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University Physics Volume 3

C | Fundamental Constants

University Physics Volume 3C | Fundamental Constants
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Optics
    1. 1 The Nature of Light
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Propagation of Light
      3. 1.2 The Law of Reflection
      4. 1.3 Refraction
      5. 1.4 Total Internal Reflection
      6. 1.5 Dispersion
      7. 1.6 Huygens’s Principle
      8. 1.7 Polarization
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Geometric Optics and Image Formation
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Images Formed by Plane Mirrors
      3. 2.2 Spherical Mirrors
      4. 2.3 Images Formed by Refraction
      5. 2.4 Thin Lenses
      6. 2.5 The Eye
      7. 2.6 The Camera
      8. 2.7 The Simple Magnifier
      9. 2.8 Microscopes and Telescopes
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    3. 3 Interference
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Young's Double-Slit Interference
      3. 3.2 Mathematics of Interference
      4. 3.3 Multiple-Slit Interference
      5. 3.4 Interference in Thin Films
      6. 3.5 The Michelson Interferometer
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Diffraction
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Single-Slit Diffraction
      3. 4.2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction
      4. 4.3 Double-Slit Diffraction
      5. 4.4 Diffraction Gratings
      6. 4.5 Circular Apertures and Resolution
      7. 4.6 X-Ray Diffraction
      8. 4.7 Holography
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Modern Physics
    1. 5 Relativity
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Invariance of Physical Laws
      3. 5.2 Relativity of Simultaneity
      4. 5.3 Time Dilation
      5. 5.4 Length Contraction
      6. 5.5 The Lorentz Transformation
      7. 5.6 Relativistic Velocity Transformation
      8. 5.7 Doppler Effect for Light
      9. 5.8 Relativistic Momentum
      10. 5.9 Relativistic Energy
      11. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Photons and Matter Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Blackbody Radiation
      3. 6.2 Photoelectric Effect
      4. 6.3 The Compton Effect
      5. 6.4 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom
      6. 6.5 De Broglie’s Matter Waves
      7. 6.6 Wave-Particle Duality
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    3. 7 Quantum Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Wave Functions
      3. 7.2 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
      4. 7.3 The Schrӧdinger Equation
      5. 7.4 The Quantum Particle in a Box
      6. 7.5 The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator
      7. 7.6 The Quantum Tunneling of Particles through Potential Barriers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Atomic Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Hydrogen Atom
      3. 8.2 Orbital Magnetic Dipole Moment of the Electron
      4. 8.3 Electron Spin
      5. 8.4 The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table
      6. 8.5 Atomic Spectra and X-rays
      7. 8.6 Lasers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    5. 9 Condensed Matter Physics
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Types of Molecular Bonds
      3. 9.2 Molecular Spectra
      4. 9.3 Bonding in Crystalline Solids
      5. 9.4 Free Electron Model of Metals
      6. 9.5 Band Theory of Solids
      7. 9.6 Semiconductors and Doping
      8. 9.7 Semiconductor Devices
