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Chemistry 2e

9.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory

Chemistry 2e9.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. 2.5 The Periodic Table
    7. 2.6 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    8. 2.7 Chemical Nomenclature
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  4. 3 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept
    3. 3.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 3.3 Molarity
    5. 3.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  5. 4 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 4.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 4.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 4.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  6. 5 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Energy Basics
    3. 5.2 Calorimetry
    4. 5.3 Enthalpy
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  7. 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 6.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 6.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  8. 7 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 7.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 7.3 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    5. 7.4 Formal Charges and Resonance
    6. 7.5 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    7. 7.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  9. 8 Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 8.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  10. 9 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 9.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 9.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 9.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 9.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 12.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 12.3 Rate Laws
    5. 12.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 12.5 Collision Theory
    7. 12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 12.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salts
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Coupled Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Spontaneity
    3. 16.2 Entropy
    4. 16.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 16.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  18. 17 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Review of Redox Chemistry
    3. 17.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 17.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
    5. 17.4 Potential, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
    6. 17.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 17.6 Corrosion
    8. 17.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 20.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 20.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 20.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  22. 21 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 21.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 21.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 21.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 21.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index
  • State the postulates of the kinetic-molecular theory
  • Use this theory’s postulates to explain the gas laws

The gas laws that we have seen to this point, as well as the ideal gas equation, are empirical, that is, they have been derived from experimental observations. The mathematical forms of these laws closely describe the macroscopic behavior of most gases at pressures less than about 1 or 2 atm. Although the gas laws describe relationships that have been verified by many experiments, they do not tell us why gases follow these relationships.

The kinetic molecular theory (KMT) is a simple microscopic model that effectively explains the gas laws described in previous modules of this chapter. This theory is based on the following five postulates described here. (Note: The term “molecule” will be used to refer to the individual chemical species that compose the gas, although some gases are composed of atomic species, for example, the noble gases.)

  1. Gases are composed of molecules that are in continuous motion, travelling in straight lines and changing direction only when they collide with other molecules or with the walls of a container.
  2. The molecules composing the gas are negligibly small compared to the distances between them.
  3. The pressure exerted by a gas in a container results from collisions between the gas molecules and the container walls.
  4. Gas molecules exert no attractive or repulsive forces on each other or the container walls; therefore, their collisions are elastic (do not involve a loss of energy).
  5. The average kinetic energy of the gas molecules is proportional to the kelvin temperature of the gas.

The test of the KMT and its postulates is its ability to explain and describe the behavior of a gas. The various gas laws can be derived from the assumptions of the KMT, which have led chemists to believe that the assumptions of the theory accurately represent the properties of gas molecules. We will first look at the individual gas laws (Boyle’s, Charles’s, Amontons’s, Avogadro’s, and Dalton’s laws) conceptually to see how the KMT explains them. Then, we will more carefully consider the relationships between molecular masses, speeds, and kinetic energies with temperature, and explain Graham’s law.

The Kinetic-Molecular Theory Explains the Behavior of Gases, Part I

Recalling that gas pressure is exerted by rapidly moving gas molecules and depends directly on the number of molecules hitting a unit area of the wall per unit of time, we see that the KMT conceptually explains the behavior of a gas as follows:

