shown in purple, and is labeled below in purple as “acid,” plus N H subscript 3 (a q) in green, labeled below in green as “base,” followed by a double sided arrow arrow and O H superscript negative (a q) in purple, labeled in purple as “conjugate base,” plus N H subscript 4 superscript plus (a q)” in green, which is labeled in green as “conjugate acid.” The acid on the left side of the equation is connected to the conjugate base on the right with a purple line. Similarly, the base on the left is connected to the conjugate acid on the right side.

The reaction between a Brønsted-Lowry acid and water is called acid ionization. For example, when hydrogen fluoride dissolves in water and ionizes, protons are transferred from hydrogen fluoride molecules to water molecules, yielding hydronium ions and fluoride ions:

This figure has two rows. In both rows, a chemical reaction is shown. In the first, structural formulas are provided. In this model, in purple, an H atom is connected to an F atom with a single bond. The F atom has pairs of electron dots at the top, right, and bottom. This is followed by a plus sign, which is followed in green by an O atom which has H atoms singly bonded above and to the right. The O atom has pairs of electron dots on its left and lower sides. A double arrow follows. To the right, in brackets is a structure with a central O atom in green, with green H atoms singly bonded above and to the right. A pair of green electron dots is on the lower side of the O atom. To the left of the green O atom, a purple H atom is singly bonded. This is followed by a plus sign and an F atom in purple with pairs of electron dots above, right, below, and to the left. This atom also has a superscript negative sign. The reaction is written in symbolic form below. H F is labeled in purple below as “Acid subscript 1.” This is followed by plus H subscript 2 O, which is labeled in green below as “Base subscript 2.” A double sided arrow follows. To the right is H subscript 3 O superscript plus, which is labeled in green as below in as “Acid subscript 2.” This is followed by plus and F surrounded by 4 pairs of dots and superscript negative. The label below in purple reads, “Base subscript 1.” To the right of the reactions is the formula, K subscript a equals left bracket H subscript 3 O superscript plus right bracket left bracket F superscript negative right bracket all over left bracket H F right bracket.

When we add a base to water, a base ionization reaction occurs in which protons are transferred from water molecules to base molecules. For example, adding pyridine to water yields hydroxide ions and pyridinium ions:

This figure has two rows. In both rows, a chemical reaction is shown. In the first, structural formulas are provided. In this model, in red, is an O atom which has H atoms singly bonded above and to the right. The O atom has lone pairs of electron dots on its left and lower sides. This is followed by a plus sign. The plus sign is followed, in blue, by an N atom with one lone pair of electron dots. The N atom forms a double bond with a C atom, which forms a single bond with a C atom. The second C atom forms a double bond with another C atom, which forms a single bond with another C atom. The fourth C atom forms a double bond with a fifth C atom, which forms a single bond with the N atom. This creates a ring structure. Each C atom is also bonded to an H atom. An equilibrium arrow follows this structure. To the right, in brackets is a structure where an N atom bonded to an H atom, which is red, appears. The N atom forms a double bond with a C atom, which forms a single bond with a C atom. The second C atom forms a double bond with another C atom, which forms a single bond with another C atom. The fourth C atom forms a double bond with a fifth C atom, which forms a single bond with the N atom. This creates a ring structure. Each C atom is also bonded to an H atom. Outside the brackets, to the right, is a superscript positive sign. This structure is followed by a plus sign. Another structure that appears in brackets also appears. An O atom with three lone pairs of electron dots is bonded to an H atom. There is a superscript negative sign outside the brackets. To the right, is the equation: k equals [ C subscript 5 N H subscript 6 superscript positive sign ] [ O H superscript negative sign] all divided by [ C subscript 5 N H subscript 5 ]. Under the initial equation, is this equation: H subscript 2 plus C subscript 5 N H subscript 5 equilibrium arrow C subscript 5 N H subscript 6 superscript positive sign plus O H superscript negative sign. H subscript 2 O is labeled, “acid,” in red. C subscript 5 N H subscript 5 is labeled, “base,” in blue. C subscript 5 N H subscript 6 superscript positive sign is labeled, “acid” in blue. O H superscript negative sign is labeled, “base,” in red.

Notice that both these ionization reactions are represented as equilibrium processes. The relative extent to which these acid and base ionization reactions proceed is an important topic treated in a later section of this chapter. In the preceding paragraphs we saw that water can function as either an acid or a base, depending on the nature of the solute dissolved in it. In fact, in pure water or in any aqueous solution, water acts both as an acid and a base. A very small fraction of water molecules donate protons to other water molecules to form hydronium ions and hydroxide ions:

This figure has two rows. In both rows, a chemical reaction is shown. In the first, structural formulas are provided. In this model, in purple, O atom which has H atoms singly bonded above and to the right. The O atom has pairs of electron dots on its left and lower sides. This is followed by a plus sign, which is followed in green by an O atom which has H atoms singly bonded above and to the right. The O atom has pairs of electron dots on its left and lower sides. A double arrow follows. To the right, in brackets is a structure with a central O atom in green, with green H atoms singly bonded above and to the right. A pair of green electron dots is on the lower side of the O atom. To the left of the green O atom, a purple H atom is singly bonded. Outside the brackets to the right is a superscript plus. This is followed by a plus sign and an O atom in purple with pairs of electron dots above, left, and below. An H atom is singly bonded to the right. This atom has a superscript negative sign. The reaction is written in symbolic form below. H subscript 2 O is labeled in purple below as “Acid subscript 1.” This is followed by plus H subscript 2 O, which is labeled in green below as “Base subscript 2.” A double sided arrow follows. To the right is H subscript 3 O superscript plus, which is labeled in green as below in as “Acid subscript 2.” This is followed by plus and O with pairs of dots above, below, and to the left with a singly bonded H on the right with a superscript negative. The label below in purple reads, “ Base subscript 1.”

