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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Problems

4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes

18.

A tank contains 111.0 g chlorine gas (Cl2),(Cl2), which is at temperature 82.0°C82.0°C and absolute pressure 5.70×105Pa.5.70×105Pa. The temperature of the air outside the tank is 20.0°C20.0°C. The molar mass of Cl2Cl2 is 70.9 g/mol. (a) What is the volume of the tank? (b) What is the internal energy of the gas? (c) What is the work done by the gas if the temperature and pressure inside the tank drop to 31.0°C31.0°C and 3.80×105Pa3.80×105Pa, respectively, due to a leak?

19.

A mole of ideal monatomic gas at 0°C0°C and 1.00 atm is warmed up to expand isobarically to triple its volume. How much heat is transferred during the process?

20.

A mole of an ideal gas at pressure 4.00 atm and temperature 298 K expands isothermally to double its volume. What is the work done by the gas?

21.

After a free expansion to quadruple its volume, a mole of ideal diatomic gas is compressed back to its original volume adiabatically and then cooled down to its original temperature. What is the minimum heat removed from the gas in the final step to restoring its state?

4.2 Heat Engines

22.

An engine is found to have an efficiency of 0.40. If it does 200 J of work per cycle, what are the corresponding quantities of heat absorbed and discharged?

23.

In performing 100.0 J of work, an engine discharges 50.0 J of heat. What is the efficiency of the engine?

24.

An engine with an efficiency of 0.30 absorbs 500 J of heat per cycle. (a) How much work does it perform per cycle? (b) How much heat does it discharge per cycle?

25.

It is found that an engine discharges 100.0 J while absorbing 125.0 J each cycle of operation. (a) What is the efficiency of the engine? (b) How much work does it perform per cycle?

26.

The temperature of the cold reservoir of the engine is 300 K. It has an efficiency of 0.30 and absorbs 500 J of heat per cycle. (a) How much work does it perform per cycle? (b) How much heat does it discharge per cycle?

27.

An engine absorbs three times as much heat as it discharges. The work done by the engine per cycle is 50 J. Calculate (a) the efficiency of the engine, (b) the heat absorbed per cycle, and (c) the heat discharged per cycle.

28.

A coal power plant consumes 100,000 kg of coal per hour and produces 500 MW of power. If the heat of combustion of coal is 30 MJ/kg, what is the efficiency of the power plant?

4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

29.

A refrigerator has a coefficient of performance of 3.0. (a) If it requires 200 J of work per cycle, how much heat per cycle does it remove the cold reservoir? (b) How much heat per cycle is discarded to the hot reservoir?

30.

During one cycle, a refrigerator removes 500 J from a cold reservoir and discharges 800 J to its hot reservoir. (a) What is its coefficient of performance? (b) How much work per cycle does it require to operate?

31.

If a refrigerator discards 80 J of heat per cycle and its coefficient of performance is 6.0, what are (a) the quantity off heat it removes per cycle from a cold reservoir and (b) the amount of work per cycle required for its operation?

32.

A refrigerator has a coefficient of performance of 3.0. (a) If it requires 200 J of work per cycle, how much heat per cycle does it remove the cold reservoir? (b) How much heat per cycle is discarded to the hot reservoir?

4.5 The Carnot Cycle

33.

The temperature of the cold and hot reservoirs between which a Carnot refrigerator operates are −73°C−73°C and 270°C270°C, respectively. Which is its coefficient of performance?

34.

Suppose a Carnot refrigerator operates between TcandTh.TcandTh. Calculate the amount of work required to extract 1.0 J of heat from the cold reservoir if (a) Tc=7°CTc=7°C, Th=27°CTh=27°C; (b) Tc=−73°CTc=−73°C, Th=27°C;Th=27°C; (c) Tc=−173°CTc=−173°C, Th=27°CTh=27°C; and (d) Tc=−273°CTc=−273°C, Th=27°CTh=27°C.

35.

A Carnot engine operates between reservoirs at 600 and 300 K. If the engine absorbs 100 J per cycle at the hot reservoir, what is its work output per cycle?

36.

A 500-W motor operates a Carnot refrigerator between −5°C−5°C and 30°C30°C. (a) What is the amount of heat per second extracted from the inside of the refrigerator? (b) How much heat is exhausted to the outside air per second?

37.

Sketch a Carnot cycle on a temperature-volume diagram.

38.

A Carnot heat pump operates between 0°C0°C and 20°C20°C. How much heat is exhausted into the interior of a house for every 1.0 J of work done by the pump?

39.

An engine operating between heat reservoirs at 20°C20°C and 200°C200°C extracts 1000 J per cycle from the hot reservoir. (a) What is the maximum possible work that engine can do per cycle? (b) For this maximum work, how much heat is exhausted to the cold reservoir per cycle?

40.

Suppose a Carnot engine can be operated between two reservoirs as either a heat engine or a refrigerator. How is the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator related to the efficiency of the heat engine?

41.

A Carnot engine is used to measure the temperature of a heat reservoir. The engine operates between the heat reservoir and a reservoir consisting of water at its triple point. (a) If 400 J per cycle are removed from the heat reservoir while 200 J per cycle are deposited in the triple-point reservoir, what is the temperature of the heat reservoir? (b) If 400 J per cycle are removed from the triple-point reservoir while 200 J per cycle are deposited in the heat reservoir, what is the temperature of the heat reservoir?

42.

What is the minimum work required of a refrigerator if it is to extract 50 J per cycle from the inside of a freezer at −10°C−10°C and exhaust heat to the air at 25°C25°C?

4.6 Entropy

43.

Two hundred joules of heat are removed from a heat reservoir at a temperature of 200 K. What is the entropy change of the reservoir?

