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Chemistry 2e

Chapter 21

Chemistry 2eChapter 21
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. 2.5 The Periodic Table
    7. 2.6 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    8. 2.7 Chemical Nomenclature
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  4. 3 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept
    3. 3.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 3.3 Molarity
    5. 3.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  5. 4 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 4.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 4.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 4.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  6. 5 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Energy Basics
    3. 5.2 Calorimetry
    4. 5.3 Enthalpy
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  7. 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 6.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 6.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  8. 7 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 7.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 7.3 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    5. 7.4 Formal Charges and Resonance
    6. 7.5 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    7. 7.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  9. 8 Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 8.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  10. 9 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 9.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 9.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 9.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 9.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 12.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 12.3 Rate Laws
    5. 12.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 12.5 Collision Theory
    7. 12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 12.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salts
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Coupled Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Spontaneity
    3. 16.2 Entropy
    4. 16.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 16.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  18. 17 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Review of Redox Chemistry
    3. 17.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 17.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
    5. 17.4 Potential, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
    6. 17.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 17.6 Corrosion
    8. 17.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 20.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 20.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 20.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  22. 21 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 21.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 21.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 21.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 21.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index
1.

(a) sodium-24; (b) aluminum-29; (c) krypton-73; (d) iridium-194

3.

(a) 1434Si;1434Si; (b) 1536P;1536P; (c) 2557Mn;2557Mn; (d) 56121Ba56121Ba

5.

(a) 2545Mn+1;2545Mn+1; (b) 4569Rh+2;4569Rh+2; (c) 53142I−1;53142I−1; (d) 97243Bk97243Bk

7.

Nuclear reactions usually change one type of nucleus into another; chemical changes rearrange atoms. Nuclear reactions involve much larger energies than chemical reactions and have measureable mass changes.

9.

(a), (b), (c), (d), and (e)

11.

(a) A nucleon is any particle contained in the nucleus of the atom, so it can refer to protons and neutrons. (b) An α particle is one product of natural radioactivity and is the nucleus of a helium atom. (c) A β particle is a product of natural radioactivity and is a high-speed electron. (d) A positron is a particle with the same mass as an electron but with a positive charge. (e) Gamma rays compose electromagnetic radiation of high energy and short wavelength. (f) Nuclide is a term used when referring to a single type of nucleus. (g) The mass number is the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in an element. (h) The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an element.

13.

(a) 1327Al+24He1530P+01n;1327Al+24He1530P+01n; (b) 94239Pu+24He96242Cm+01n;94239Pu+24He96242Cm+01n; (c) 714N+24He817O+11H;714N+24He817O+11H; (d) 92235U3796Rb+55135Cs+401n92235U3796Rb+55135Cs+401n

15.

(a) 714N+ 24He 817O+ 11H; 714N+ 24He 817O+ 11H; (b) 714C+ 01n 614C+ 11H; 714C+ 01n 614C+ 11H; (c) 90232Th+ 01n 90233Th; 90232Th+ 01n 90233Th; (d) 192238U+ 12H 92239U+ 11H 192238U+ 12H 92239U+ 11H

17.

(a) 148.8 MeV per atom; (b) 7.808 MeV/nucleon

19.

α (helium nuclei), β (electrons), β+ (positrons), and η (neutrons) may be emitted from a radioactive element, all of which are particles; γ rays also may be emitted.

21.

(a) conversion of a neutron to a proton: 01n 11p + +10e ; 01n 11p + +10e ; (b) conversion of a proton to a neutron; the positron has the same mass as an electron and the same magnitude of positive charge as the electron has negative charge; when the n:p ratio of a nucleus is too low, a proton is converted into a neutron with the emission of a positron: 11p 01n + +10e ; 11p 01n + +10e ; (c) In a proton-rich nucleus, an inner atomic electron can be absorbed. In simplest form, this changes a proton into a neutron: 11p + -10e 01p 11p + -10e 01p

23.

The electron pulled into the nucleus was most likely found in the 1s orbital. As an electron falls from a higher energy level to replace it, the difference in the energy of the replacement electron in its two energy levels is given off as an X-ray.

25.

Manganese-51 is most likely to decay by positron emission. The n:p ratio for Cr-53 is 29242924 = 1.21; for Mn-51, it is 26252625 = 1.04; for Fe-59, it is 33263326 = 1.27. Positron decay occurs when the n:p ratio is low. Mn-51 has the lowest n:p ratio and therefore is most likely to decay by positron emission. Besides, 2453Cr 2453Cr is a stable isotope, and 2659Fe 2659Fe decays by beta emission.

