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Chemistry 2e

4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry

Chemistry 2e4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. 2.5 The Periodic Table
    7. 2.6 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    8. 2.7 Chemical Nomenclature
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  4. 3 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept
    3. 3.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 3.3 Molarity
    5. 3.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  5. 4 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 4.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 4.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 4.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  6. 5 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Energy Basics
    3. 5.2 Calorimetry
    4. 5.3 Enthalpy
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  7. 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 6.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 6.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  8. 7 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 7.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 7.3 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    5. 7.4 Formal Charges and Resonance
    6. 7.5 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    7. 7.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  9. 8 Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 8.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  10. 9 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 9.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 9.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 9.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 9.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 12.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 12.3 Rate Laws
    5. 12.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 12.5 Collision Theory
    7. 12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 12.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salts
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Coupled Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Spontaneity
    3. 16.2 Entropy
    4. 16.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 16.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  18. 17 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Review of Redox Chemistry
    3. 17.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 17.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
    5. 17.4 Potential, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
    6. 17.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 17.6 Corrosion
    8. 17.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 20.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 20.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 20.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  22. 21 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 21.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 21.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 21.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 21.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Explain the concept of stoichiometry as it pertains to chemical reactions
  • Use balanced chemical equations to derive stoichiometric factors relating amounts of reactants and products
  • Perform stoichiometric calculations involving mass, moles, and solution molarity

A balanced chemical equation provides a great deal of information in a very succinct format. Chemical formulas provide the identities of the reactants and products involved in the chemical change, allowing classification of the reaction. Coefficients provide the relative numbers of these chemical species, allowing a quantitative assessment of the relationships between the amounts of substances consumed and produced by the reaction. These quantitative relationships are known as the reaction’s stoichiometry, a term derived from the Greek words stoicheion (meaning “element”) and metron (meaning “measure”). In this module, the use of balanced chemical equations for various stoichiometric applications is explored.

The general approach to using stoichiometric relationships is similar in concept to the way people go about many common activities. Food preparation, for example, offers an appropriate comparison. A recipe for making eight pancakes calls for 1 cup pancake mix, 3434 cup milk, and one egg. The “equation” representing the preparation of pancakes per this recipe is

1cup mix+34cup milk+1egg8pancakes1cup mix+34cup milk+1egg8pancakes

If two dozen pancakes are needed for a big family breakfast, the ingredient amounts must be increased proportionally according to the amounts given in the recipe. For example, the number of eggs required to make 24 pancakes is

24pancakes×1egg8pancakes=3eggs24pancakes×1egg8pancakes=3eggs

Balanced chemical equations are used in much the same fashion to determine the amount of one reactant required to react with a given amount of another reactant, or to yield a given amount of product, and so forth. The coefficients in the balanced equation are used to derive stoichiometric factors that permit computation of the desired quantity. To illustrate this idea, consider the production of ammonia by reaction of hydrogen and nitrogen:

N2(g)+3H2(g)2NH3(g)N2(g)+3H2(g)2NH3(g)

This equation shows ammonia molecules are produced from hydrogen molecules in a 2:3 ratio, and stoichiometric factors may be derived using any amount (number) unit:

2NH3molecules3H2moleculesor2 dozNH3molecules3 dozH2moleculesor2 molNH3molecules3 molH2molecules2NH3molecules3H2moleculesor2 dozNH3molecules3 dozH2moleculesor2 molNH3molecules3 molH2molecules

These stoichiometric factors can be used to compute the number of ammonia molecules produced from a given number of hydrogen molecules, or the number of hydrogen molecules required to produce a given number of ammonia molecules. Similar factors may be derived for any pair of substances in any chemical equation.

Example 4.8

Moles of Reactant Required in a Reaction How many moles of I2 are required to react with 0.429 mol of Al according to the following equation (see Figure 4.10)?

2Al+3I22AlI32Al+3I22AlI3
This figure shows three photos with an arrow leading from one to the next. The first photo shows a small pile of iodine and aluminum on a white surface. The second photo shows a small amount of purple smoke coming from the pile. The third photo shows a large amount of purple and gray smoke coming from the pile.
Figure 4.10 Aluminum and iodine react to produce aluminum iodide. The heat of the reaction vaporizes some of the solid iodine as a purple vapor. (credit: modification of work by Mark Ott)

Solution Referring to the balanced chemical equation, the stoichiometric factor relating the two substances of interest is 3 molI22 mol Al.3 molI22 mol Al. The molar amount of iodine is derived by multiplying the provided molar amount of aluminum by this factor:

This figure shows two pink rectangles. The first is labeled, “Moles of A l.” This rectangle is followed by an arrow pointing right to a second rectangle labeled, “Moles of I subscript 2.”
mol I2=0.429mol Al×3 molI22mol Al=0.644 molI2mol I2=0.429mol Al×3 molI22mol Al=0.644 molI2

Check Your Learning How many moles of Ca(OH)2 are required to react with 1.36 mol of H3PO4 to produce Ca3(PO4)2 according to the equation 3Ca(OH)2+2H3PO4Ca3(PO4)2+6H2O?3Ca(OH)2+2H3PO4Ca3(PO4)2+6H2O?

