Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
  1. Preface
  2. The Chemistry of Life
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. The Cell
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 The Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Visual Connection Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light Energy to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Genetics
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkage
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 16 Gene Expression
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcription Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Visual Connection Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Evolutionary Processes
    1. 18 Evolution and the Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Speciation Rates
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Biological Diversity
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 23 Protists
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 Eukaryotic Origins
      3. 23.2 Characteristics of Protists
      4. 23.3 Groups of Protists
      5. 23.4 Ecology of Protists
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 24 Fungi
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Characteristics of Fungi
      3. 24.2 Classifications of Fungi
      4. 24.3 Ecology of Fungi
      5. 24.4 Fungal Parasites and Pathogens
      6. 24.5 Importance of Fungi in Human Life
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 25 Seedless Plants
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Early Plant Life
      3. 25.2 Green Algae: Precursors of Land Plants
      4. 25.3 Bryophytes
      5. 25.4 Seedless Vascular Plants
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 26 Seed Plants
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Evolution of Seed Plants
      3. 26.2 Gymnosperms
      4. 26.3 Angiosperms
      5. 26.4 The Role of Seed Plants
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 27 Introduction to Animal Diversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom
      3. 27.2 Features Used to Classify Animals
      4. 27.3 Animal Phylogeny
      5. 27.4 The Evolutionary History of the Animal Kingdom
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    8. 28 Invertebrates
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Phylum Porifera
      3. 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria
      4. 28.3 Superphylum Lophotrochozoa: Flatworms, Rotifers, and Nemerteans
      5. 28.4 Superphylum Lophotrochozoa: Molluscs and Annelids
      6. 28.5 Superphylum Ecdysozoa: Nematodes and Tardigrades
      7. 28.6 Superphylum Ecdysozoa: Arthropods
      8. 28.7 Superphylum Deuterostomia
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Visual Connection Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. 29 Vertebrates
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Chordates
      3. 29.2 Fishes
      4. 29.3 Amphibians
      5. 29.4 Reptiles
      6. 29.5 Birds
      7. 29.6 Mammals
      8. 29.7 The Evolution of Primates
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Visual Connection Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Plant Structure and Function
    1. 30 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 The Plant Body
      3. 30.2 Stems
      4. 30.3 Roots
      5. 30.4 Leaves
      6. 30.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 30.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 31 Soil and Plant Nutrition
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Nutritional Requirements of Plants
      3. 31.2 The Soil
      4. 31.3 Nutritional Adaptations of Plants
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 32 Plant Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Reproductive Development and Structure
      3. 32.2 Pollination and Fertilization
      4. 32.3 Asexual Reproduction
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 33 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 33.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 34 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 34.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 34.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 34.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 35 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 35.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 35.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 36 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 36.2 Somatosensation
      4. 36.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 36.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 36.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 37 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 37.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 37.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 37.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 38 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 38.2 Bone
      4. 38.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 38.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 39 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 39.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 39.3 Breathing
