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University Physics Volume 2

Additional Problems

University Physics Volume 2Additional Problems
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Additional Problems

67.

A 300-W heat pump operates between the ground, whose temperature is 0°C0°C, and the interior of a house at 22°C22°C. What is the maximum amount of heat per hour that the heat pump can supply to the house?

68.

An engineer must design a refrigerator that does 300 J of work per cycle to extract 2100 J of heat per cycle from a freezer whose temperature is −10°C−10°C. What is the maximum air temperature for which this condition can be met? Is this a reasonable condition to impose on the design?

69.

A Carnot engine employs 1.5 mol of nitrogen gas as a working substance, which is considered as an ideal diatomic gas with γ=7.5γ=7.5 at the working temperatures of the engine. The Carnot cycle goes in the cycle ABCDA with AB being an isothermal expansion. The volume at points A and C of the cycle are 5.0×10−3m35.0×10−3m3 and 0.15 L, respectively. The engine operates between two thermal baths of temperature 500 K and 300 K. (a) Find the values of volume at B and D. (b) How much heat is absorbed by the gas in the AB isothermal expansion? (c) How much work is done by the gas in the AB isothermal expansion? (d) How much heat is given up by the gas in the CD isothermal expansion? (e) How much work is done by the gas in the CD isothermal compression? (f) How much work is done by the gas in the BC adiabatic expansion? (g) How much work is done by the gas in the DA adiabatic compression? (h) Find the value of efficiency of the engine based on the net work and heat input. Compare this value to the efficiency of a Carnot engine based on the temperatures of the two baths.

70.

A 5.0-kg wood block starts with an initial speed of 8.0 m/s and slides across the floor until friction stops it. Estimate the resulting change in entropy of the universe. Assume that everything stays at a room temperature of 20°C20°C.

71.

A system consisting of 20.0 mol of a monoatomic ideal gas is cooled at constant pressure from a volume of 50.0 L to 10.0 L. The initial temperature was 300 K. What is the change in entropy of the gas?

72.

A glass beaker of mass 400 g contains 500 g of water at 27°C27°C. The beaker is heated reversibly so that the temperature of the beaker and water rise gradually to 57°C57°C. Find the change in entropy of the beaker and water together.

73.

A Carnot engine operates between 550°C550°C and 20°C20°C baths and produces 300 kJ of energy in each cycle. Find the change in entropy of the (a) hot bath and (b) cold bath, in each Carnot cycle?

74.

An ideal gas at temperature T is stored in the left half of an insulating container of volume V using a partition of negligible volume (see below). What is the entropy change per mole of the gas in each of the following cases? (a) The partition is suddenly removed and the gas quickly fills the entire container. (b) A tiny hole is punctured in the partition and after a long period, the gas reaches an equilibrium state such that there is no net flow through the hole. (c) The partition is moved very slowly and adiabatically all the way to the right wall so that the gas finally fills the entire container.

The figure shows a container which is filled with gas on the left half and is empty on the right half.
75.

A 0.50-kg piece of aluminum at 250°C250°C is dropped into 1.0 kg of water at 20°C20°C. After equilibrium is reached, what is the net entropy change of the system?

76.

Suppose 20 g of ice at 0°C0°C is added to 300 g of water at 60°C60°C. What is the total change in entropy of the mixture after it reaches thermal equilibrium?

77.

A heat engine operates between two temperatures such that the working substance of the engine absorbs 5000 J of heat from the high-temperature bath and discharges 3000 J to the low-temperature bath. The rest of the energy is converted into mechanical energy of the turbine. Find (a) the amount of work produced by the engine and (b) the efficiency of the engine.

78.

A thermal engine produces 4 MJ of electrical energy while operating between two thermal baths of different temperatures. The working substance of the engine discharges 5 MJ of heat to the cold temperature bath. What is the efficiency of the engine?

79.

A coal power plant consumes 100,000 kg of coal per hour and produces 500 MW of power. If the heat of combustion of coal is 30 MJ/kg, what is the efficiency of the power plant?

80.

A Carnot engine operates in a Carnot cycle between a heat source at 550°C550°C and a heat sink at 20°C.20°C. Find the efficiency of the Carnot engine.

81.

A Carnot engine working between two heat baths of temperatures 600 K and 273 K completes each cycle in 5 sec. In each cycle, the engine absorbs 10 kJ of heat. Find the power of the engine.

82.

A Carnot cycle working between 100°C100°C and 30°C30°C is used to drive a refrigerator between −10°C−10°C and 30°C.30°C. How much energy must the Carnot engine produce per second so that the refrigerator is able to discard 10 J of energy per second?

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