This type of reaction, in which a substance ionizes when one molecule of the substance reacts with another molecule of the same substance, is referred to as autoionization.

Pure water undergoes autoionization to a very slight extent. Only about two out of every 109 molecules in a sample of pure water are ionized at 25 °C. The equilibrium constant for the ionization of water is called the ion-product constant for water (Kw):

H2O(l)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+OH(aq)Kw=[H3O+][OH]H2O(l)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+OH(aq)Kw=[H3O+][OH]

The slight ionization of pure water is reflected in the small value of the equilibrium constant; at 25 °C, Kw has a value of 1.0 ×× 10−14. The process is endothermic, and so the extent of ionization and the resulting concentrations of hydronium ion and hydroxide ion increase with temperature. For example, at 100 °C, the value for Kw is about 5.6 ×× 10−13, roughly 50 times larger than the value at 25 °C.

Example 14.1

Ion Concentrations in Pure Water

What are the hydronium ion concentration and the hydroxide ion concentration in pure water at 25 °C?

Solution

The autoionization of water yields the same number of hydronium and hydroxide ions. Therefore, in pure water, [H3O+] = [OH]. At 25 °C:
Kw=[H3O+][OH]=[H3O+]2=[OH]2=1.0×10−14Kw=[H3O+][OH]=[H3O+]2=[OH]2=1.0×10−14

So:

[H3O+]=[OH]=1.0×10−14=1.0×10−7M[H3O+]=[OH]=1.0×10−14=1.0×10−7M

The hydronium ion concentration and the hydroxide ion concentration are the same, and we find that both equal 1.0 ×× 10−7 M.

Check Your Learning

The ion product of water at 80 °C is 2.4 ×× 10−13. What are the concentrations of hydronium and hydroxide ions in pure water at 80 °C?

Answer:

[H3O+] = [OH] = 4.9 ×× 10−7 M

It is important to realize that the autoionization equilibrium for water is established in all aqueous solutions. Adding an acid or base to water will not change the position of the equilibrium. Example 14.2 demonstrates the quantitative aspects of this relation between hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations.

Example 14.2

The Inverse Proportionality of [H3O+] and [OH]

A solution of carbon dioxide in water has a hydronium ion concentration of 2.0 ×× 10−6 M. What is the concentration of hydroxide ion at 25 °C?

Solution

We know the value of the ion-product constant for water at 25 °C:
2H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+OH(aq)Kw=[H3O+][OH]=1.0×10−142H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+OH(aq)Kw=[H3O+][OH]=1.0×10−14

Thus, we can calculate the missing equilibrium concentration.

Rearrangement of the Kw expression yields that [OH] is directly proportional to the inverse of [H3O+]:

[OH]=Kw[H3O+]=1.0×10−142.0×10−6=5.0×10−9[OH]=Kw[H3O+]=1.0×10−142.0×10−6=5.0×10−9

The hydroxide ion concentration in water is reduced to 5.0 ×× 10−9 M as the hydronium ion concentration increases to 2.0 ×× 10−6 M. This is expected from Le Châtelier’s principle; the autoionization reaction shifts to the left to reduce the stress of the increased hydronium ion concentration and the [OH] is reduced relative to that in pure water.

A check of these concentrations confirms that our arithmetic is correct:

Kw=[H3O+][OH]=(2.0×10−6)(5.0×10−9)=1.0×10−14Kw=[H3O+][OH]=(2.0×10−6)(5.0×10−9)=1.0×10−14

Check Your Learning

What is the hydronium ion concentration in an aqueous solution with a hydroxide ion concentration of 0.001 M at 25 °C?

Answer:

[H3O+] = 1 ×× 10−11 M

Amphiprotic Species

Like water, many molecules and ions may either gain or lose a proton under the appropriate conditions. Such species are said to be amphiprotic. Another term used to describe such species is amphoteric, which is a more general term for a species that may act either as an acid or a base by any definition (not just the Brønsted-Lowry one). Consider for example the bicarbonate ion, which may either donate or accept a proton as shown here:

HCO3(aq)+H2O(l)CO32−(aq)+H3O+(aq)HCO3(aq)+H2O(l)H2CO3(aq)+OH(aq)HCO3(aq)+H2O(l)CO32−(aq)+H3O+(aq)HCO3(aq)+H2O(l)H2CO3(aq)+OH(aq)

Example 14.3

Representing the Acid-Base Behavior of an Amphoteric Substance

Write separate equations representing the reaction of HSO3HSO3

(a) as an acid with OH

(b) as a base with HI

Solution

(a) HSO3(aq)+OH(aq)SO32−(aq)+H2O(l)HSO3(aq)+OH(aq)SO32−(aq)+H2O(l)

(b) HSO3(aq)+HI(aq)H2SO3(aq)+I(aq)HSO3(aq)+HI(aq)H2SO3(aq)+I(aq)

Check Your Learning

Write separate equations representing the reaction of H2PO4H2PO4

(a) as a base with HBr

(b) as an acid with OH

Answer:

(a) H2PO4(aq)+HBr(aq)H3PO4(aq)+Br(aq);H2PO4(aq)+HBr(aq)H3PO4(aq)+Br(aq); (b) H2PO4(aq)+OH(aq)HPO42−(aq)+H2O(l)H2PO4(aq)+OH(aq)HPO42−(aq)+H2O(l)

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