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Chapter 1 What Is Population Health?

American Academy of Nursing. (2023). Edge runners: Transforming America’s health system through nursing solutions. https://www.aannet.org/initiatives/edge-runners

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Amjad, S., Chojecki, D., Osornio-Vargas, A., & Ospina, M. B. (2021). Wildfire exposure during pregnancy and the risk of adverse birth outcomes: A systematic review. Environment International, 156, 106644. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106644

Ariosto, D. A., Harper, E. M., Wilson, M. L., Hull, S. C., Nahm, E.-S., & Sylvia, M. L. (2018). Population health: A nursing action plan. JAMIA Open, 1(1), 7–10. https://doi.org/10.1093/jamiaopen/ooy003

Armour, M. (2014). Restorative discipline: A whole school approach [Paper presentation]. 10th Annual Texas Behavior Support State Conference, Houston, TX.

Aronowitz, S. V., Kim, B., & Aronowitz, T. (2021). A mixed-studies review of the school-to-prison pipeline and a call to action for school nurses. The Journal of School Nursing, 37(1), 51–60. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059840520972003

Berwick, D. M., Nolan, T. W., & Whittington, J. (2008). The Triple Aim: Care, health, and cost. Health Affairs, 27(3), 759–769. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.27.3.759

Bodenheimer, T., & Sinsky, C. (2014). From Triple to Quadruple Aim: Care of the patient requires care of the provider. The Annals of Family Medicine, 12(6), 573–576. https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.1713

Brownson, R. C., Seiler, R., & Eyler, A. A. (2010). Measuring the impact of public health policy. Preventing Chronic Disease, 7(4), A77.

Burton, W. N., Schultz, A. B., Shepherd, M. E., McCluskey, M., & Hines, D. (2022). Results of a virtual migraine education program in an employed population. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 64(1), 52–57. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002334

Bynum, W. F. (1983). Darwin and the doctors: Evolution, diathesis, and germs in 19th-century Britain. Gesnerus, 40(1–2), 43–53. https://doi.org/10.1163/22977953-0400102006

Cahan, E. M., Mittal, V., Shah, N. R., & Thadaney-Israni, S. (2020). Achieving a quintuple aim for telehealth in pediatrics. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 67(4), 683–705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2020.04.015

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Extreme heat can impact our health in many ways. https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/pubs/extreme-heat-final_508.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Health disparities among LGBTQ youth. Adolescent and School Health. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/disparities/health-disparities-among-lgbtq-youth.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). Health and economic costs of chronic diseases. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/about/costs/index.htm

Choisy, M., McBride, A., Chambers, M., Ho Quang, C., Nguyen Quang, H., Xuan Chau, N. T., Thi, G. N., Bonell, A., Evans, M., Ming, D., Ngo-Duc, T., Quang Thai, P., Dang Giang, D. H., Dan Thanh, H. N., Ngoc Nhung, H., Lowe, R., Maude, R., Elyazar, I., Surendra, H., . . . Yacoub, S. (2022). Climate change and health in Southeast Asia: Defining research priorities and the role of the Wellcome Trust Africa Asia Programmes. Wellcome Open Research, 6, 278. https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.17263.3

Dabla-Norris, E., Nozaki, M., & Daniel, J. (2021, September). Asia’s climate emergency. Finance & Development, 48–52. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/fandd/issues/2021/09/asia-climate-emergency-role-of-fiscal-policy-IMF-dabla

Ebi, K. L., Vanos, J., Baldwin, J. W., Bell, J. E., Hondula, D. M., Errett, N. A., Hayes, K., Reid, C. E., Saha, S., Spector, J., & Berry, P. (2021). Extreme weather and climate change: Population health and health system implications. Annual Review of Public Health, 42(1), 293–315. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-012420-105026

Ely, D. M., & Driscoll, A. K. (2022). Infant mortality in the United States, 2020: Data from the period linked birth/infant death file. National Vital Statistics Reports, 71(5), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.15620/cdc:120700