      9. 9.8 Superconductivity
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Nuclear Physics
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Properties of Nuclei
      3. 10.2 Nuclear Binding Energy
      4. 10.3 Radioactive Decay
      5. 10.4 Nuclear Reactions
      6. 10.5 Fission
      7. 10.6 Nuclear Fusion
      8. 10.7 Medical Applications and Biological Effects of Nuclear Radiation
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Particle Physics and Cosmology
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Introduction to Particle Physics
      3. 11.2 Particle Conservation Laws
      4. 11.3 Quarks
      5. 11.4 Particle Accelerators and Detectors
      6. 11.5 The Standard Model
      7. 11.6 The Big Bang
      8. 11.7 Evolution of the Early Universe
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
  12. Index
Quantity Symbol Value
Atomic mass unit u 1.660 538 782(83)×10−27kg931.494 028(23)MeV/c21.660 538 782(83)×10−27kg931.494 028(23)MeV/c2
Avogadro’s number NANA 6.02214076×1023reciprocal mole(mol–1)6.02214076×1023reciprocal mole(mol–1)
Bohr magneton μB=e2meμB=e2me 9.274 009 15(23)×10−24J/T9.274 009 15(23)×10−24J/T
Bohr radius a0=2mee2kea0=2mee2ke 5.291 772 085 9(36)×10−11m5.291 772 085 9(36)×10−11m
Boltzmann’s constant kB=RNAkB=RNA 1.380649×10–23joule per kelvin(JK–1)1.380649×10–23joule per kelvin(JK–1)
Compton wavelength λC=hmecλC=hmec 2.426 310 217 5(33)×10−12m2.426 310 217 5(33)×10−12m
Coulomb constant ke=14πε0ke=14πε0 8.987 551 788...×109N·m2/C2(exact)8.987 551 788...×109N·m2/C2(exact)
Deuteron mass mdmd 3.343 583 20(17)×10−27kg2.013 553 212 724(78)u1875.612 859MeV/c23.343 583 20(17)×10−27kg2.013 553 212 724(78)u1875.612 859MeV/c2
Electron mass meme 9.109 382 15(45)×10−31kg5.485 799 094 3(23)×10−4u0.510 998 910(13)MeV/c29.109 382 15(45)×10−31kg5.485 799 094 3(23)×10−4u0.510 998 910(13)MeV/c2
Electron volt eV 1.602 176 487(40)×10−19J1.602 176 487(40)×10−19J
Elementary charge e 1.602176634×10−19C1.602176634×10−19C
Gas constant R 8.314 472(15)J/mol·K8.314 472(15)J/mol·K
Gravitational constant G 6.674 28(67)×10−11N·m2/kg26.674 28(67)×10−11N·m2/kg2
Neutron mass mnmn 1.674 927 211(84)×10−27kg1.008 664 915 97(43)u939.565 346(23)MeV/c21.674 927 211(84)×10−27kg1.008 664 915 97(43)u939.565 346(23)MeV/c2
Nuclear magneton μn=e2mpμn=e2mp 5.050 783 24(13)×10−27J/T5.050 783 24(13)×10−27J/T
Permeability of free space μ0μ0 4π×10−7T·m/A(exact)4π×10−7T·m/A(exact)
Permittivity of free space ε0=1μ0c2ε0=1μ0c2 8.854 187 817...×10−12C2/N·m2(exact)8.854 187 817...×10−12C2/N·m2(exact)
Planck’s constant h
=h2π=h2π
6.62607015×10−34kg·m2·s–11.05457182×10−34kg·m2·s–16.62607015×10−34kg·m2·s–11.05457182×10−34kg·m2·s–1
Proton mass mpmp 1.672 621 637(83)×10−27kg1.007 276 466 77(10)u938.272 013(23)MeV/c21.672 621 637(83)×10−27kg1.007 276 466 77(10)u938.272 013(23)MeV/c2
Rydberg constant RHRH 1.097 373 156 852 7(73)×107m−11.097 373 156 852 7(73)×107m−1
Speed of light in vacuum c 2.997 924 58×108m/s(exact)2.997 924 58×108m/s(exact)
Table C1 Fundamental Constants Note: These constants are the values recommended in 2006 by CODATA, based on a least-squares adjustment of data from different measurements. The numbers in parentheses for the values represent the uncertainties of the last two digits.

Useful combinations of constants for calculations:

hc=12,400eV·Å=1240eV·nm=1240MeV·fmhc=12,400eV·Å=1240eV·nm=1240MeV·fm

c=1973eV·Å=197.3eV·nm=197.3MeV·fmc=1973eV·Å=197.3eV·nm=197.3MeV·fm

kee2=14.40eV·Å=1.440eV·nm=1.440MeV·fmkee2=14.40eV·Å=1.440eV·nm=1.440MeV·fm

kBT=0.02585eV atT=300KkBT=0.02585eV atT=300K

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