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Chemistry 2e

16.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics

Chemistry 2e16.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. 2.5 The Periodic Table
    7. 2.6 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    8. 2.7 Chemical Nomenclature
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  4. 3 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept
    3. 3.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 3.3 Molarity
    5. 3.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  5. 4 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 4.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 4.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 4.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  6. 5 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Energy Basics
    3. 5.2 Calorimetry
    4. 5.3 Enthalpy
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  7. 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 6.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 6.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  8. 7 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 7.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 7.3 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    5. 7.4 Formal Charges and Resonance
    6. 7.5 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    7. 7.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  9. 8 Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 8.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  10. 9 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 9.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 9.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 9.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 9.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 12.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 12.3 Rate Laws
    5. 12.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 12.5 Collision Theory
    7. 12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 12.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salts
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Coupled Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Spontaneity
    3. 16.2 Entropy
    4. 16.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 16.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  18. 17 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Review of Redox Chemistry
    3. 17.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 17.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
    5. 17.4 Potential, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
    6. 17.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 17.6 Corrosion
    8. 17.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 20.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 20.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 20.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  22. 21 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 21.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 21.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 21.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 21.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • State and explain the second and third laws of thermodynamics
  • Calculate entropy changes for phase transitions and chemical reactions under standard conditions

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

In the quest to identify a property that may reliably predict the spontaneity of a process, a promising candidate has been identified: entropy. Processes that involve an increase in entropy of the systemS > 0) are very often spontaneous; however, examples to the contrary are plentiful. By expanding consideration of entropy changes to include the surroundings, we may reach a significant conclusion regarding the relation between this property and spontaneity. In thermodynamic models, the system and surroundings comprise everything, that is, the universe, and so the following is true:

ΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurrΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurr

To illustrate this relation, consider again the process of heat flow between two objects, one identified as the system and the other as the surroundings. There are three possibilities for such a process:

  1. The objects are at different temperatures, and heat flows from the hotter to the cooler object. This is always observed to occur spontaneously. Designating the hotter object as the system and invoking the definition of entropy yields the following:
    ΔSsys=qrevTsysandΔSsurr=qrevTsurrΔSsys=qrevTsysandΔSsurr=qrevTsurr
    The magnitudes of −qrev and qrev are equal, their opposite arithmetic signs denoting loss of heat by the system and gain of heat by the surroundings. Since Tsys > Tsurr in this scenario, the entropy decrease of the system will be less than the entropy increase of the surroundings, and so the entropy of the universe will increase:
    | ΔSsys |<| ΔSsurr |ΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurr>0| ΔSsys |<| ΔSsurr |ΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurr>0
  2. The objects are at different temperatures, and heat flows from the cooler to the hotter object. This is never observed to occur spontaneously. Again designating the hotter object as the system and invoking the definition of entropy yields the following:
    ΔSsys=qrevTsysandΔSsurr=qrevTsurrΔSsys=qrevTsysandΔSsurr=qrevTsurr
    The arithmetic signs of qrev denote the gain of heat by the system and the loss of heat by the surroundings. The magnitude of the entropy change for the surroundings will again be greater than that for the system, but in this case, the signs of the heat changes (that is, the direction of the heat flow) will yield a negative value for ΔSuniv. This process involves a decrease in the entropy of the universe.
  3. The objects are at essentially the same temperature, TsysTsurr, and so the magnitudes of the entropy changes are essentially the same for both the system and the surroundings. In this case, the entropy change of the universe is zero, and the system is at equilibrium.
    | ΔSsys || ΔSsurr |ΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurr=0| ΔSsys || ΔSsurr |ΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurr=0

These results lead to a profound statement regarding the relation between entropy and spontaneity known as the second law of thermodynamics: all spontaneous changes cause an increase in the entropy of the universe. A summary of these three relations is provided in Table 16.1.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics
ΔSuniv > 0 spontaneous
ΔSuniv < 0 nonspontaneous (spontaneous in opposite direction)
ΔSuniv = 0 at equilibrium
Table 16.1

For many realistic applications, the surroundings are vast in comparison to the system. In such cases, the heat gained or lost by the surroundings as a result of some process represents a very small, nearly infinitesimal, fraction of its total thermal energy. For example, combustion of a fuel in air involves transfer of heat from a system (the fuel and oxygen molecules undergoing reaction) to surroundings that are infinitely more massive (the earth’s atmosphere). As a result, qsurr is a good approximation of qrev, and the second law may be stated as the following:

ΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurr=ΔSsys+qsurrTΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurr=ΔSsys+qsurrT

We may use this equation to predict the spontaneity of a process as illustrated in Example 16.4.

Example 16.4

Will Ice Spontaneously Melt? The entropy change for the process

H2O(s)H2O(l)H2O(s)H2O(l)

is 22.1 J/K and requires that the surroundings transfer 6.00 kJ of heat to the system. Is the process spontaneous at −10.00 °C? Is it spontaneous at +10.00 °C?

Solution We can assess the spontaneity of the process by calculating the entropy change of the universe. If ΔSuniv is positive, then the process is spontaneous. At both temperatures, ΔSsys = 22.1 J/K and qsurr = −6.00 kJ.