      5. 39.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    8. 40 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 40.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 40.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 40.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 40.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. 41 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 41.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 41.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 41.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 41.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. 42 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 42.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 42.3 Antibodies
      5. 42.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. 43 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 43.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 43.2 Fertilization
      4. 43.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 43.5 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      7. 43.6 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      8. 43.7 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Visual Connection Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  9. Ecology
    1. 44 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 44.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 44.2 Biogeography
      4. 44.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 44.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 45 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 45.1 Population Demography
      3. 45.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 45.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 45.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 45.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 45.6 Community Ecology
      8. 45.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Visual Connection Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 46 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
      3. 46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 46.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 47 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 47.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 47.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 47.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
A
A horizon31.2 The Soil
above-ground biomass44.2 Biogeography
acclimatization33.3 Homeostasis
Actinopterygii29.2 Fishes
active site6.5 Enzymes
Active transport5.3 Active Transport
adaptive evolution19.3 Adaptive Evolution
adenosine triphosphate6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
adenylyl cyclase37.2 How Hormones Work
adhesion2.2 Water
adrenal cortex37.5 Endocrine Glands
adrenal glands37.5 Endocrine Glands
adrenal medulla37.5 Endocrine Glands
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
adventitious roots30.3 Roots
aerobic respiration7.2 Glycolysis
affinities42.3 Antibodies
air sacs29.5 Birds
alimentary canal34.1 Digestive Systems
aliphatic hydrocarbons2.3 Carbon
allantois29.4 Reptiles
Allopatric speciation18.2 Formation of New Species
allosteric inhibition6.5 Enzymes
alveolar ventilation39.3 Breathing
Alzheimer’s disease35.5 Nervous System Disorders
ambulacral (water vascular) system28.7 Superphylum Deuterostomia
amino acid-derived hormones37.1 Types of Hormones
Amino acids3.4 Proteins
aminoacyl tRNA synthetases15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
amniote embryo29.4 Reptiles
amniotic egg29.4 Reptiles
ampullae of Lorenzini29.2 Fishes
anaerobic cellular respiration7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
Anatomical dead space39.3 Breathing
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)41.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
anterior pituitary37.5 Endocrine Glands
antibiotic resistance17.1 Biotechnology
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
antigen-presenting cell (APC)42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
apical bud30.2 Stems
Apical meristems30.1 The Plant Body
Apocrine glands29.6 Mammals
aposematic coloration45.6 Community Ecology
appendicular skeleton38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
Appositional growth38.2 Bone
arboreal hypothesis29.5 Birds
arbuscular mycorrhizae24.2 Classifications of Fungi
aromatic hydrocarbons2.3 Carbon
Asexual reproduction43.1 Reproduction Methods
assortative mating19.2 Population Genetics
asymptomatic infection21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)37.5 Endocrine Glands
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)35.5 Nervous System Disorders
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)35.5 Nervous System Disorders
autonomic nervous system35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
axillary bud30.2 Stems
B
B horizon31.2 The Soil
background extinction47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
Ball-and-socket joints38.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
basal metabolic rate (BMR)33.1 Animal Form and Function
Batesian mimicry45.6 Community Ecology
Behavioral isolation18.2 Formation of New Species
bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 − ) (HCO 3 − ) 39.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
binary (prokaryotic) fission10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
binomial nomenclature20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
Biodiversity hotspots47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
biogeochemical cycle46.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
biological community44.1 The Scope of Ecology
Biological nitrogen fixation22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
