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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. 2.5 The Periodic Table
    7. 2.6 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    8. 2.7 Chemical Nomenclature
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  4. 3 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept
    3. 3.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 3.3 Molarity
    5. 3.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  5. 4 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 4.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 4.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 4.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  6. 5 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Energy Basics
    3. 5.2 Calorimetry
    4. 5.3 Enthalpy
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  7. 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 6.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 6.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  8. 7 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 7.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 7.3 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    5. 7.4 Formal Charges and Resonance
    6. 7.5 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    7. 7.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  9. 8 Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 8.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  10. 9 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 9.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 9.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 9.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 9.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 12.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 12.3 Rate Laws
    5. 12.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 12.5 Collision Theory
    7. 12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 12.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salts
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Coupled Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Spontaneity
    3. 16.2 Entropy
    4. 16.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 16.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  18. 17 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Review of Redox Chemistry
    3. 17.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 17.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
    5. 17.4 Potential, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
    6. 17.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 17.6 Corrosion
    8. 17.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 20.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 20.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 20.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  22. 21 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 21.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 21.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 21.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 21.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index
A
acid-base indicators14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
acid-ionization constant, Ka14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
activated complex12.5 Collision Theory
activation energy (Ea)12.5 Collision Theory
active electrodes17.2 Galvanic Cells
addition reaction20.1 Hydrocarbons
Alpha (α) decay21.3 Radioactive Decay
Alpha particles21.2 Nuclear Equations
alpha particles (α particles)2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
amphiphilic11.5 Colloids
antibonding orbitals8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
aqueous solution3.3 Molarity
aromatic hydrocarbons20.1 Hydrocarbons
Arrhenius equation12.5 Collision Theory
atmosphere (atm)9.1 Gas Pressure
Atwater system5.2 Calorimetry
B
base-ionization constant (Kb)14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
Beta (β) decay21.3 Radioactive Decay
bimolecular reaction12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
binding energy per nucleon21.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
body-centered cubic (BCC) solid10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
Bohr’s model6.2 The Bohr Model
boiling point elevation11.4 Colligative Properties
boiling point elevation constant11.4 Colligative Properties
Boltzmann16.2 Entropy
bomb calorimeter5.2 Calorimetry
buffer capacity14.6 Buffers
C
calories (cal)5.1 Energy Basics
calorimeter5.2 Calorimetry
calorimetry5.2 Calorimetry
cathodic protection17.6 Corrosion
cell notations17.2 Galvanic Cells
cell schematics17.2 Galvanic Cells
Celsius (°C)1.4 Measurements
chemical thermodynamics5.3 Enthalpy
Clausius16.2 Entropy
Clausius-Clapeyron equation10.3 Phase Transitions
colligative properties11.4 Colligative Properties
Collision theory12.5 Collision Theory
colloidal dispersions11.5 Colloids
color change interval14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
compressibility factor (Z)9.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
concentrated3.3 Molarity
concentration3.3 Molarity
continuous spectrum6.1 Electromagnetic Energy
coordinate covalent bond15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
Covalent network solids10.5 The Solid State of Matter
critical point10.4 Phase Diagrams
cubic centimeter (cm3)1.4 Measurements
cubic meter (m3)1.4 Measurements
D
Dalton’s atomic theory2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
daughter nuclide21.3 Radioactive Decay
Dilution3.3 Molarity
dipole-dipole attraction10.1 Intermolecular Forces
Diprotic acids14.5 Polyprotic Acids
dispersed phase11.5 Colloids
dispersion medium11.5 Colloids
dissociation11.2 Electrolytes
dissociation constant (Kd)15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
dissolved3.3 Molarity
dynamic equilibrium10.3 Phase Transitions
E
effective nuclear charge, Zeff6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
electrode potential (EX)17.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
electrolysis17.7 Electrolysis
electrolytes11.2 Electrolytes
electromagnetic radiation6.1 Electromagnetic Energy
electromagnetic spectrum6.1 Electromagnetic Energy
Electron capture21.3 Radioactive Decay
electronegativity7.2 Covalent Bonding
electroplating17.7 Electrolysis
elementary reaction12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
empirical formula2.4 Chemical Formulas
emulsifying agent11.5 Colloids
endothermic process5.1 Energy Basics
enthalpy (H)5.3 Enthalpy
enthalpy change (ΔH)5.3 Enthalpy
entropy (S)16.2 Entropy
equilibrium constant, K13.2 Equilibrium Constants
excess reactant4.4 Reaction Yields
excited electronic state6.2 The Bohr Model
exothermic process5.1 Energy Basics
expansion work5.3 Enthalpy
external beam radiation therapy21.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
F
face-centered cubic (FCC) solid10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
