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University Physics Volume 3

B | Conversion Factors

University Physics Volume 3B | Conversion Factors
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Optics
    1. 1 The Nature of Light
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Propagation of Light
      3. 1.2 The Law of Reflection
      4. 1.3 Refraction
      5. 1.4 Total Internal Reflection
      6. 1.5 Dispersion
      7. 1.6 Huygens’s Principle
      8. 1.7 Polarization
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Geometric Optics and Image Formation
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Images Formed by Plane Mirrors
      3. 2.2 Spherical Mirrors
      4. 2.3 Images Formed by Refraction
      5. 2.4 Thin Lenses
      6. 2.5 The Eye
      7. 2.6 The Camera
      8. 2.7 The Simple Magnifier
      9. 2.8 Microscopes and Telescopes
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    3. 3 Interference
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Young's Double-Slit Interference
      3. 3.2 Mathematics of Interference
      4. 3.3 Multiple-Slit Interference
      5. 3.4 Interference in Thin Films
      6. 3.5 The Michelson Interferometer
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Diffraction
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Single-Slit Diffraction
      3. 4.2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction
      4. 4.3 Double-Slit Diffraction
      5. 4.4 Diffraction Gratings
      6. 4.5 Circular Apertures and Resolution
      7. 4.6 X-Ray Diffraction
      8. 4.7 Holography
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Modern Physics
    1. 5 Relativity
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Invariance of Physical Laws
      3. 5.2 Relativity of Simultaneity
      4. 5.3 Time Dilation
      5. 5.4 Length Contraction
      6. 5.5 The Lorentz Transformation
      7. 5.6 Relativistic Velocity Transformation
      8. 5.7 Doppler Effect for Light
      9. 5.8 Relativistic Momentum
      10. 5.9 Relativistic Energy
      11. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Photons and Matter Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Blackbody Radiation
      3. 6.2 Photoelectric Effect
      4. 6.3 The Compton Effect
      5. 6.4 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom
      6. 6.5 De Broglie’s Matter Waves
      7. 6.6 Wave-Particle Duality
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    3. 7 Quantum Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Wave Functions
      3. 7.2 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
      4. 7.3 The Schrӧdinger Equation
      5. 7.4 The Quantum Particle in a Box
      6. 7.5 The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator
      7. 7.6 The Quantum Tunneling of Particles through Potential Barriers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Atomic Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Hydrogen Atom
      3. 8.2 Orbital Magnetic Dipole Moment of the Electron
      4. 8.3 Electron Spin
      5. 8.4 The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table
      6. 8.5 Atomic Spectra and X-rays
      7. 8.6 Lasers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    5. 9 Condensed Matter Physics
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Types of Molecular Bonds
      3. 9.2 Molecular Spectra
      4. 9.3 Bonding in Crystalline Solids
      5. 9.4 Free Electron Model of Metals
      6. 9.5 Band Theory of Solids
      7. 9.6 Semiconductors and Doping
      8. 9.7 Semiconductor Devices
      9. 9.8 Superconductivity
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Nuclear Physics
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Properties of Nuclei
      3. 10.2 Nuclear Binding Energy
      4. 10.3 Radioactive Decay
      5. 10.4 Nuclear Reactions
      6. 10.5 Fission
      7. 10.6 Nuclear Fusion
      8. 10.7 Medical Applications and Biological Effects of Nuclear Radiation
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Particle Physics and Cosmology
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Introduction to Particle Physics
      3. 11.2 Particle Conservation Laws
      4. 11.3 Quarks
      5. 11.4 Particle Accelerators and Detectors
      6. 11.5 The Standard Model
      7. 11.6 The Big Bang
      8. 11.7 Evolution of the Early Universe
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
  12. Index
m cm km
1 meter 1 102 10−3
1 centimeter 10−2 1 10−5
1 kilometer 103 105 1
1 inch 2.540×10−22.540×10−2 2.540 2.540×10−52.540×10−5
1 foot 0.3048 30.48 3.048×10−43.048×10−4
1 mile 1609 1.609×1041.609×104 1.609
1 angstrom 10−10
1 fermi 10−15
1 light-year 9.460×10129.460×1012
in. ft mi
1 meter 39.37 3.281 6.214×10−46.214×10−4
1 centimeter 0.3937 3.281×10−23.281×10−2 6.214×10−66.214×10−6
1 kilometer 3.937×1043.937×104 3.281×1033.281×103 0.6214
1 inch 1 8.333×10−28.333×10−2 1.578×10−51.578×10−5
1 foot 12 1 1.894×10−41.894×10−4
1 mile 6.336×1046.336×104 5280 1
Table B1 Length

Area

1cm2=0.155in.21cm2=0.155in.2

1m2=104cm2=10.76ft21m2=104cm2=10.76ft2

1in.2=6.452cm21in.2=6.452cm2

1ft2=144in.2=0.0929m21ft2=144in.2=0.0929m2

Volume

1liter=1000cm3=10−3m3=0.03531ft3=61.02in.31liter=1000cm3=10−3m3=0.03531ft3=61.02in.3