44.

In an isothermal reversible expansion at 27°C27°C, an ideal gas does 20 J of work. What is the entropy change of the gas?

45.

An ideal gas at 300 K is compressed isothermally to one-fifth its original volume. Determine the entropy change per mole of the gas.

46.

What is the entropy change of 10 g of steam at 100°C100°C when it condenses to water at the same temperature?

47.

A metal rod is used to conduct heat between two reservoirs at temperatures ThandTc,ThandTc, respectively. When an amount of heat Q flows through the rod from the hot to the cold reservoir, what is the net entropy change of the rod, the hot reservoir, the cold reservoir, and the universe?

48.

For the Carnot cycle of Figure 4.12, what is the entropy change of the hot reservoir, the cold reservoir, and the universe?

49.

A 5.0-kg piece of lead at a temperature of 600°C600°C is placed in a lake whose temperature is 15°C15°C. Determine the entropy change of (a) the lead piece, (b) the lake, and (c) the universe.

50.

One mole of an ideal gas doubles its volume in a reversible isothermal expansion. (a) What is the change in entropy of the gas? (b) If 1500 J of heat are added in this process, what is the temperature of the gas?

51.

One mole of an ideal monatomic gas is confined to a rigid container. When heat is added reversibly to the gas, its temperature changes from T1toT2.T1toT2. (a) How much heat is added? (b) What is the change in entropy of the gas?

52.

(a) A 5.0-kg rock at a temperature of 20°C20°C is dropped into a shallow lake also at 20°C20°C from a height of 1.0×103m1.0×103m. What is the resulting change in entropy of the universe? (b) If the temperature of the rock is 100°C100°C when it is dropped, what is the change of entropy of the universe? Assume that air friction is negligible (not a good assumption) and that c=860J/kg·Kc=860J/kg·K is the specific heat of the rock.

4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale

53.

A copper rod of cross-sectional area 5.0cm25.0cm2 and length 5.0 m conducts heat from a heat reservoir at 373 K to one at 273 K. What is the time rate of change of the universe’s entropy for this process?

54.

Fifty grams of water at 20°C20°C is heated until it becomes vapor at 100°C100°C. Calculate the change in entropy of the water in this process.

55.

Fifty grams of water at 0°C0°C are changed into vapor at 100°C100°C. What is the change in entropy of the water in this process?

56.

In an isochoric process, heat is added to 10 mol of monoatomic ideal gas whose temperature increases from 273 to 373 K. What is the entropy change of the gas?

57.

Two hundred grams of water at 0°C0°C is brought into contact with a heat reservoir at 80°C80°C. After thermal equilibrium is reached, what is the temperature of the water? Of the reservoir? How much heat has been transferred in the process? What is the entropy change of the water? Of the reservoir? What is the entropy change of the universe?

58.

Suppose that the temperature of the water in the previous problem is raised by first bringing it to thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at a temperature of 40°C40°C and then with a reservoir at 80°C80°C. Calculate the entropy changes of (a) each reservoir, (b) of the water, and (c) of the universe.

59.

Two hundred grams of water at 0°C0°C is brought into contact into thermal equilibrium successively with reservoirs at 20°C20°C, 40°C40°C, 60°C60°C, and 80°C80°C. (a) What is the entropy change of the water? (b) Of the reservoir? (c) What is the entropy change of the universe?

60.

(a) Ten grams of H2OH2O starts as ice at 0°C0°C. The ice absorbs heat from the air (just above 0°C0°C) until all of it melts. Calculate the entropy change of the H2OH2O, of the air, and of the universe. (b) Suppose that the air in part (a) is at 20°C20°C rather than 0°C0°C and that the ice absorbs heat until it becomes water at 20°C20°C. Calculate the entropy change of the H2OH2O, of the air, and of the universe. (c) Is either of these processes reversible?

61.

The Carnot cycle is represented by the temperature-entropy diagram shown below. (a) How much heat is absorbed per cycle at the high-temperature reservoir? (b) How much heat is exhausted per cycle at the low-temperature reservoir? (c) How much work is done per cycle by the engine? (d) What is the efficiency of the engine?

The figure shows a graph with x-axis S in J divided by K and y-axis T in K. The four points A (2.0, 600), B (4.0, 600), C (4.0, 300) ad D (2.0, 300) are connected to form a closed loop.
62.

A Carnot engine operating between heat reservoirs at 500 and 300 K absorbs 1500 J per cycle at the high-temperature reservoir. (a) Represent the engine’s cycle on a temperature-entropy diagram. (b) How much work per cycle is done by the engine?

63.

A monoatomic ideal gas (n moles) goes through a cyclic process shown below. Find the change in entropy of the gas in each step and the total entropy change over the entire cycle.

The figure shows a closed loop graph with three points 1, 2 and 3. The x-axis is V and y-axis is p. The value of V at 1 and 2 is equal and the value of p at 2 and 3 is equal.
64.

A Carnot engine has an efficiency of 0.60. When the temperature of its cold reservoir changes, the efficiency drops to 0.55. If initially Tc=27°CTc=27°C, determine (a) the constant value of ThTh and (b) the final value of TcTc.

65.

A Carnot engine performs 100 J of work while discharging 200 J of heat each cycle. After the temperature of the hot reservoir only is adjusted, it is found that the engine now does 130 J of work while discarding the same quantity of heat. (a) What are the initial and final efficiencies of the engine? (b) What is the fractional change in the temperature of the hot reservoir?

66.

A Carnot refrigerator exhausts heat to the air, which is at a temperature of 25°C25°C. How much power is used by the refrigerator if it freezes 1.5 g of water per second? Assume the water is at 0°C0°C.

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