bipolar neurons36.3 Taste and Smell
blood urea nitrogen41.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
Bone remodeling38.2 Bone
bottleneck effect19.2 Population Genetics
Brumation29.4 Reptiles
Bryophytes25.3 Bryophytes
Buffers2.2 Water
C
C horizon31.2 The Soil
caecilians29.3 Amphibians
Calcification38.2 Bone
calorie2.2 Water
cAMP-dependent kinase (A-kinase)9.2 Propagation of the Signal
capillary action2.2 Water
carbohydrates3.2 Carbohydrates
carrier protein5.2 Passive Transport
Casparian strip30.3 Roots
catabolite activator protein (CAP)16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
cell-cycle checkpoints10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
cell-mediated immune response42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
cellular cloning17.1 Biotechnology
central vacuole4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Cephalochordata29.1 Chordates
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)35.3 The Central Nervous System
Channel proteins5.2 Passive Transport
chaperones3.4 Proteins
chorioallantoic placenta29.6 Mammals
Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkage
circadian36.5 Vision
cleavage furrow10.2 The Cell Cycle
climax community45.6 Community Ecology
coenzymes6.5 Enzymes
cofactors6.5 Enzymes
cohesion2.2 Water
Collenchyma cells30.2 Stems
columella29.5 Birds
Columnar epithelial33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Compact bone38.2 Bone
Companion cells30.2 Stems
competitive exclusion principle45.6 Community Ecology
competitive inhibition6.5 Enzymes
complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries17.2 Mapping Genomes
compliance39.3 Breathing
compound leaf30.4 Leaves
concentration gradient5.2 Passive Transport
condensin proteins10.2 The Cell Cycle
Connective tissues33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Conservation biogeography47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
Contour feathers29.5 Birds
contractile vacuoles23.3 Groups of Protists
convergent evolution18.1 Understanding Evolution
Craniata (or Vertebrata)29.1 Chordates
Crocodilia29.4 Reptiles
Cross reactivity42.3 Antibodies
Cuboidal epithelial33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
cyclin-dependent kinases10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
Cytogenetic mapping17.2 Mapping Genomes
cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
D
dead space39.3 Breathing
Deductive reasoning1.1 The Science of Biology
denaturation3.4 Proteins
denature6.5 Enzymes
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)3.5 Nucleic Acids
Dermal tissue30.1 The Plant Body
Descriptive (or discovery) science1.1 The Science of Biology
diacylglycerol (DAG)9.2 Propagation of the Signal
diaphysis38.2 Bone
Dinosaurs29.4 Reptiles
diphyodonts29.6 Mammals
directional selection19.3 Adaptive Evolution
Disaccharides3.2 Carbohydrates
dissociation2.2 Water
distal convoluted tubule (DCT)41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
divergent evolution18.1 Understanding Evolution
diversifying selection19.3 Adaptive Evolution
dorsal hollow nerve cord29.1 Chordates
down feathers29.5 Birds
down-regulation37.2 How Hormones Work
E
Eccrine glands29.6 Mammals
Ecological biogeography47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
ecosystem diversity47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
ecosystem dynamics46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
Ecosystem ecology44.1 The Scope of Ecology
Ectomycorrhizae24.3 Ecology of Fungi
ectotherms29.4 Reptiles
elastic recoil39.3 Breathing
elastic work39.3 Breathing
electrochemical gradient5.3 Active Transport
electrogenic pump5.3 Active Transport
electron microscopes4.1 Studying Cells
Emergent vegetation44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Emsleyan/Mertensian mimicry45.6 Community Ecology
Enantiomers2.3 Carbon
end-Permian extinction47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
Endochondral ossification38.2 Bone
endocrine glands37.5 Endocrine Glands
endodermis30.3 Roots
Endomycorrhizae24.3 Ecology of Fungi
endosymbiotic theory23.1 Eukaryotic Origins
endotherms29.4 Reptiles
environmental disturbances45.6 Community Ecology
epidermis30.2 Stems
epiphyseal plate38.2 Bone
epiphyses38.2 Bone
Epithelial tissues33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Erythropoietin (EPO)37.5 Endocrine Glands
eukaryotic cells4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
evaporation2.2 Water
evolutionary (Darwinian) fitness19.3 Adaptive Evolution
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)35.2 How Neurons Communicate
expiratory reserve volume (ERV)39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
expressed sequence tag (EST)17.2 Mapping Genomes
external fertilization43.2 Fertilization
F
facilitated transport5.2 Passive Transport
facultative anaerobes24.1 Characteristics of Fungi
Feedback inhibition6.5 Enzymes
Fibrous connective tissues33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
fibrous root system30.3 Roots
first messenger37.2 How Hormones Work
Flat bones38.2 Bone
Flow-resistive39.3 Breathing
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
forced expiratory volume (FEV)39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
Forest Stewardship Council47.3 Threats to Biodiversity
Foundation species45.6 Community Ecology
free nerve ending36.2 Somatosensation
frequency-dependent selection19.3 Adaptive Evolution
Functional groups2.3 Carbon
functional residual capacity (FRC)39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