1ft3=0.02832m3=28.32liters=7.477gallons1ft3=0.02832m3=28.32liters=7.477gallons

1gallon=3.788liters1gallon=3.788liters

s min h day yr
1 second 1 1.667×10−21.667×10−2 2.778×10−42.778×10−4 1.157×10−51.157×10−5 3.169×10−83.169×10−8
1 minute 60 1 1.667×10−21.667×10−2 6.944×10−46.944×10−4 1.901×10−61.901×10−6
1 hour 3600 60 1 4.167×10−24.167×10−2 1.141×10−41.141×10−4
1 day 8.640×1048.640×104 1440 24 1 2.738×10−32.738×10−3
1 year 3.156×1073.156×107 5.259×1055.259×105 8.766×1038.766×103 365.25 1
Table B2 Time
m/s cm/s ft/s mi/h
1 meter/second 1 102 3.281 2.237
1 centimeter/second 10−2 1 3.281×10−23.281×10−2 2.237×10−22.237×10−2
1 foot/second 0.3048 30.48 1 0.6818
1 mile/hour 0.4470 44.70 1.467 1
Table B3 Speed

Acceleration

1m/s2=100cm/s2=3.281ft/s21m/s2=100cm/s2=3.281ft/s2

1cm/s2=0.01m/s2=0.03281ft/s21cm/s2=0.01m/s2=0.03281ft/s2

1ft/s2=0.3048m/s2=30.48cm/s21ft/s2=0.3048m/s2=30.48cm/s2

1mi/h·s=1.467ft/s21mi/h·s=1.467ft/s2

kg g slug u
1 kilogram 1 103 6.852×10−26.852×10−2 6.024×10266.024×1026
1 gram 10−3 1 6.852×10−56.852×10−5 6.024×10236.024×1023
1 slug 14.59 1.459×1041.459×104 1 8.789×10278.789×1027
1 atomic mass unit 1.661×10−271.661×10−27 1.661×10−241.661×10−24 1.138×10−281.138×10−28 1
1 metric ton 1000
Table B4 Mass
N dyne lb
11 newton 1 105 0.2248
11 dyne 10−5 1 2.248×10−62.248×10−6
11 pound 4.448 4.448×1054.448×105 1
Table B5 Force
Pa dyne/cm2 atm cmHg lb/in.2
*Where the acceleration due to gravity is 9.80665m/s29.80665m/s2 and the temperature is 0°C0°C
1 pascal 1 10 9.869×10−69.869×10−6 7.501×10−47.501×10−4 1.450×10−41.450×10−4
1 dyne/centimeter2 10−1 1 9.869×10−79.869×10−7 7.501×10−57.501×10−5 1.450×10−51.450×10−5
1 atmosphere 1.013×1051.013×105 1.013×1061.013×106 1 76 14.70
1 centimeter mercury* 1.333×1031.333×103 1.333×1041.333×104 1.316×10−21.316×10−2 1 0.1934
1 pound/inch2 6.895×1036.895×103 6.895×1046.895×104 6.805×10−26.805×10−2 5.171 1
1 bar 105
1 torr 1 (mmHg)
Table B6 Pressure
J erg ft.lb
1 joule 1 107 0.7376
1 erg 10−7 1 7.376×10−87.376×10−8
1 foot-pound 1.356 1.356×1071.356×107 1
1 electron-volt 1.602×10−191.602×10−19 1.602×10-121.602×10-12 1.182×10−191.182×10−19
1 calorie 4.186 4.186×1074.186×107 3.088
1 British thermal unit 1.055×1031.055×103 1.055×10101.055×1010 7.779×1027.779×102
1 kilowatt-hour 3.600×1063.600×106
eV cal Btu
1 joule 6.242×10186.242×1018 0.2389 9.481×10−49.481×10−4
1 erg 6.242×10116.242×1011 2.389×10−82.389×10−8 9.481×10−119.481×10−11
1 foot-pound 8.464×10188.464×1018 0.3239 1.285×10−31.285×10−3
1 electron-volt 1 3.827×10−203.827×10−20 1.519×10−221.519×10−22
1 calorie 2.613×10192.613×1019 1 3.968×10−33.968×10−3
1 British thermal unit 6.585×10216.585×1021 2.520×1022.520×102 1
Table B7 Work, Energy, Heat

Power

1W=1J/s1W=1J/s

1hp=746W=550ft·lb/s1hp=746W=550ft·lb/s

1Btu/h=0.293W1Btu/h=0.293W

Angle

1rad=57.30°=180°/π1rad=57.30°=180°/π

1°=0.01745rad=π/180rad1°=0.01745rad=π/180rad

1revolution=360°=2πrad1revolution=360°=2πrad

1rev/min(rpm)=0.1047rad/s1rev/min(rpm)=0.1047rad/s

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