Answer:

2.04 mol

Example 4.9

Number of Product Molecules Generated by a Reaction How many carbon dioxide molecules are produced when 0.75 mol of propane is combusted according to this equation?

C3H8+5O23CO2+4H2OC3H8+5O23CO2+4H2O

Solution The approach here is the same as for Example 4.8, though the absolute number of molecules is requested, not the number of moles of molecules. This will simply require use of the moles-to-numbers conversion factor, Avogadro’s number.

The balanced equation shows that carbon dioxide is produced from propane in a 3:1 ratio:

3 molCO21 molC3H83 molCO21 molC3H8

Using this stoichiometric factor, the provided molar amount of propane, and Avogadro’s number,

This figure shows two pink rectangles. The first is labeled, “Moles of C subscript 3 H subscript 8.” This rectangle is followed by an arrow pointing right to a second rectangle labeled, “Moles of C O subscript 2.”
0.75molC3H8×3molCO21molC3H8×6.022×1023CO2moleculesmolCO2=1.4×1024CO2molecules0.75molC3H8×3molCO21molC3H8×6.022×1023CO2moleculesmolCO2=1.4×1024CO2molecules

Check Your Learning How many NH3 molecules are produced by the reaction of 4.0 mol of Ca(OH)2 according to the following equation:

(NH4)2SO4+Ca(OH)22NH3+CaSO4+2H2O(NH4)2SO4+Ca(OH)22NH3+CaSO4+2H2O

Answer:

4.8 ×× 1024 NH3 molecules

These examples illustrate the ease with which the amounts of substances involved in a chemical reaction of known stoichiometry may be related. Directly measuring numbers of atoms and molecules is, however, not an easy task, and the practical application of stoichiometry requires that we use the more readily measured property of mass.

Example 4.10

Relating Masses of Reactants and Products What mass of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, would be required to produce 16 g of the antacid milk of magnesia [magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2] by the following reaction?

MgCl2(aq)+2NaOH(aq)Mg(OH)2(s)+2NaCl(aq)MgCl2(aq)+2NaOH(aq)Mg(OH)2(s)+2NaCl(aq)

Solution The approach used previously in Example 4.8 and Example 4.9 is likewise used here; that is, we must derive an appropriate stoichiometric factor from the balanced chemical equation and use it to relate the amounts of the two substances of interest. In this case, however, masses (not molar amounts) are provided and requested, so additional steps of the sort learned in the previous chapter are required. The calculations required are outlined in this flowchart:

This figure shows four rectangles. The first is shaded yellow and is labeled, “Mass of M g ( O H ) subscript 2.” This rectangle is followed by an arrow pointing right to a second rectangle which is shaded pink and is labeled, “Moles of M g ( O H ) subscript 2.” This rectangle is followed by an arrow pointing right to a third rectangle which is shaded pink and is labeled, “Moles of N a O H.” This rectangle is followed by an arrow pointing right to a fourth rectangle which is shaded yellow and is labeled, “Mass of N a O H.”
16g Mg(OH)2×1mol Mg(OH)258.3g Mg(OH)2×2mol NaOH1mol Mg(OH)2×40.0 g NaOHmol NaOH=22 g NaOH16g Mg(OH)2×1mol Mg(OH)258.3g Mg(OH)2×2mol NaOH1mol Mg(OH)2×40.0 g NaOHmol NaOH=22 g NaOH

Check Your Learning What mass of gallium oxide, Ga2O3, can be prepared from 29.0 g of gallium metal? The equation for the reaction is 4Ga+3O22Ga2O3.4Ga+3O22Ga2O3.

Answer:

39.0 g

Example 4.11

Relating Masses of Reactants What mass of oxygen gas, O2, from the air is consumed in the combustion of 702 g of octane, C8H18, one of the principal components of gasoline?

2C8H18+25O216CO2+18H2O2C8H18+25O216CO2+18H2O

Solution The approach required here is the same as for the Example 4.10, differing only in that the provided and requested masses are both for reactant species.