At −10.00 °C (263.15 K), the following is true:

ΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurr=ΔSsys+qsurrT=22.1 J/K+−6.00×103J263.15 K=−0.7J/KΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurr=ΔSsys+qsurrT=22.1 J/K+−6.00×103J263.15 K=−0.7J/K

Suniv < 0, so melting is nonspontaneous (not spontaneous) at −10.0 °C.

At 10.00 °C (283.15 K), the following is true:

ΔSuniv=ΔSsys+qsurrT=22.1J/K+−6.00×103J283.15 K=+0.9 J/KΔSuniv=ΔSsys+qsurrT=22.1J/K+−6.00×103J283.15 K=+0.9 J/K

Suniv > 0, so melting is spontaneous at 10.00 °C.

Check Your Learning Using this information, determine if liquid water will spontaneously freeze at the same temperatures. What can you say about the values of Suniv?

Answer:

Entropy is a state function, so ΔSfreezing = −ΔSmelting = −22.1 J/K and qsurr = +6.00 kJ. At −10.00 °C spontaneous, +0.7 J/K; at +10.00 °C nonspontaneous, −0.9 J/K.

The Third Law of Thermodynamics

The previous section described the various contributions of matter and energy dispersal that contribute to the entropy of a system. With these contributions in mind, consider the entropy of a pure, perfectly crystalline solid possessing no kinetic energy (that is, at a temperature of absolute zero, 0 K). This system may be described by a single microstate, as its purity, perfect crystallinity and complete lack of motion means there is but one possible location for each identical atom or molecule comprising the crystal (W = 1). According to the Boltzmann equation, the entropy of this system is zero.

S=klnW=kln(1)=0S=klnW=kln(1)=0

This limiting condition for a system’s entropy represents the third law of thermodynamics: the entropy of a pure, perfect crystalline substance at 0 K is zero.

Careful calorimetric measurements can be made to determine the temperature dependence of a substance’s entropy and to derive absolute entropy values under specific conditions. Standard entropies (S°) are for one mole of substance under standard conditions (a pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 298.15 K; see details regarding standard conditions in the thermochemistry chapter of this text). The standard entropy change (ΔS°) for a reaction may be computed using standard entropies as shown below:

ΔS°=νS°(products)νS°(reactants)ΔS°=νS°(products)νS°(reactants)

where ν represents stoichiometric coefficients in the balanced equation representing the process. For example, ΔS° for the following reaction at room temperature

mA+nBxC+yD,mA+nBxC+yD,

is computed as:

=[xS°(C)+yS°(D)][mS°(A)+nS°(B)]=[xS°(C)+yS°(D)][mS°(A)+nS°(B)]

A partial listing of standard entropies is provided in Table 16.2, and additional values are provided in Appendix G. The example exercises that follow demonstrate the use of S° values in calculating standard entropy changes for physical and chemical processes.

Substance S°S° (J mol−1 K−1)
carbon
C(s, graphite) 5.740
C(s, diamond) 2.38
CO(g) 197.7
CO2(g) 213.8
CH4(g) 186.3
C2H4(g) 219.5
C2H6(g) 229.5
CH3OH(l) 126.8
C2H5OH(l) 160.7
hydrogen
H2(g) 130.57
H(g) 114.6
H2O(g) 188.71
H2O(l) 69.91
HCI(g) 186.8
H2S(g) 205.7
oxygen
O2(g) 205.03
Table 16.2 Standard entropies for selected substances measured at 1 atm and 298.15 K. (Values are approximately equal to those measured at 1 bar, the currently accepted standard state pressure.)

Example 16.5

Determination of ΔS° Calculate the standard entropy change for the following process:

H2O(g)H2O(l)H2O(g)H2O(l)

Solution Calculate the entropy change using standard entropies as shown above:

ΔS°=(1mol)(70.0Jmol1K1)(1mol)(188.8Jmol1K1)=118.8J/KΔS°=(1mol)(70.0Jmol1K1)(1mol)(188.8Jmol1K1)=118.8J/K

The value for ΔS° is negative, as expected for this phase transition (condensation), which the previous section discussed.

Check Your Learning Calculate the standard entropy change for the following process:

H2(g)+C2H4(g)C2H6(g)H2(g)+C2H4(g)C2H6(g)

Answer:

−120.6 J K–1 mol–1

Example 16.6

Determination of ΔS° Calculate the standard entropy change for the combustion of methanol, CH3OH:

2CH3OH(l)+3O2(g)2CO2(g)+4H2O(l)2CH3OH(l)+3O2(g)2CO2(g)+4H2O(l)

Solution Calculate the entropy change using standard entropies as shown above:

ΔS°=νS°(products)νS°(reactants)ΔS°=νS°(products)νS°(reactants)
[2mol×S°(CO2(g))+4mol×S°(H2O(l))][2mol×S°(CH3OH(l))+3mol×S°(O2(g))]={[2(213.8)+4×70.0][2(126.8)+3(205.03)]}=−161.1J/K[2mol×S°(CO2(g))+4mol×S°(H2O(l))][2mol×S°(CH3OH(l))+3mol×S°(O2(g))]={[2(213.8)+4×70.0][2(126.8)+3(205.03)]}=−161.1J/K

Check Your Learning Calculate the standard entropy change for the following reaction:

Ca(OH)2(s)CaO(s)+H2O(l)Ca(OH)2(s)CaO(s)+H2O(l)

Answer:

24.7 J K–1 mol–1

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