functional vital capacity (FVC)39.3 Breathing
furcula29.5 Birds
G
gastric inhibitory peptide34.4 Digestive System Regulation
gastrovascular cavity34.1 Digestive Systems
Gene targeting17.1 Biotechnology
genetic diagnosis17.1 Biotechnology
Genetic engineering17.1 Biotechnology
genetic marker17.2 Mapping Genomes
genetic recombination17.2 Mapping Genomes
genetic structure19.1 Population Evolution
genetic testing17.1 Biotechnology
genetic variance19.2 Population Genetics
genetically modified organism17.1 Biotechnology
Genome mapping17.2 Mapping Genomes
genomic libraries17.2 Mapping Genomes
geographical variation19.2 Population Genetics
Geometric isomers2.3 Carbon
ginkgophytes26.2 Gymnosperms
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
glucose-sparing effect37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
GLUT (glucose transporter) proteins7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
GLUT proteins7.2 Glycolysis
Glycolysis7.2 Glycolysis
glycosidic bond3.2 Carbohydrates
gnetophytes26.2 Gymnosperms
Golgi tendon organs36.2 Somatosensation
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
good genes hypothesis19.3 Adaptive Evolution
Great Barrier Reef44.4 Aquatic Biomes
gross primary productivity46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
Ground tissue30.1 The Plant Body
growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
guard cells30.2 Stems
Gymnosperms26.2 Gymnosperms
H
handicap principle19.3 Adaptive Evolution
haplodiplontic25.1 Early Plant Life
Haversian canal38.2 Bone
heat of vaporization2.2 Water
helper T (TH) lymphocytes42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
histone proteins10.1 Cell Division
Historical biogeography47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts
holistic ecosystem model46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
Holocene, mass extinction47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
homeotherms29.4 Reptiles
Homo sapiens sapiens29.7 The Evolution of Primates
homologous structures18.1 Understanding Evolution
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT)20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
horizontal transmission21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts
Hormones3.4 Proteins
human beta chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG)43.5 Human Pregnancy and Birth
human growth hormone (HGH or hGH)10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
humoral immune response42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
Hydrocarbons2.3 Carbon
hydrostatic skeleton38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
hyperopia36.5 Vision
hypophyseal portal system37.5 Endocrine Glands
hypothesis-based science1.1 The Science of Biology
I
inbreeding depression19.2 Population Genetics
induced fit6.5 Enzymes
Induced mutations14.6 DNA Repair
Inductive reasoning1.1 The Science of Biology
inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs)35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Inorganic nutrients44.2 Biogeography
inositol phospholipids9.2 Propagation of the Signal
inositol triphosphate (IP3)9.2 Propagation of the Signal
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
Intercalary meristems30.1 The Plant Body
intercostal muscles39.3 Breathing
Intermediate filaments4.5 The Cytoskeleton
internal fertilization43.2 Fertilization
internode30.2 Stems
intertidal zone44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Intervertebral discs38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
intracellular hormone receptors37.2 How Hormones Work
Intramembranous ossification38.2 Bone
intrapleural space39.3 Breathing
Irregular bones38.2 Bone
island biogeography45.6 Community Ecology
islets of Langerhans37.5 Endocrine Glands
isomers2.3 Carbon
L
lamellae38.2 Bone
large intestine34.1 Digestive Systems
late Devonian extinction47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
lateral line29.2 Fishes
Lateral meristems30.1 The Plant Body
law of dominance12.3 Laws of Inheritance
law of independent assortment12.3 Laws of Inheritance
law of segregation12.3 Laws of Inheritance
lenticels30.2 Stems
lepidosaurs29.4 Reptiles
light microscopes4.1 Studying Cells
light-dependent reactions8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
light-independent reactions8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
linkage analysis17.2 Mapping Genomes
litmus2.2 Water
Liverworts25.3 Bryophytes
Long bones38.2 Bone
Long-term depression (LTD)35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Long-term potentiation (LTP)35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Loose connective tissue33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Lophotrochozoa27.3 Animal Phylogeny
lysis buffer17.1 Biotechnology
M
major histocompatibility class (MHC) I molecules42.1 Innate Immune Response
Malpighian tubules41.3 Excretion Systems
Mammary glands29.6 Mammals
mark and recapture45.1 Population Demography
materials and methods1.1 The Science of Biology
mechanoreceptor36.1 Sensory Processes
megasporocyte26.2 Gymnosperms
Meissner’s corpuscles36.2 Somatosensation
Meristematic tissue30.1 The Plant Body
Merkel’s disks36.2 Somatosensation
messenger RNA (mRNA)3.5 Nucleic Acids
metaphase plate10.2 The Cell Cycle
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
microfilaments4.5 The Cytoskeleton
microsatellite polymorphisms17.2 Mapping Genomes
microsporocytes26.2 Gymnosperms
mineral soils31.2 The Soil
mismatch repair14.6 DNA Repair
mitotic phase10.2 The Cell Cycle