This figure shows four rectangles. The first is shaded yellow and is labeled, “Mass of C subscript 8 H subscript 18.” This rectangle is followed by an arrow pointing right to a second rectangle which is shaded pink and is labeled, “Moles of C subscript 8 H subscript 18.” This rectangle is followed by an arrow pointing right to a third rectangle which is shaded pink and is labeled, “Moles of O subscript 2.” This rectangle is followed by an arrow pointing right to a fourth rectangle which is shaded yellow and is labeled, “Mass of O subscript 2.”
702gC8H18×1molC8H18114.23gC8H18×25molO22molC8H18×32.00 gO2molO2=2.46×103gO2702gC8H18×1molC8H18114.23gC8H18×25molO22molC8H18×32.00 gO2molO2=2.46×103gO2

Check Your Learning What mass of CO is required to react with 25.13 g of Fe2O3 according to the equation Fe2O3+3CO2Fe+3CO2?Fe2O3+3CO2Fe+3CO2?

Answer:

13.22 g

These examples illustrate just a few instances of reaction stoichiometry calculations. Numerous variations on the beginning and ending computational steps are possible depending upon what particular quantities are provided and sought (volumes, solution concentrations, and so forth). Regardless of the details, all these calculations share a common essential component: the use of stoichiometric factors derived from balanced chemical equations. Figure 4.11 provides a general outline of the various computational steps associated with many reaction stoichiometry calculations.

This flowchart shows 10 rectangles connected by double headed arrows. To the upper left, a rectangle is shaded lavender and is labeled, “Volume of pure substance A.” This rectangle is followed by a horizontal double headed arrow labeled, “Density.” It connects to a second rectangle which is shaded yellow and is labeled, “Mass of A.” This rectangle is followed by a double headed arrow which is labeled, “Molar Mass,” that connects to a third rectangle which is shaded pink and is labeled, “Moles of A.” To the left of this rectangle is a horizontal double headed arrow labeled, “Molarity,” which connects to a lavender rectangle which is labeled, “Volume of solution A.” The pink, “Moles of A,” rectangle is also connected with a double headed arrow below and to the left. This arrow is labeled “Avogadro’s number.” It connects to a green shaded rectangle that is labeled, “Number of particles of A.” To the right of the pink “Moles of A,” rectangle is a horizontal double headed arrow which is labeled, “Stoichiometric factor.” It connects to a second pink rectangle which is labeled, “Moles of B.” A double headed arrow which is labeled, “Molar mass,” extends from the top of this rectangle above and to the right to a yellow shaded rectangle labeled, “Mass of B.” A horizontal double headed arrow which is labeled, “Density” links to a lavender rectangle labeled, “Volume of substance B,” to the right. A horizontal double headed arrow labeled, “Molarity,” extends right to the of the pink “Moles of B” rectangle. This arrow connects to a lavender rectangle that is labeled, “Volume of substance B.” Another double headed arrow extends below and to the right of the pink “Moles of B” rectangle. This arrow is labeled “Avogadro’s number,” and it extends to a green rectangle which is labeled, “Number of particles of B.”
Figure 4.11 The flowchart depicts the various computational steps involved in most reaction stoichiometry calculations.

Chemistry in Everyday Life

Airbags

Airbags (Figure 4.12) are a safety feature provided in most automobiles since the 1990s. The effective operation of an airbag requires that it be rapidly inflated with an appropriate amount (volume) of gas when the vehicle is involved in a collision. This requirement is satisfied in many automotive airbag systems through use of explosive chemical reactions, one common choice being the decomposition of sodium azide, NaN3. When sensors in the vehicle detect a collision, an electrical current is passed through a carefully measured amount of NaN3 to initiate its decomposition:

2NaN3(s)3N2(g)+2Na(s)2NaN3(s)3N2(g)+2Na(s)

This reaction is very rapid, generating gaseous nitrogen that can deploy and fully inflate a typical airbag in a fraction of a second (~0.03–0.1 s). Among many engineering considerations, the amount of sodium azide used must be appropriate for generating enough nitrogen gas to fully inflate the air bag and ensure its proper function. For example, a small mass (~100 g) of NaN3 will generate approximately 50 L of N2.

This photograph shows the inside of an automobile from the driver’s side area. The image shows inflated airbags positioned just in front of the driver’s and passenger’s seats and along the length of the passenger side over the windows. A large, round airbag covers the steering wheel.
Figure 4.12 Airbags deploy upon impact to minimize serious injuries to passengers. (credit: Jon Seidman)
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