  • Amontons’s law. If the temperature is increased, the average speed and kinetic energy of the gas molecules increase. If the volume is held constant, the increased speed of the gas molecules results in more frequent and more forceful collisions with the walls of the container, therefore increasing the pressure (Figure 9.31).
  • Charles’s law. If the temperature of a gas is increased, a constant pressure may be maintained only if the volume occupied by the gas increases. This will result in greater average distances traveled by the molecules to reach the container walls, as well as increased wall surface area. These conditions will decrease the both the frequency of molecule-wall collisions and the number of collisions per unit area, the combined effects of which balance the effect of increased collision forces due to the greater kinetic energy at the higher temperature.
  • Boyle’s law. If the gas volume is decreased, the container wall area decreases and the molecule-wall collision frequency increases, both of which increase the pressure exerted by the gas (Figure 9.31).
  • Avogadro’s law. At constant pressure and temperature, the frequency and force of molecule-wall collisions are constant. Under such conditions, increasing the number of gaseous molecules will require a proportional increase in the container volume in order to yield a decrease in the number of collisions per unit area to compensate for the increased frequency of collisions (Figure 9.31).
  • Dalton’s Law. Because of the large distances between them, the molecules of one gas in a mixture bombard the container walls with the same frequency whether other gases are present or not, and the total pressure of a gas mixture equals the sum of the (partial) pressures of the individual gases.
This figure shows 3 pairs of pistons and cylinders. In a, which is labeled, “Charles’s Law,” the piston is positioned for the first cylinder so that just over half of the available volume contains 6 purple spheres with trails behind them. The trails indicate movement. Orange dashes extend from the interior surface of the cylinder where the spheres have collided. This cylinder is labeled, “Baseline.” In the second cylinder, the piston is in the same position, and the label, “Heat” is indicated in red capitalized text. Four red arrows with wavy stems are pointing upward to the base of the cylinder. The six purple spheres have longer trails behind them and the number of orange dashes indicating points of collision with the container walls has increased. A rectangle beneath the diagram states, “Temperature increased, Volume constant equals Increased pressure.” In b, which is labeled, “Boyle’s Law,” the first, baseline cylinder shown is identical to the first cylinder in a. In the second cylinder, the piston has been moved, decreasing the volume available to the 6 purple spheres to half of the initial volume. The six purple spheres have longer trails behind them and the number of orange dashes indicating points of collision with the container walls has increased. This second cylinder is labeled, “Volume decreased.” A rectangle beneath the diagram states, “Volume decreased, Wall area decreased equals Increased pressure.” In c, which is labeled “Avogadro’s Law,” the first, baseline cylinder shown is identical to the first cylinder in a. In the second cylinder, the number of purple spheres has changed from 6 to 12 and volume has doubled. This second cylinder is labeled “Increased gas.” A rectangle beneath the diagram states, “At constant pressure, More gas molecules added equals Increased volume.”
Figure 9.31 (a) When gas temperature increases, gas pressure increases due to increased force and frequency of molecular collisions. (b) When volume decreases, gas pressure increases due to increased frequency of molecular collisions. (c) When the amount of gas increases at a constant pressure, volume increases to yield a constant number of collisions per unit wall area per unit time.

Molecular Velocities and Kinetic Energy

The previous discussion showed that the KMT qualitatively explains the behaviors described by the various gas laws. The postulates of this theory may be applied in a more quantitative fashion to derive these individual laws. To do this, we must first look at velocities and kinetic energies of gas molecules, and the temperature of a gas sample.

In a gas sample, individual molecules have widely varying speeds; however, because of the vast number of molecules and collisions involved, the molecular speed distribution and average speed are constant. This molecular speed distribution is known as a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, and it depicts the relative numbers of molecules in a bulk sample of gas that possesses a given speed (Figure 9.32).

A graph is shown. The horizontal axis is labeled, “Speed u ( m divided by s ).” This axis is marked by increments of 20 beginning at 0 and extending up to 120. The vertical axis is labeled, “Fraction of molecules.” A positively or right-skewed curve is shown in red which begins at the origin and approaches the horizontal axis around 120 m per s. At the peak of the curve, a point is indicated with a black dot and is labeled, “v subscript p.” A vertical dashed line extends from this point to the horizontal axis at which point the intersection is labeled, “v subscript p.” Slightly to the right of the peak a second black dot is placed on the curve. This point is labeled, “v subscript r m s.” A vertical dashed line extends from this point to the horizontal axis at which point the intersection is labeled, “v subscript r m s.” The label, “O subscript 2 at T equals 300 K” appears in the open space to the right of the curve.
Figure 9.32 The molecular speed distribution for oxygen gas at 300 K is shown here. Very few molecules move at either very low or very high speeds. The number of molecules with intermediate speeds increases rapidly up to a maximum, which is the most probable speed, then drops off rapidly. Note that the most probable speed, νp, is a little less than 400 m/s, while the root mean square speed, urms, is closer to 500 m/s.

The kinetic energy (KE) of a particle of mass (m) and speed (u) is given by:

KE=12mu2KE=12mu2

Expressing mass in kilograms and speed in meters per second will yield energy values in units of joules (J = kg m2 s–2). To deal with a large number of gas molecules, we use averages for both speed and kinetic energy. In the KMT, the root mean square velocity of a particle, urms, is defined as the square root of the average of the squares of the velocities with n = the number of particles:

urms=u2¯=u12+u22+u32+u42+nurms=u2¯=u12+u22+u32+u42+n

The average kinetic energy for a mole of particles, KEavg, is then equal to:

KEavg=12Murms2KEavg=12Murms2

where M is the molar mass expressed in units of kg/mol. The KEavg of a mole of gas molecules is also directly proportional to the temperature of the gas and may be described by the equation:

KEavg=32RTKEavg=32RT

where R is the gas constant and T is the kelvin temperature. When used in this equation, the appropriate form of the gas constant is 8.314 J/mol⋅K (8.314 kg m2s–2mol–1K–1). These two separate equations for KEavg may be combined and rearranged to yield a relation between molecular speed and temperature:

12Murms2=32RT12Murms2=32RT
urms=3RTMurms=3RTM

Example 9.23

Calculation of urmsCalculate the root-mean-square velocity for a nitrogen molecule at 30 °C.