Fawcett, J., & Ellenbecker, C. H. (2015). A proposed conceptual model of nursing and population health. Nursing Outlook, 63(3), 288–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2015.01.009

Fornili, K. S. (2022). Expanded conceptual framework for ethical action by nurses on the “further upstream and farther downstream” determinants of health equity. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 33(3), 203–214. https://doi.org/10.1097/JAN.0000000000000484

Gan, R. W., Liu, J., Ford, B., O’Dell, K., Vaidyanathan, A., Wilson, A., Volckens, J., Pfister, G., Fischer, E. V., Pierce, J. R., & Magzamen, S. (2020). The association between wildfire smoke exposure and asthma-specific medical care utilization in Oregon during the 2013 wildfire season. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 30(4), 618–628. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-020-0210-x

Ghuman, U. (2022). A policy review of the SEED (Stockton Economic Empowerment Demonstration) project: Is the devil in the details? International Journal of Community Well-Being, 5(4), 819–830. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42413-021-00145-3

Goldstick, J. E., Cunningham, R. M., & Carter, P. M. (2022). Current causes of death in children and adolescents in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 386(20), 1955–1956. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2201761

Guide to Community Preventive Services. (2016). Cancer screening: Multicomponent intervention—colorectal cancer. The Community Guide. https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/cancer-screening-multicomponent-interventions-colorectal-cancer.html

Hafeez, H., Zeshan, M., Tahir, M. A., Jahan, N., & Naveed, S. (2017). Health care disparities among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: A literature review. Cureus, 9(4), e1184. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.1184

Hong, H. S., & Lee, S. (2021). Text network analysis of research topics and trends on global health nursing literature from 1974–2017. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77(3), 1325–1334. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14685

Hood, J. E., Behrends, C. N., Irwin, A., Schackman, B. R., Chan, D., Hartfield, K., Hess, J., Banta-Green, C., Whiteside, L., Finegood, B., & Duchin, J. (2019). The projected costs and benefits of a supervised injection facility in Seattle, WA, USA. International Journal of Drug Policy, 67, 9–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.12.015

Issaka, R. B., Avila, P., Whitaker, E., Bent, S., & Somsouk, M. (2019). Population health interventions to improve colorectal cancer screening by fecal immunochemical tests: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 118, 113–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.10.021

Johnson, S. B., Fair, M. A., Howley, L. D., Prunuske, J., Cashman, S. B., Carney, J. K., Jarris, Y. S., Deyton, L. R., Blumenthal, D., Krane, N. K., Fiebach, N. H., Strelnick, A. H., Morton-Eggleston, E., Nickens, C., & Ortega, L. (2020). Teaching public and population health in medical education: An evaluation framework. Academic Medicine, 95(12), 1853–1863. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000003737

Kaminski, M. (2021). Understanding and identifying key components of population health. Population Health Learning Network. https://www.hmpgloballearningnetwork.com/site/pophealth/content/understanding-and-identifying-key-components-population-health

Kaprielian, V. S., Silberberg, M., McDonald, M. A., Koo, D., Hull, S. K., Murphy, G., Tran, A. N., Sheline, B. L., Halstater, B., Martinez-Bianchi, V., Weigle, N. J., de Oliveira, J. S., Sangvai, D., Copeland, J., Tilson, H. H., Scutchfield, F. D., & Michener, J. L. (2013). Teaching population health: A competency map approach to education. Academic Medicine, 88(5), 626–637. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e31828acf27

Kawachi, I., Subramanian, S. V., & Almeida-Filho, N. (2002). A glossary for health inequalities. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 56(9), 647–652. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.56.9.647

Kelly, Y. P., Goodwin, D., Wichmann, L., & Mendu, M. L. (2019). Breaking down health care silos. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2019/07/breaking-down-health-care-silos