mitotic spindle10.2 The Cell Cycle
Monosaccharides3.2 Carbohydrates
monosulcate26.3 Angiosperms
monotremes29.6 Mammals
morganucodonts29.6 Mammals
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
Müllerian mimicry45.6 Community Ecology
multiple cloning site (MCS)17.1 Biotechnology
Muscle spindles36.2 Somatosensation
mycorrhizaeIntroduction
N
natural killer (NK) cells42.1 Innate Immune Response
negative feedback loop33.3 Homeostasis
Neornithes29.5 Birds
Net consumer productivity46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
Net production efficiency (NPE)46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
Neurodegenerative disorders35.5 Nervous System Disorders
next-generation sequencing17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
non-vascular plants25.1 Early Plant Life
nonrandom mating19.2 Population Genetics
nonrenewable resource46.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
nonsense codons15.1 The Genetic Code
Northern blotting17.1 Biotechnology
nuclear envelope4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Nucleic acids3.5 Nucleic Acids
nucleotide excision repair14.6 DNA Repair
O
O horizon31.2 The Soil
Obstructive diseases39.3 Breathing
Ocean upwelling44.2 Biogeography
olfactory bulb36.3 Taste and Smell
olfactory epithelium36.3 Taste and Smell
olfactory receptor36.3 Taste and Smell
Ordovician-Silurian extinction47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
organic molecules2.3 Carbon
organic soils31.2 The Soil
Ornithorhynchidae29.6 Mammals
Ornithurae29.5 Birds
osseous tissue38.2 Bone
Ossification38.2 Bone
Osteichthyes29.2 Fishes
Osteoblasts38.2 Bone
Osteoclasts38.2 Bone
Osteocytes38.2 Bone
Osteoprogenitor cells38.2 Bone
ovulate cones26.2 Gymnosperms
oxidative phosphorylation7.1 Energy in Living Systems
oxygen2.2 Water
P
Pacinian corpuscles36.2 Somatosensation
pairwise-end sequencing17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
palmately compound leaf30.4 Leaves
parabronchi29.5 Birds
parafollicular cells37.5 Endocrine Glands
parasympathetic nervous system35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
parathyroid glands37.5 Endocrine Glands
parathyroid hormone (PTH)37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
Parenchyma cells30.2 Stems
parent material31.2 The Soil
Parkinson’s disease35.5 Nervous System Disorders
passive immunity42.3 Antibodies
Passive transport5.2 Passive Transport
pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)42.1 Innate Immune Response
pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)42.1 Innate Immune Response
Peer-reviewed manuscripts1.1 The Science of Biology
pelagic realm44.4 Aquatic Biomes
peptide bond3.4 Proteins
peptide hormones37.1 Types of Hormones
perfect flowers26.3 Angiosperms
pericycle30.3 Roots
periderm30.2 Stems
Peripheral proteins5.1 Components and Structure
peritubular capillary network41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
permanent tissue30.1 The Plant Body
Petromyzontida29.2 Fishes
pH scale2.2 Water
Pharmacogenomics17.4 Applying Genomics
Pharyngeal slits29.1 Chordates
phosphoanhydride bonds6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
phosphodiester3.5 Nucleic Acids
Phospholipids3.3 Lipids
phyllotaxy30.4 Leaves
physiological dead space39.3 Breathing
Phytoplankton44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Pinnately compound leaves30.4 Leaves
pioneer species45.6 Community Ecology
pituitary gland37.5 Endocrine Glands
pituitary stalk37.5 Endocrine Glands
plasma membrane4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
plasma membrane hormone receptors37.2 How Hormones Work
Pleistocene Extinction47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
Pneumatic bones29.5 Birds
polar microtubules10.2 The Cell Cycle
polynucleotide3.5 Nucleic Acids
polysaccharide3.2 Carbohydrates
population density45.1 Population Demography
population genetics19.1 Population Evolution
population size (N)45.1 Population Demography
population variation19.2 Population Genetics
positive feedback loop33.3 Homeostasis
post-anal tail29.1 Chordates
posterior pituitary37.5 Endocrine Glands
preening29.5 Birds
presbyopia36.5 Vision
primary (main) bronchi39.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
Primary active transport5.3 Active Transport
Primary feathers29.5 Birds
primary growth30.2 Stems
primary structure3.4 Proteins
primary succession45.6 Community Ecology
prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH)37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
proofreading14.6 DNA Repair
Proteins3.4 Proteins
proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
pterosaurs29.4 Reptiles
pulmocutaneous circulation40.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
pygostyle29.5 Birds
R
Radiation hybrid mapping17.2 Mapping Genomes
receptor potential36.1 Sensory Processes
receptor-mediated endocytosis5.4 Bulk Transport
recombinant DNA17.1 Biotechnology
recombinant proteins17.1 Biotechnology
recombination nodules11.1 The Process of Meiosis
recruitment39.3 Breathing
reductional division11.1 The Process of Meiosis
regulatory T (Treg) cells42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
relative fitness19.3 Adaptive Evolution
Relative species abundance45.6 Community Ecology
Reproductive cloning17.1 Biotechnology
reproductive isolation18.2 Formation of New Species
respiratory bronchioles39.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
respiratory distress syndrome39.3 Breathing
respiratory rate39.3 Breathing
Restriction endonucleases17.1 Biotechnology