Solution Convert the temperature into Kelvin:

30°C+273=303 K30°C+273=303 K

Determine the molar mass of nitrogen in kilograms:

28.0g1 mol×1 kg1000g=0.028kg/mol28.0g1 mol×1 kg1000g=0.028kg/mol

Replace the variables and constants in the root-mean-square velocity equation, replacing Joules with the equivalent kg m2s–2:

urms=3RTMurms=3RTM
urms=3(8.314J/mol K)(303 K)(0.028kg/mol)=2.70×105m2s2=519m/surms=3(8.314J/mol K)(303 K)(0.028kg/mol)=2.70×105m2s2=519m/s

Check Your LearningCalculate the root-mean-square velocity for a mole of oxygen molecules at –23 °C.

Answer:

441 m/s

If the temperature of a gas increases, its KEavg increases, more molecules have higher speeds and fewer molecules have lower speeds, and the distribution shifts toward higher speeds overall, that is, to the right. If temperature decreases, KEavg decreases, more molecules have lower speeds and fewer molecules have higher speeds, and the distribution shifts toward lower speeds overall, that is, to the left. This behavior is illustrated for nitrogen gas in Figure 9.33.

A graph with four positively or right-skewed curves of varying heights is shown. The horizontal axis is labeled, “Speed u ( m divided by s ).” This axis is marked by increments of 500 beginning at 0 and extending up to 1500. The vertical axis is labeled, “Fraction of molecules.” The label, “N subscript 2,” appears in the open space in the upper right area of the graph. The tallest and narrowest of these curves is labeled, “100 K.” Its right end appears to touch the horizontal axis around 700 m per s. It is followed by a slightly wider curve which is labeled, “200 K,” that is about three quarters of the height of the initial curve. Its right end appears to touch the horizontal axis around 850 m per s. The third curve is significantly wider and only about half the height of the initial curve. It is labeled, “500 K.” Its right end appears to touch the horizontal axis around 1450 m per s. The final curve is only about one third the height of the initial curve. It is much wider than the others, so much so that its right end has not yet reached the horizontal axis. This curve is labeled, “1000 K.”
Figure 9.33 The molecular speed distribution for nitrogen gas (N2) shifts to the right and flattens as the temperature increases; it shifts to the left and heightens as the temperature decreases.

At a given temperature, all gases have the same KEavg for their molecules. Gases composed of lighter molecules have more high-speed particles and a higher urms, with a speed distribution that peaks at relatively higher velocities. Gases consisting of heavier molecules have more low-speed particles, a lower urms, and a speed distribution that peaks at relatively lower velocities. This trend is demonstrated by the data for a series of noble gases shown in Figure 9.34.

A graph is shown with four positively or right-skewed curves of varying heights. The horizontal axis is labeled, “Speed u ( m divided by s ).” This axis is marked by increments of 500 beginning at 0 and extending up to 3000. The vertical axis is labeled, “Fraction of molecules.” The tallest and narrowest of these curves is labeled, “X e.” Its right end appears to touch the horizontal axis around 600 m per s. It is followed by a slightly wider curve which is labeled, “A r,” that is about half the height of the initial curve. Its right end appears to touch the horizontal axis around 900 m per s. The third curve is significantly wider and just over a third of the height of the initial curve. It is labeled, “N e.” Its right end appears to touch the horizontal axis around 1200 m per s. The final curve is only about one fourth the height of the initial curve. It is much wider than the others, so much so that its right reaches the horizontal axis around 2500 m per s. This curve is labeled, “H e.”
Figure 9.34 Molecular velocity is directly related to molecular mass. At a given temperature, lighter molecules move faster on average than heavier molecules.

The Kinetic-Molecular Theory Explains the Behavior of Gases, Part II

According to Graham’s law, the molecules of a gas are in rapid motion and the molecules themselves are small. The average distance between the molecules of a gas is large compared to the size of the molecules. As a consequence, gas molecules can move past each other easily and diffuse at relatively fast rates.

The rate of effusion of a gas depends directly on the (average) speed of its molecules:

effusion rateurmseffusion rateurms

Using this relation, and the equation relating molecular speed to mass, Graham’s law may be easily derived as shown here:

urms=3RTMurms=3RTM
M=3RTurms2=3RTu¯2M=3RTurms2=3RTu¯2
effusion rate Aeffusion rate B=urmsAurmsB=3RTMA3RTMB=MBMAeffusion rate Aeffusion rate B=urmsAurmsB=3RTMA3RTMB=MBMA

The ratio of the rates of effusion is thus derived to be inversely proportional to the ratio of the square roots of their masses. This is the same relation observed experimentally and expressed as Graham’s law.

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