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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Check Your Understanding

4.1

A perfect heat engine would have Qc=0Qc=0, which would lead to e=1Qc/Qh=1.e=1Qc/Qh=1. A perfect refrigerator would need zero work, that is, W=0W=0, which leads to KR=Qc/W.KR=Qc/W.

4.2

From the engine on the right, we have W=QhQc.W=QhQc. From the refrigerator on the right, we have Qh=Qc+W.Qh=Qc+W. Thus, W=QhQc=QhQc.W=QhQc=QhQc.

4.3

a. e=1Tc/Th=0.55e=1Tc/Th=0.55; b. Qh=eW=9.1JQh=eW=9.1J; c. Qc=QhW=4.1JQc=QhW=4.1J; d. −273°C−273°C and 400°C400°C

4.4

a. KR=Tc/(ThTc)=10.9KR=Tc/(ThTc)=10.9; b. Qc=KRW=2.18kJQc=KRW=2.18kJ; c. Qh=Qc+W=2.38kJQh=Qc+W=2.38kJ

4.5

When heat flows from the reservoir to the ice, the internal (mainly kinetic) energy of the ice goes up, resulting in a higher average speed and thus an average greater position variance of the molecules in the ice. The reservoir does become more ordered, but due to its much larger amount of molecules, it does not offset the change in entropy in the system.

4.6

Q/ThQ/Th; Q/TcQ/Tc; and Q(ThTc)/(ThTc)Q(ThTc)/(ThTc)

4.7

a. 4.71 J/K; b. −4.18 J/K; c. 0.53 J/K

Conceptual Questions

1.

Some possible solutions are frictionless movement; restrained compression or expansion; energy transfer as heat due to infinitesimal temperature nonuniformity; electric current flow through a zero resistance; restrained chemical reaction; and mixing of two samples of the same substance at the same state.

3.

The temperature increases since the heat output behind the refrigerator is greater than the cooling from the inside of the refrigerator.

5.

If we combine a perfect engine and a real refrigerator with the engine converting heat Q from the hot reservoir into work W=QW=Q to drive the refrigerator, then the heat dumped to the hot reservoir by the refrigerator will be W+ΔQW+ΔQ, resulting in a perfect refrigerator transferring heat ΔQΔQ from the cold reservoir to hot reservoir without any other effect.

7.

Heat pumps can efficiently extract heat from the ground to heat on cooler days or pull heat out of the house on warmer days. The disadvantage of heat pumps are that they are more costly than alternatives, require maintenance, and will not work efficiently when temperature differences between the inside and outside are very large. Electric heating is much cheaper to purchase than a heat pump; however, it may be more costly to run depending on the electric rates and amount of usage.

9.

A nuclear reactor needs to have a lower temperature to operate, so its efficiency will not be as great as a fossil-fuel plant. This argument does not take into consideration the amount of energy per reaction: Nuclear power has a far greater energy output than fossil fuels.

11.

In order to increase the efficiency, the temperature of the hot reservoir should be raised, and the cold reservoir should be lowered as much as possible. This can be seen in Equation 4.3.

13.

adiabatic and isothermal processes

15.

Entropy will not change if it is a reversible transition but will change if the process is irreversible.

17.

Entropy is a function of disorder, so all the answers apply here as well.

Problems

19.

11.0×103J11.0×103J

21.

4.5pV04.5pV0

23.

0.667

25.

a. 0.556; b. 125.0 J

27.

a. 0.50; b. 100 J; c. 50 J

29.

a. 600 J; b. 800 J

31.

a. 69 J; b. 11 J

33.

2.0

35.

50 J

37.


The graph shows isotherms and adiabatic curves for Carnot cycle with four points A, B, C and D. The x-axis is V and y-axis is T. The value of T at A and B is T subscript 1 and at C and D is T subscript 2.
39.

a. 381 J; b. 619 J

41.

a. 546 K; b. 137 K

43.

–1 J/K

45.

–13 J(K mole)

47.

QTh,QTc,Q(1Tc1Th)QTh,QTc,Q(1Tc1Th)

49.

a. –540 J/K; b. 1600 J/K; c. 1100 J/K

51.

a. Q=nRΔTQ=nRΔT; b. S=nRln(T2/T1)S=nRln(T2/T1)

53.

3.78×10−3W/K3.78×10−3W/K

55.

430 J/K

57.

80°C80°C, 80°C80°C, 6.70×104J6.70×104J, 215 J/K, –190 J/K, 25 J/K

59.

ΔSH2O=215J/KΔSH2O=215J/K, ΔSR=−208J/KΔSR=−208J/K, ΔSU=7J/KΔSU=7J/K

61.

a. 1200 J; b. 600 J; c. 600 J; d. 0.50

63.

ΔS=nCVln(T2T1)+nCpln(T3T2)ΔS=nCVln(T2T1)+nCpln(T3T2)

65.

a. 0.33, 0.39; b. 0.91

Additional Problems

67.

1.45×107J1.45×107J

69.

a. VB=0.042m3,VD=0.018m3;VB=0.042m3,VD=0.018m3; b. 13,000 J; c. 13,000 J; d. –8,000 J; e. –8,000 J; f. 6200 J; g. –6200 J; h. 39%39%; with temperatures efficiency is 40%40%, which is off likely by rounding errors.

71.

–670 J/K

73.

a. –570 J/K; b. 570 J/K

75.

82 J/K

77.

a. 2000 J; b. 40%40%

79.

60%60%

81.

64.4%64.4%

Challenge Problems

83.

derive

85.

derive

87.

18 J/K

89.

proof

91.

KR=3(p1p2)V15p2V33p1V1p2V1KR=3(p1p2)V15p2V33p1V1p2V1

93.

W=110,000JW=110,000J

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