Kim, L. H., Vail, D., Azad, T. D., Bentley, J. P., Zhang, Y., Ho, A. L., Fatemi, P., Feng, A., Varshneya, K., Desai, M., Veeravagu, A., & Ratliff, J. K. (2019). Expenditures and health care utilization among adults with newly diagnosed low back and lower extremity pain. JAMA Network Open, 2(5), e193676. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3676

Kindig, D. A. (2007). Understanding population health terminology. Milbank Quarterly, 85(1), 139–161. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2007.00479.x

Klein, J., Prabhakaran, K., Latifi, R., & Rhee, P. (2022). Firearms: The leading cause of years of potential life lost. Trauma Surgery & Acute Care Open, 7(1), e000766. https://doi.org/10.1136/tsaco-2021-000766

LaBerge, A. F. (1993). Mission and method: The early nineteenth-century French public health movement. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 84(4), 821–822. https://doi.org/10.1086/356702

Lee, E.-J., Kim, S. J., Bae, J., Lee, E. J., Kwon, O. D., Jeong, H.-Y., Kim, Y., & Jeong, H.-B. (2021). Impact of onset-to-door time on outcomes and factors associated with late hospital arrival in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PLOS ONE, 16(3), e0247829. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247829

Li, G., Wu, A. D., Marshall, S. K., Watson, R. J., Adjei, J. K., Park, M., & Saewyc, E. M. (2019). Investigating site-level longitudinal effects of population health interventions: Gay-straight alliances and school safety. SSM: Population Health, 7, 100350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100350

McCartney, G., Popham, F., McMaster, R., & Cumbers, A. (2019). Defining health and health inequalities. Public Health, 172, 22–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2019.03.023

McGrath, R., Al Snih, S., Markides, K., Hall, O., & Peterson, M. (2019). The burden of health conditions for middle-aged and older adults in the United States: Disability-adjusted life years. BMC Geriatrics, 19(1), 100. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-019-1110-6

National Center for Health Statistics. (2021a). NHIS adult summary health statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://data.cdc.gov/d/25m4-6qqq

National Center for Health Statistics. (2021b). NHIS child summary health statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://data.cdc.gov/d/wxz7-ekz9

Noguchi, Y. (2022, December 22). American life expectancy is now at its lowest in nearly two decades. NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2022/12/22/1144864971/american-life-expectancy-is-now-at-its-lowest-in-nearly-two-decades

Nundy, S., Cooper, L. A., & Mate, K. S. (2022). The quintuple aim for health care improvement: A new imperative to advance health equity. JAMA, 327(6), 521–522. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.25181

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2022). Social determinants of health. Healthy People 2030. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health

Petersen, E. E., Davis, N. L., Goodman, D., Cox, S., Syverson, C., Seed, K., Shapiro-Mendoza, C., Callaghan, W. M., & Barfield, W. (2019). Racial/ethnic disparities in pregnancy-related deaths: United States, 2007–2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 68(35), 762–765. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6835a3

Porter, D. (1991). Drinking water, a science of impurity: Water analysis in nineteenth century Britain. History of Science, 29(4), 429–432. https://doi.org/10.1177/007327539102900406

Porter, S., Qureshi, R., Zha, P., Rawlins, L., Seaman, K., Livich Roberts, M., & Holly, C. (2022). Just a diaper rash? A population health/social determinants of health case study. Rutgers School of Nursing. https://www.aacnnursing.org/portals/42/Population%20Health/Just-a-Diaper-Rash-Case-Study.pdf

Public Health Foundation. (2019). Competencies for population health professionals. Resources & Tools. https://www.phf.org/resourcestools/Pages/Population_Health_Competencies.aspx

Raghupathi, W., & Raghupathi, V. (2018). An empirical study of chronic diseases in the United States: A visual analytics approach to public health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(3), 431. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030431

Salmond, S., & Allread, V. (2019). A population health approach to America’s opioid epidemic. Orthopaedic Nursing, 38(2), 95–108. https://doi.org/10.1097/NOR.0000000000000521