restriction fragment length polymorphisms17.2 Mapping Genomes
restrictive diseases39.3 Breathing
retinoblastoma protein (Rb)10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)17.1 Biotechnology
rhizome30.2 Stems
rhizosphere31.2 The Soil
Rho-dependent termination15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
Rho-independent termination15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
rhodopsin36.5 Vision
ribonucleases17.1 Biotechnology
ribonucleic acid (RNA)3.5 Nucleic Acids
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)3.5 Nucleic Acids
RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
root cap30.3 Roots
Root hairs30.3 Roots
rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
Ruffini endings36.2 Somatosensation
Runners30.2 Stems
S
Salamanders29.3 Amphibians
salivary amylase34.1 Digestive Systems
saltatory conduction35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Sarcopterygii29.2 Fishes
saturated fatty acid3.3 Lipids
Sauropsids29.4 Reptiles
Sclerenchyma cells30.2 Stems
Sebaceous glands29.6 Mammals
Secondary active transport5.3 Active Transport
Secondary consumers46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
Secondary feathers29.5 Birds
Secondary growth30.2 Stems
secondary structure3.4 Proteins
secondary succession45.6 Community Ecology
selection pressure19.2 Population Genetics
selectively permeable5.2 Passive Transport
sensory receptor36.1 Sensory Processes
sensory transduction36.1 Sensory Processes
sensory-somatic nervous system35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
Sequence mapping 17.2 Mapping Genomes
Sesamoid bones38.2 Bone
sexual dimorphisms19.3 Adaptive Evolution
sexual reproduction43.1 Reproduction Methods
Short bones38.2 Bone
sieve-tube cells30.2 Stems
simple leaf30.4 Leaves
single nucleotide polymorphisms17.2 Mapping Genomes
Single-strand binding proteins14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
small intestine34.1 Digestive Systems
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
soil profile31.2 The Soil
solvent2.2 Water
Southern blotting17.1 Biotechnology
Species dispersion patterns45.1 Population Demography
Species richness45.6 Community Ecology
species-area relationship47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
specific heat capacity2.2 Water
spermatophore29.3 Amphibians
Sphenodontia29.4 Reptiles
sphere of hydration2.2 Water
spongy bone38.2 Bone
Spontaneous mutations14.6 DNA Repair
spring-and-fall turnover44.2 Biogeography
Squamous epithelial33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
stabilizing selection19.3 Adaptive Evolution
standard metabolic rate (SMR)33.1 Animal Form and Function
steroids3.3 Lipids
stipules30.4 Leaves
Stolons30.2 Stems
stratified epithelia33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Structural isomers2.3 Carbon
substituted hydrocarbons2.3 Carbon
substrate-level phosphorylation7.1 Energy in Living Systems
substrates6.5 Enzymes
Subtropical deserts44.3 Terrestrial Biomes
superior colliculus36.5 Vision
suprachiasmatic nucleus36.5 Vision
surface tension2.2 Water
Surfactant39.3 Breathing
survivorship curve45.1 Population Demography
Sutural bones38.2 Bone
swim bladder29.2 Fishes
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
sympathetic nervous system35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
Sympatric speciation18.2 Formation of New Species
Synapsids29.4 Reptiles
synaptonemal complex11.1 The Process of Meiosis
T
Tachyglossidae29.6 Mammals
tap root system30.3 Roots
Temperate forests44.3 Terrestrial Biomes
Temperate grasslands44.3 Terrestrial Biomes
Temporal fenestrae29.4 Reptiles
Tendrils30.2 Stems
terminal bronchioles39.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
Terrestrial biomes44.3 Terrestrial Biomes
terrestrial hypothesis29.5 Birds
Tertiary consumers46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
tertiary structure3.4 Proteins
Testudines29.4 Reptiles
thermoregulation33.3 Homeostasis
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
tonic activity36.5 Vision
Tracheids30.2 Stems
tragedy of the commons47.3 Threats to Biodiversity
trans fat3.3 Lipids
transcription3.5 Nucleic Acids
transcription bubble.15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
transcriptional start site16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
Transfer RNA (tRNA)3.5 Nucleic Acids
Transition substitution14.6 DNA Repair
transport proteins5.2 Passive Transport
Transversion substitution14.6 DNA Repair
triacylglycerols3.3 Lipids
Triassic–Jurassic47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
Trichomes30.2 Stems
triglycerides3.3 Lipids
trophic level transfer efficiency (TLTE)46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
Tropical wet forests44.3 Terrestrial Biomes
tryptophan (trp) operon16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
Tumor suppressor genes10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
V
vascular bundle30.1 The Plant Body
vascular cylinder30.1 The Plant Body
vascular stele30.1 The Plant Body
vascular tissue30.1 The Plant Body
venation30.4 Leaves
ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch39.3 Breathing
vertical transmission21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts
Vessel elements30.2 Stems
Vestibular sensation36.1 Sensory Processes
vestigial structures18.1 Understanding Evolution
viable-but-non-culturable22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
vomerine teeth29.3 Amphibians
Y
Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Mar 28, 2018 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.