27.

(a) β decay; (b) α decay; (c) positron emission; (d) β decay; (e) α decay

29.

92238U 90234Th + 24He ; 92238U 90234Th + 24He ; 90234Th 91234Pa + -10e ; 90234Th 91234Pa + -10e ; 91234Pa 92234U + -10e ; 91234Pa 92234U + -10e ; 92234U 90230Th + 24He 92234U 90230Th + 24He 90230Th 88226Ra + 24He 90230Th 88226Ra + 24He 88226Ra 86222Rn + 24He ; 88226Ra 86222Rn + 24He ; 86222Rn 84218Po + 24He 86222Rn 84218Po + 24He

31.

Half-life is the time required for half the atoms in a sample to decay. Example (answers may vary): For C-14, the half-life is 5770 years. A 10-g sample of C-14 would contain 5 g of C-14 after 5770 years; a 0.20-g sample of C-14 would contain 0.10 g after 5770 years.

33.

(12)0.04=0.973(12)0.04=0.973 or 97.3%

35.

2 ×× 103 y

37.

0.12 h–1

39.

(a) 3.8 billion years; (b) The rock would be younger than the age calculated in part (a). If Sr was originally in the rock, the amount produced by radioactive decay would equal the present amount minus the initial amount. As this amount would be smaller than the amount used to calculate the age of the rock and the age is proportional to the amount of Sr, the rock would be younger.

41.

c = 0; This shows that no Pu-239 could remain since the formation of the earth. Consequently, the plutonium now present could not have been formed with the uranium.

43.

17.5 MeV

45.

(a) 83212Bi 84212Po + -10e ; 83212Bi 84212Po + -10e ; (b) 58B 48B e+ -10e ; 58B 48B e+ -10e ; (c) 92238U + 01n 93239Np + -10N p, 92238U + 01n 93239Np + -10N p, 93239Np 94239Pu + -10e ; 93239Np 94239Pu + -10e ; (d) 3890Sr 3990Y + -10e 3890Sr 3990Y + -10e

47.

(a) 95241Am+ 24He 97244Bk+ 01n; 95241Am+ 24He 97244Bk+ 01n; (b) 94239Pu+15 01n 100254Fm+6 −10e; 94239Pu+15 01n 100254Fm+6 −10e; (c) 98250Cf+ 511B 103257Lr+4 01n; 98250Cf+ 511B 103257Lr+4 01n; (d) 98249Cf+ 715N 105260Db+4 01n98249Cf+ 715N 105260Db+4 01n

49.

Two nuclei must collide for fusion to occur. High temperatures are required to give the nuclei enough kinetic energy to overcome the very strong repulsion resulting from their positive charges.

51.

A nuclear reactor consists of the following:

  1. A nuclear fuel. A fissionable isotope must be present in large enough quantities to sustain a controlled chain reaction. The radioactive isotope is contained in tubes called fuel rods.
  2. A moderator. A moderator slows neutrons produced by nuclear reactions so that they can be absorbed by the fuel and cause additional nuclear reactions.
  3. A coolant. The coolant carries heat from the fission reaction to an external boiler and turbine where it is transformed into electricity.
  4. A control system. The control system consists of control rods placed between fuel rods to absorb neutrons and is used to adjust the number of neutrons and keep the rate of the chain reaction at a safe level.
  5. A shield and containment system. The function of this component is to protect workers from radiation produced by the nuclear reactions and to withstand the high pressures resulting from high-temperature reactions.
53.

The fission of uranium generates heat, which is carried to an external steam generator (boiler). The resulting steam turns a turbine that powers an electrical generator.

55.

Introduction of either radioactive Ag+ or radioactive Cl into the solution containing the stated reaction, with subsequent time given for equilibration, will produce a radioactive precipitate that was originally devoid of radiation.

57.

(a) 53133 I 54133 Xe+ −10 e;53133 I 54133 Xe+ −10 e; (b) 37.6 days

59.

Alpha particles can be stopped by very thin shielding but have much stronger ionizing potential than beta particles, X-rays, and γ-rays. When inhaled, there is no protective skin covering the cells of the lungs, making it possible to damage the DNA in those cells and cause cancer.

61.

(a) 7.64 ×× 109 Bq; (b) 2.06 ×× 10−2 Ci

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