Schmidt, A., Ilango, S. M., McManus, M. A., Rogers, K. K., & White, P. H. (2020). Outcomes of pediatric to adult health care transition interventions: An updated systematic review. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 51, 92–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2020.01.002

Shrank, W. H., Rogstad, T. L., & Parekh, N. (2019). Waste in the U.S. health care system: Estimated costs and potential for savings. JAMA, 322(15), 1501–1509. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.13978

Smith, H., & Chrisafis, A. (2023, July 23). Greece carries out its biggest ever evacuation as wildfires rage on Rhodes. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/jul/23/high-winds-expected-to-impede-fight-wildfires-in-rhodes

Steiner, T. J., & Stovner, L. J. (2023). Global epidemiology of migraine and its implications for public health and health policy. Nature Reviews Neurology, 19(2), 109–117. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41582-022-00763-1

Stephenson, J. (2021). Unequal access to COVID-19 vaccines leaves less-wealthy countries more vulnerable, poses threat to global immunity. JAMA Health Forum, 2(3), e210505. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamahealthforum.2021.0505

Storfjell, J. L., Winslow, B. W., & Saunders, J. S. D. (2017). Catalysts for change: Harnessing the power of nurses to build population health in the 21st century [White paper]. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. https://www.rwjf.org/en/insights/our-research/2017/09/catalysts-for-change--harnessing-the-power-of-nurses-to-build-population-health.html

Szreter, S. (2003). The population health approach in historical perspective. American Journal of Public Health, 93(3), 421–431. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.3.421

Teoli, D., & Bhardwaj, A. (2023). Quality of life. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK536962/

Todić, J., Cubbin, C., Armour, M., Rountree, M., & González, T. (2020). Reframing school-based restorative justice as a structural population health intervention. Health & Place, 62, 102289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2020.102289

Ukoha, E. P., Snavely, M. E., Hahn, M. U., Steinauer, J. E., & Bryant, A. S. (2022). Toward the elimination of race-based medicine: Replace race with racism as preeclampsia risk factor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 227(4), 593–596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2022.05.048

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2022). Health status. Report on the Environment. https://www.epa.gov/report-environment/health-status

Weiss, D. J., Nelson, A., Vargas-Ruiz, C. A., Gligorić, K., Bavadekar, S., Gabrilovich, E., Bertozzi-Villa, A., Rozier, J., Gibson, H. S., Shekel, T., Kamath, C., Lieber, A., Schulman, K., Shao, Y., Qarkaxhija, V., Nandi, A. K., Keddie, S. H., Rumisha, S., Amratia, P., . . . Gething, P. W. (2020). Global maps of travel time to healthcare facilities. Nature Medicine, 26(12), 1835–1838. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1059-1

Wen, J., & Burke, M. (2022). Lower test scores from wildfire smoke exposure. Nature Sustainability, 5(11), 947–955. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-022-00956-y

Wilson, L., Mendes, I. A. C., Klopper, H., Catrambone, C., Al-Maaitah, R., Norton, M. E., & Hill, M. (2016). “Global health” and “global nursing”: Proposed definitions from the Global Advisory Panel on the Future of Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72(7), 1529–1540. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12973

Zhang, M., Wan, P., Ng, K., Singh, K., Cheng, T. H., Velickovic, I., Dalloul, M., & Wlody, D. (2020). Preeclampsia among African American pregnant women: An update on prevalence, complications, etiology, and biomarkers. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 75(2), 111–120. https://doi.org/10.1097/OGX.0000000000000747

Chapter 2 Foundations of Public/Community Health

Alfonso, Y. N., Leider, J. P., Resnick, B., McCullough, J. M., & Bishai, D. (2021). U.S. public health neglected: Flat or declining spending left states ill equipped to respond to COVID-19. Health Affairs, 40(4), 664–671. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2020.01084

American Academy of Family Physicians. (2020). Race based medicine. Policies. https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/racebased-medicine.html

American Nurses Association. (2022). Public health nursing: Scope and standards of practice (3rd ed.). American Nurses Association.

American Public Health Association. (2022). What is public health? https://www.apha.org/what-is-public-health

American Social History Project. (n.d.). Daughters of free men: Viewer’s guide to the 30-minute documentary by the American Social History Project. https://ashp.cuny.edu/sites/default/files/daughters-viewerguide908.pdf

Axelsson, R., & Axelsson, S. B. (2006). Integration and collaboration in public health—A conceptual framework. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 21(1), 75–88. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpm.826

Baiden, D., Parry, M., Nerenberg, K., Hillan, E. M., & Dogba, M. J. (2022). Connecting the dots: Structural racism, intersectionality, and cardiovascular health outcomes for African, Caribbean, and Black mothers. Health Equity, 6(1), 402–405. https://doi.org/10.1089/heq.2021.0077

Bartlett, E. (1841). A vindication of the character and condition of the females employed in the Lowell mills against the charges contained in the Boston times, and the Boston quarterly review. L. Huntress, printer.

Beaudry, M. C., & Mrozowski, S. A. (Eds.). (1989). Interdisciplinary investigations of the Boott Mills, Lowell, Massachusetts (Vol. 3). Division of Cultural Resources, North Atlantic Regional Office, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

Beckles, G. L., & Chou, C.-F. (2016). Disparities in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes: United States, 1999–2002 and 2011–2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65(45), 1265–1269. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6545a4

Bharel, M., & Seth Mohta, N. (2020). Defining distinctions between public and population health to knock down barriers that impede care. NEJM Catalyst. https://catalyst.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/CAT.20.0432

Bogage, J. (2023, May 4). Iowa bill reducing child labor protections to be signed by governor. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2023/05/04/iowa-child-labor-reynolds/

Britannica Editors. (2023, August 6). Francis Cabot Lowell. In Encyclopaedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Francis-Cabot-Lowell

CDC Foundation. (2023). What is public health? https://www.cdcfoundation.org/what-public-health?

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Notifiable disease. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/sources-definitions/notifiable-disease.htm#

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a). Nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions, United States: Weekly tables. https://wonder.cdc.gov/nndss/nndss_weekly_tables_menu.asp

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b, June 26). National notifiable diseases surveillance system (NNDSS). https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/sources-definitions/nndss.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023c, July 6). Facts about hypertension. https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/facts.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023d, September 18). 10 essential public health services. https://www.cdc.gov/publichealthgateway/publichealthservices/essentialhealthservices.html

Crane-Kramer, G., & Buckberry, J. (2023). Changes in health with the rise of industry. International Journal of Paleopathology, 40, 99–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2022.12.005

Devi, S. (2020). U.S. public health budget cuts in the face of COVID-19. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(4), 415. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30182-1

Diener, H.-C., Dodick, D., Evers, S., Holle, D., Jensen, R. H., Lipton, R. B., Porreca, F., Silberstein, S., & Schwedt, T. (2019). Pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of medication overuse headache. The Lancet Neurology, 18(9), 891–902. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30146-2

Diener, H.-C., & Hankey, G. J. (2020). Primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 75(15), 1804–1818. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.12.072

Dopp, A. R., & Lantz, P. M. (2020). Moving upstream to improve children’s mental health through community and policy change. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 47(5), 779–787. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-019-01001-5

Dorfman, L., & Krasnow, I. D. (2014). Public health and media advocacy. Annual review of public health, 35, 293–306. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182503

Falkner, B., & Lurbe, E. (2020). Primordial prevention of high blood pressure in childhood: An opportunity not to be missed. Hypertension, 75(5), 1142–1150. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.14059

Figueroa. (2023, April 7). Kids at work: States try to ease child labor laws at behest of industry. Missouri Independent. https://missouriindependent.com/2023/04/07/kids-at-work-states-try-to-ease-child-labor-laws-at-behest-of-industry/

Fowler, D., Brimblecombe, P., Burrows, J., Heal, M. R., Grennfelt, P., Stevenson, D. S., Jowett, A., Nemitz, E., Coyle, M., Liu, X., Chang, Y., Fuller, G. W., Sutton, M. A., Klimont, Z., Unsworth, M. H., & Vieno, M. (2020). A chronology of global air quality. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 378(2183), 20190314. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2019.0314

Garment Worker Center, UCLA Center for Labor Research and Education, & UCLA Labor Occupational Safety and Health. (2016). Dirty threads and dangerous factories: Health and safety in Los Angeles’ fashion industry. https://garmentworkercenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/DirtyThreads.pdf

Gautier, L., Karambé, Y., Dossou, J.-P., & Samb, O. M. (2022). Rethinking development interventions through the lens of decoloniality in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of global health. Global Public Health, 17(2), 180–193. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2020.1858134

Hanlon, J. J., & Pickett, G. E. (1984). Public health: Administration and practice (8th ed.). Mosby.

Hasbrouck, L. (2021). Healthy People 2030: An improved framework. Health Education & Behavior, 48(2), 113–114. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198121997812

Hill-Briggs, F., Adler, N. E., Berkowitz, S. A., Chin, M. H., Gary-Webb, T. L., Navas-Acien, A., Thornton, P. L., & Haire-Joshu, D. (2021). Social determinants of health and diabetes: A scientific review. Diabetes Care, 44(1), 258–279. https://doi.org/10.2337/dci20-0053

Huang, X., Lee, K., Wang, M. C., Shah, N. S., & Khan, S. S. (2022). Age at diagnosis of hypertension by race and ethnicity in the U.S. from 2011 to 2020. JAMA Cardiology, 7(9), 986. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2022.2345

Institute of Medicine Committee for the Study of the Future of Public Health. (1988). A history of the public health system. In The Future of Public Health. National Academies Press. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK218224

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Assuring the Health of the Public in the 21st Century. (2002). The future of the public’s health in the 21st century. National Academies Press (US). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK221239/

Javed, Z., Haisum Maqsood, M., Yahya, T., Amin, Z., Acquah, I., Valero-Elizondo, J., Andrieni, J., Dubey, P., Jackson, R. K., Daffin, M. A., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Hyder, A. A., & Nasir, K. (2022). Race, racism, and cardiovascular health: Applying a social determinants of health framework to racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.121.007917

Kantor, A. F. (1976). Upton Sinclair and the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906. “I aimed at the public’s heart and by accident I hit it in the stomach.” American Journal of Public Health, 66(12), 1202–1205. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.66.12.1202

Kidd, S. A., Vitopoulos, N., Frederick, T., Leon, S., Karabanow, J., & McKenzie, K. (2019). More than four walls and a roof needed: A complex tertiary prevention approach for recently homeless youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 89(2), 248–257. https://doi.org/10.1037/ort0000335

King, L. S. (1983).Germ theory and its influence. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 249(6), 794. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1983.03330300076042

Kisling, L. A., & Das, J. (2023). Prevention strategies. StatPearls. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537222/

Koman, P. D., Singla, V., Lam, J., & Woodruff, T. J. (2019). Population susceptibility: A vital consideration in chemical risk evaluation under the Lautenberg Toxic Substances Control Act. PLOS Biology, 17(8), e3000372. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000372

Kuehn, B. M. (2011). Public health cuts threaten preparedness, preventive health services. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 306(18), 1965–1966. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/1731850

Kuehn, B. M. (2021). AHA takes aim at structural racism as a public health crisis. Circulation, 143(5), 501–502. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.053306

Levine, D., & Rosencrantz, B. G. (1972). Public health and the state: Changing views in Massachusetts, 1842–1936. The Journal of American History, 59(3), 1. https://doi.org/10.2307/1900712

Library of Congress. (n.d.). Work in the late 19th century. U.S. history primary source timeline. https://www.loc.gov/classroom-materials/united-states-history-primary-source-timeline/rise-of-industrial-america-1876-1900/work-in-late-19th-century/

Lloyd-Jones, D. M., Albert, M. A., & Elkind, M. (2021). The American Heart Association’s focus on primordial prevention. Circulation, 144(15). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.057125

Martins, C., Godycki-Cwirko, M., Heleno, B., & Brodersen, J. (2018). Quaternary prevention: Reviewing the concept: Quaternary prevention aims to protect patients from medical harm. European Journal of General Practice, 24(1), 106–111. https://doi.org/10.1080/13814788.2017.1422177

McKinlay, J. B. (2019). A case for refocusing upstream: The political economy of illness. IAPHS Occasional Classics, 1, 1–10.

Murphy, E., Donnelly, C., & McKean, D. (2019). In a city of mills and canals: Mortality among pre-teen and teenage Irish workers in mid-nineteenth-century industrial Lowell, Massachusetts. Childhood in the Past, 12(2), 117–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/17585716.2019.1638557

National Association of School Nurses. (2020). Position brief: Eliminate racism to optimize student health and learning. https://www.nasn.org/advocacy/professional-practice-documents/positionbriefs/pb-racism

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.). Global health. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/global-health

Robinson, H. H. (2011). Loom and spindle: Of life amongst the early mill girls. Applewood Books.

Rosen, G. (1976). Benjamin Rush on health and the American revolution. American Journal of Public Health, 66(4), 397–398. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.66.4.397

Rosenkrantz, B. (1972). Public health and the state: Changing views in Massachusetts. 1842-1936. Harvard University Press.

Shahzad, M., Upshur, R., Donnelly, P., Bharmal, A., Wei, X., Feng, P., & Brown, A. D. (2019). A population-based approach to integrated healthcare delivery: A scoping review of clinical care and public health collaboration. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 708. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7002-z

Shryock, R. H. (1937). The early American public health movement. American Journal of Public Health and the Nation’s Health, 27(10), 965–971. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.27.10.965

Teleky, L. (2012). History of factory and mine hygiene. American Journal of Public Health, 102(6), 1104–1106. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.10261104

Tulchinsky, T. H., & Varavikova, E. A. (2014). A history of public health. In The New Public Health (3rd ed., pp. 1–42). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-415766-8.00001-X

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2023a). Advancing primary prevention in human services: Convening findings. https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/8228e700f6e369df9382ac8e0d3976c1/primary-prevention-convening-brief.pdf

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2023b). Surgeon General issues new advisory about effects social media use has on youth mental health. News. https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2023/05/23/surgeon-general-issues-new-advisory-about-effects-social-media-use-has-youth-mental-health.html

U.S. Department of Labor. (2023). Children have rights. Child labor. https://www.worker.gov/child-labor-wages/#

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2023). Indoor air quality. Report on the environment. https://www.epa.gov/report-environment/indoor-air-quality

Vandiver, B. J. (2020). Message from the editor-in-chief: Racism as public health crisis. Journal of Black Psychology, 46(5), 347–350. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095798420956806

Winslow, C. E. A. (1924). The evolution and significance of the modern public health campaign. American Journal of Public Health, 14(4), 343. https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.14.4.343-a

Chapter 3 Public/Community Health in Practice

Abbasinia, M., Ahmadi, F., & Kazemnejad, A. (2020). Patient advocacy in nursing: A concept analysis. Nursing Ethics, 27(1), 141–151. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733019832950

About Cori. (2022). Cori Bush: Congresswoman for Missouri’s 1st. https://bush.house.gov/about

Abrams, S. E. (2004). From function to competency in public health nursing, 1931 to 2003. Public Health Nursing, 21(5), 507–510. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0737-1209.2004.021514.x

Adams, C. (2021). Rep. Cori Bush wants to transform policing and public safety with new bill. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/nbcblk/rep-cori-bush-wants-transform-policing-public-safety-new-bill-n1272490

American Nurses Association. (1980). A conceptual model of community health nursing. American Nurses Association Publications.

American Nurses Association. (2022). Public health nursing: Scope and standards of practice (3rd ed.). American Nurses Association.

American Nurses Association. (2023). Nurses serving in Congress. Practice & Advocacy. https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/advocacy/federal/nurses-serving-in-congress/

American Psychiatric Association. (2020). Stigma, prejudice and discrimination against people with mental illness. https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/stigma-and-discrimination

Associated Press. (1946, March 1). Public health nurses lauded by Truman. New York Times, 27.

Associated Press. (2019, August 8). Timeline of events in shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson. https://apnews.com/article/shootings-police-us-news-st-louis-michael-brown-9aa32033692547699a3b61da8fd1fc62

Ayanian, J. Z. & Buntin, M. B. (2020). In pursuit of a deeper understanding of racial justice and health equity. JAMA Health Forum. doi:10.1001/jamahealthforum.2020.0765

Baptiste, D., Turner, S., Josiah, N., Arscott, J., Alvarez, C., Turkson‐Ocran, R., Rodney, T., Commodore‐Mensah, Y., Francis, L., Wilson, P. R., Starks, S., Alexander, K., Taylor, J. L., Ogungbe, O., Byiringiro, S., Fisher, M. C., Charlemagne‐Badal, S. J., Marseille, B., Delva, S., & Hamilton, J. (2021). Hidden figures of nursing: The historical contributions of Black nurses and a narrative for those who are unnamed, undocumented and underrepresented. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77(4), 1627–1632. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14791

Barnum, N. C. (2011). Public health nursing: An autonomous career for World War II nurse veterans. Public Health Nursing, 28(4), 379–386. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1446.2011.00949.x

Bell, B. (2021). White dominance in nursing education: A target for anti‐racist efforts. Nursing Inquiry, 28(1). https://doi.org/10.1111/nin.12379

Bicki, A., Silva, A., Joseph, V., Handoko, R., Rico, S., Burns, J., Simonelli, A., Harrop, J., Nedow, J., & De Groot, A. S. (2013). A nurse-run walk-in clinic: Cost-effective alternative to non-urgent emergency department use by the uninsured. Journal of Community Health, 38(6), 1042–1049. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-013-9712-y

Blazer, D. (2020). Social isolation and loneliness in older adults: A mental health/public health challenge. JAMA Psychiatry, 77(10), 990. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1054

Buffum, M. D., & Wolfe, N. S. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder and the World War II veteran. Geriatric Nursing, 16(6), 264–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-4572(95)80006-9’

Buhler-Wilkerson, K. (1993). Bringing care to the people: Lillian Wald’s legacy to public health nursing. American Journal of Public Health, 83(12), 1778–1786. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.83.12.1778

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). History, burden, and trends. Legionella (Legionnaires’ Disease and Pontiac Fever). https://www.cdc.gov/legionella/about/history.html

Chávez, A. (2022). Progressives want to put Medicare for All back on the table. The Nation. https://www.thenation.com/article/politics/medicare-cori-bush/

Chen, R. (2022). Why some doctors are prescribing ballroom dance or a day at the museum. Time Magazine. https://time.com/6187850/social-prescriptions-improve-health/

Connolly, C., & Cotter, P. (2023). Effectiveness of nurse‐led clinics on healthcare delivery: An umbrella review. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 32(9–10), 1760–1767. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.16186

Counts, N. (2023, May 18). Understanding the U.S. behavioral health workforce shortage. The Commonwealth Fund. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/explainer/2023/may/understanding-us-behavioral-health-workforce-shortage

Cowger, T. L., Murray, E. J., Clarke, J., