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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Optics
    1. 1 The Nature of Light
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Propagation of Light
      3. 1.2 The Law of Reflection
      4. 1.3 Refraction
      5. 1.4 Total Internal Reflection
      6. 1.5 Dispersion
      7. 1.6 Huygens’s Principle
      8. 1.7 Polarization
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Geometric Optics and Image Formation
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Images Formed by Plane Mirrors
      3. 2.2 Spherical Mirrors
      4. 2.3 Images Formed by Refraction
      5. 2.4 Thin Lenses
      6. 2.5 The Eye
      7. 2.6 The Camera
      8. 2.7 The Simple Magnifier
      9. 2.8 Microscopes and Telescopes
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    3. 3 Interference
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Young's Double-Slit Interference
      3. 3.2 Mathematics of Interference
      4. 3.3 Multiple-Slit Interference
      5. 3.4 Interference in Thin Films
      6. 3.5 The Michelson Interferometer
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Diffraction
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Single-Slit Diffraction
      3. 4.2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction
      4. 4.3 Double-Slit Diffraction
      5. 4.4 Diffraction Gratings
      6. 4.5 Circular Apertures and Resolution
      7. 4.6 X-Ray Diffraction
      8. 4.7 Holography
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Modern Physics
    1. 5 Relativity
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Invariance of Physical Laws
      3. 5.2 Relativity of Simultaneity
      4. 5.3 Time Dilation
      5. 5.4 Length Contraction
      6. 5.5 The Lorentz Transformation
      7. 5.6 Relativistic Velocity Transformation
      8. 5.7 Doppler Effect for Light
      9. 5.8 Relativistic Momentum
      10. 5.9 Relativistic Energy
      11. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Photons and Matter Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Blackbody Radiation
      3. 6.2 Photoelectric Effect
      4. 6.3 The Compton Effect
      5. 6.4 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom
      6. 6.5 De Broglie’s Matter Waves
      7. 6.6 Wave-Particle Duality
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    3. 7 Quantum Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Wave Functions
      3. 7.2 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
      4. 7.3 The Schrӧdinger Equation
      5. 7.4 The Quantum Particle in a Box
      6. 7.5 The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator
      7. 7.6 The Quantum Tunneling of Particles through Potential Barriers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Atomic Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Hydrogen Atom
      3. 8.2 Orbital Magnetic Dipole Moment of the Electron
      4. 8.3 Electron Spin
      5. 8.4 The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table
      6. 8.5 Atomic Spectra and X-rays
      7. 8.6 Lasers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    5. 9 Condensed Matter Physics
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Types of Molecular Bonds
      3. 9.2 Molecular Spectra
      4. 9.3 Bonding in Crystalline Solids
      5. 9.4 Free Electron Model of Metals
      6. 9.5 Band Theory of Solids
      7. 9.6 Semiconductors and Doping
      8. 9.7 Semiconductor Devices
      9. 9.8 Superconductivity
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Nuclear Physics
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Properties of Nuclei
      3. 10.2 Nuclear Binding Energy
      4. 10.3 Radioactive Decay
      5. 10.4 Nuclear Reactions
      6. 10.5 Fission
      7. 10.6 Nuclear Fusion
      8. 10.7 Medical Applications and Biological Effects of Nuclear Radiation
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Particle Physics and Cosmology
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Introduction to Particle Physics
      3. 11.2 Particle Conservation Laws
      4. 11.3 Quarks
      5. 11.4 Particle Accelerators and Detectors
      6. 11.5 The Standard Model
      7. 11.6 The Big Bang
      8. 11.7 Evolution of the Early Universe
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
  12. Index

Check Your Understanding

10.1

eight

10.2

harder

10.3

Half-life is inversely related to decay rate, so the half-life is short. Activity depends on both the number of decaying particles and the decay rate, so the activity can be great or small.

10.4

Neither; it stays the same.

10.5

the same

10.6

the conversion of mass to energy

10.7

power

Conceptual Questions

1.

The nucleus of an atom is made of one or more nucleons. A nucleon refers to either a proton or neutron. A nuclide is a stable nucleus.

3.

A bound system should have less mass than its components because of energy-mass equivalence (E=mc2).(E=mc2). If the energy of a system is reduced, the total mass of the system is reduced. If two bricks are placed next to one another, the attraction between them is purely gravitational, assuming the bricks are electrically neutral. The gravitational force between the bricks is relatively small (compared to the strong nuclear force), so the mass defect is much too small to be observed. If the bricks are glued together with cement, the mass defect is likewise small because the electrical interactions between the electrons involved in the bonding are still relatively small.

5.

Nucleons at the surface of a nucleus interact with fewer nucleons. This reduces the binding energy per nucleon, which is based on an average over all the nucleons in the nucleus.

7.

That it is constant.

9.

Gamma (γ) rays are produced by nuclear interactions and X-rays and light are produced by atomic interactions. Gamma rays are typically shorter wavelength than X-rays, and X-rays are shorter wavelength than light.

11.

Assume a rectangular coordinate system with an xy-plane that corresponds to the plane of the paper. αα bends into the page (trajectory parabolic in the xz-plane); β+β+ bends into the page (trajectory parabolic in the xz-plane); and γγ is unbent.

13.

Yes. An atomic bomb is a fission bomb, and a fission bomb occurs by splitting the nucleus of atom.

15.

Short-range forces between nucleons in a nucleus are analogous to the forces between water molecules in a water droplet. In particular, the forces between nucleons at the surface of the nucleus produce a surface tension similar to that of a water droplet.

17.

The nuclei produced in the fusion process have a larger binding energy per nucleon than the nuclei that are fused. That is, nuclear fusion decreases average energy of the nucleons in the system. The energy difference is carried away as radiation.

19.

Alpha particles do not penetrate materials such as skin and clothes easily. (Recall that alpha radiation is barely able to pass through a thin sheet of paper.) However, when produce inside the body, neighboring cells are vulnerable.

Problems

21.

Use the rule A=Z+N.A=Z+N.

Atomic Number (Z) Neutron Number (N) Mass Number (A)
(a) 29 29 58
(b) 11 13 24
(c) 84 126 210
(d) 20 25 45
(e) 82 124 206
23.

a. r=r0A1/3,ρ=3u4πr03r=r0A1/3,ρ=3u4πr03;
b. ρ=2.3×1017kg/m3ρ=2.3×1017kg/m3

25.

side length =1.6μm=1.6μm

27.

92.4 MeV

29.

8.790MeVgraph’s value8.790MeVgraph’s value

31.

a. 7.570 MeV; b. 7.591MeVgraph’s value7.591MeVgraph’s value

33.

The decay constant is equal to the negative value of the slope or 10−9s−1.10−9s−1. The half-life of the nuclei, and thus the material, is T1/2=693million years.T1/2=693million years.

35.

a. The decay constant is λ=1.99×10−5s1λ=1.99×10−5s1. b. Since strontium-91 has an atomic mass of 90.90 g, the number of nuclei in a 1.00-g sample is initially
N0=6.63×1021nuclei.N0=6.63×1021nuclei.
The initial activity for strontium-91 is
A0=λN0=1.32×1017decays/sA0=λN0=1.32×1017decays/s
The activity at t=15.0h=5.40×104st=15.0h=5.40×104s is
A=4.51×1016decays/s.A=4.51×1016decays/s.

37.

1.20×102mol1.20×102mol; 6.00×103mol6.00×103mol; 3.75×104mol3.75×104mol

39.

a. 0.988 Ci; b. The half-life of 226Ra226Ra is more precisely known than it was when the Ci unit was established.

41.

a. 2.73μg2.73μg; b. 9.76×104Bq9.76×104Bq

43.

a. 7.46×105Bq7.46×105Bq; b. 7.75×105Bq7.75×105Bq

45.

a. 4.273 MeV; b. 1.927×10−51.927×10−5; c. Since 238U238U is a slowly decaying substance, only a very small number of nuclei decay on human timescales; therefore, although those nuclei that decay lose a noticeable fraction of their mass, the change in the total mass of the sample is not detectable for a macroscopic sample.

47.

a. 3890Sr523990Y51+β−1+ve3890Sr523990Y51+β−1+ve; b. 0.546 MeV

49.

13H223He1+β+ve13H223He1+β+ve

51.

a. 47Be3+e37Li4+ve47Be3+e37Li4+ve; b. 0.862 MeV

53.

a. X=82208Pb126X=82208Pb126; b. 33.05 MeV

55.

a. 177.1 MeV; b. This value is approximately equal to the average BEN for heavy nuclei. c. n+92238U1463896Sr58+54140Xe86+3n,Ai=239=Af,Zi=92=38+54=Zfn+92238U1463896Sr58+54140Xe86+3n,Ai=239=Af,Zi=92=38+54=Zf

57.

a. 2.57×103MW2.57×103MW; b. 8.04×1019fissions/s8.04×1019fissions/s; c. 991 kg

59.

i. 11H+11H12H+e++veAi=1+1=2;Af=2Zi=1+1=2Zf=1+1=211H+11H12H+e++veAi=1+1=2;Af=2Zi=1+1=2Zf=1+1=2;
ii. 11H+12H23H+γAi=1+2=3;Af=3+0=3Zi=1+1=2ZE=1+1=211H+12H23H+γAi=1+2=3;Af=3+0=3Zi=1+1=2ZE=1+1=2;
iii. 23H+23H24H+11H+11HAi=3+3=6;Af=4+1+1=6Zi=2+2=4Zf=2+1+1=423H+23H24H+11H+11HAi=3+3=6;Af=4+1+1=6Zi=2+2=4Zf=2+1+1=4

61.

26.73 MeV

63.

a. 3×1038protons/s3×1038protons/s; b. 6×1014neutrinos/m2·s6×1014neutrinos/m2·s;
This huge number is indicative of how rarely a neutrino interacts, since large detectors observe very few per day.

65.

a. The atomic mass of deuterium (2H2H) is 2.014102 u, while that of tritium (3H3H) is 3.016049 u, for a total of 5.032151 u per reaction. So a mole of reactants has a mass of 5.03 g, and in 1.00 kg, there are (1000g)/(5.03g/mol)=198.8mol(1000g)/(5.03g/mol)=198.8mol of reactants. The number of reactions that take place is therefore
(198.8mol)(6.02×1023mol−1)=1.20×1026reactions(198.8mol)(6.02×1023mol−1)=1.20×1026reactions.
The total energy output is the number of reactions times the energy per reaction:
E=3.37×1014J;E=3.37×1014J;
b. Power is energy per unit time. One year has 3.16×107s,3.16×107s, so
P=10.7MW.P=10.7MW.
We expect nuclear processes to yield large amounts of energy, and this is certainly the case here. The energy output of 3.37×1014J3.37×1014J from fusing 1.00 kg of deuterium and tritium is equivalent to 2.6 million gallons of gasoline and about eight times the energy output of the bomb that destroyed Hiroshima. Yet the average backyard swimming pool has about 6 kg of deuterium in it, so that fuel is plentiful if it can be utilized in a controlled manner.

67.

Gy=SvRBEGy=SvRBE: a. 0.01 Gy; b. 0.0025 Gy; c. 0.16 Gy

69.

1.24 MeV

71.

1.69 mm

73.

For cancer: (3rem)(10106rem·y)=30106y,(3rem)(10106rem·y)=30106y, The risk each year of dying from induced cancer is 30 in a million. For genetic defect: (3rem)(3.3106rem·y)=9.9106y,(3rem)(3.3106rem·y)=9.9106y, The chance each year of an induced genetic defect is 10 in a million.

Additional Problems

75.

atomic mass(Cl)=35.5g/molatomic mass(Cl)=35.5g/mol

77.

a. 1.71×1058kg1.71×1058kg; b. This mass is impossibly large; it is greater than the mass of the entire Milky Way galaxy. c. 236U236U is not produced through natural processes operating over long times on Earth, but through artificial processes in a nuclear reactor.

79.

If 10%10% of rays are left after 2.00 cm, then only (0.100)2=0.01=1%(0.100)2=0.01=1% are left after 4.00 cm. This is much smaller than your lab partner’s result (5%5%).

81.

a. 1.68×10−5Ci1.68×10−5Ci; (b) From Appendix B, the energy released per decay is 4.27 MeV, so 8.65×1010J8.65×1010J; (c) The monetary value of the energy is $2.9×103$2.9×103

83.

We know that λ=3.84×10−12s1λ=3.84×10−12s1 and A0=0.25decays/s·g=15decays/min·g.A0=0.25decays/s·g=15decays/min·g.
Thus, the age of the tomb is
t=13.84×10−12s1ln10decays/min·g15decays/min·g=1.06×1011s3350y.t=13.84×10−12s1ln10decays/min·g15decays/min·g=1.06×1011s3350y.

Challenge Problems

85.

a. 6.97×1015Bq6.97×1015Bq; b. 6.24 kW; c. 5.67 kW

87.

a. Due to the leak, the pressure in the turbine chamber has dropped significantly. The pressure difference between the turbine chamber and steam condenser is now very low. b. A large pressure difference is required for steam to pass through the turbine chamber and turn the turbine.

89.

The energies are
Eγ=20.6MeVE4He=5.68×10−2MeVEγ=20.6MeVE4He=5.68×10−2MeV. Notice that most of the energy goes to the γγ ray.

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