first law of thermodynamics5.3 Enthalpy
formation constant (Kf)15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
free energy change (ΔG)16.4 Free Energy
freezing point depression11.4 Colligative Properties
freezing point depression constant11.4 Colligative Properties
frequency factor12.5 Collision Theory
functional group20.1 Hydrocarbons
fundamental unit of charge (e)2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
H
half-life of a reaction (t1/2)12.4 Integrated Rate Laws
Hasselbalch14.6 Buffers
heat capacity (C)5.1 Energy Basics
Heisenberg uncertainty principle6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
Henderson14.6 Buffers
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation14.6 Buffers
heterogeneous catalyst12.7 Catalysis
heterogeneous equilibrium13.2 Equilibrium Constants
hexagonal closest packing (HCP)10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
homogeneous catalyst12.7 Catalysis
homogeneous equilibrium13.2 Equilibrium Constants
homonuclear diatomic molecules8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
hydrocarbons5.3 Enthalpy
hydrostatic pressure9.1 Gas Pressure
I
immiscible11.3 Solubility
inert electrode17.2 Galvanic Cells
inert pair effect7.1 Ionic Bonding
inner transition metals2.5 The Periodic Table
instantaneous dipole10.1 Intermolecular Forces
integrated rate laws12.4 Integrated Rate Laws
interference patterns6.1 Electromagnetic Energy
intermolecular forces10.1 Intermolecular Forces
internal energy (U)5.3 Enthalpy
internal radiation therapy (brachytherapy)21.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
International System of Units1.4 Measurements
ion-dipole attraction11.2 Electrolytes
ion-product constant for water, Kw14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
L
law of conservation of matter1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
law of constant composition2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
law of definite proportions2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
law of mass action13.2 Equilibrium Constants
law of multiple proportions2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
Lewis acid-base adduct15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
Lewis acid-base chemistry15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
limiting reactant4.4 Reaction Yields
linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
Lithium ion batteries17.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
London dispersion force10.1 Intermolecular Forces
M
macroscopic domain1.1 Chemistry in Context
magnetic quantum number6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
main-group elements2.5 The Periodic Table
mass-energy equivalence equation21.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
method of initial rates12.3 Rate Laws
microscopic domain1.1 Chemistry in Context
microstate16.2 Entropy
milliliter (mL)1.4 Measurements
Molarity (M)3.3 Molarity
molecular formula2.4 Chemical Formulas
molecular mass2.4 Chemical Formulas
molecular orbital (Ψ2)8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
molecular orbital diagram8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
Molecular orbital theory8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
monoprotic acids14.5 Polyprotic Acids
P
partially miscible11.3 Solubility
pascal (Pa)9.1 Gas Pressure
passivation18.1 Periodicity
Pauli exclusion principle6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
percent yield4.4 Reaction Yields
phase diagram10.4 Phase Diagrams
pi (π) bonding molecular orbital8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
pi bond (π bond)8.1 Valence Bond Theory
polar covalent bond7.2 Covalent Bonding
Positron emission (β+ decay21.3 Radioactive Decay
potential energy5.1 Energy Basics
pounds per square inch (psi)9.1 Gas Pressure
principal quantum number6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
pure covalent bond7.2 Covalent Bonding
R
radiation absorbed dose (rad)21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
radioactive decay21.3 Radioactive Decay
radioactive decay series21.3 Radioactive Decay
radioactive tracer21.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
radiocarbon dating21.3 Radioactive Decay
radiometric dating21.3 Radioactive Decay
rate constant12.3 Rate Laws
rate equations12.3 Rate Laws
rate-limiting step12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
reaction diagrams12.5 Collision Theory
reaction mechanism12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
reaction orders12.3 Rate Laws
reaction quotient (Q)13.2 Equilibrium Constants
reducing agent (reductant)4.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
relative biological effectiveness21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
representative metals18.1 Periodicity
reversible process16.2 Entropy
Reversible reactions13.1 Chemical Equilibria
roentgen equivalent for man (rem)21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
root mean square velocity9.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
S
sacrificial anodes17.6 Corrosion
saturated hydrocarbons20.1 Hydrocarbons
scientific method1.1 Chemistry in Context
secondary (angular momentum) quantum number6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
selective precipitation15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
semipermeable membranes11.4 Colligative Properties
sigma bonds (σ bonds)8.1 Valence Bond Theory
Single-displacement (replacement) reactions4.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
skeletal structure20.1 Hydrocarbons
sp hybrid orbitals8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
sp2 hybrid orbitals8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
sp3 hybrid orbitals8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
sp3d hybrid orbitals8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
sp3d2 hybrid orbitals8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
spatial isomers2.4 Chemical Formulas
specific heat capacity (c)5.1 Energy Basics
standard cell potential, E°cell17.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
standard electrode potential, E°X17.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
Standard enthalpy of combustion5.3 Enthalpy
standard enthalpy of formation ΔHf°ΔHf°5.3 Enthalpy
standard free energy changes, ΔG°16.4 Free Energy
standard free energy of formation ΔGf°16.4 Free Energy
standard hydrogen electrode (SHE)17.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
standard state5.3 Enthalpy
state function5.3 Enthalpy
stepwise ionization14.5 Polyprotic Acids
stoichiometric factors4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
strong electrolyte11.2 Electrolytes
structural formula2.4 Chemical Formulas
structural isomers2.4 Chemical Formulas
substituents20.1 Hydrocarbons
substitution reaction20.1 Hydrocarbons
supercritical fluid10.4 Phase Diagrams
supersaturated11.3 Solubility
surroundings5.2 Calorimetry
suspensions11.5 Colloids
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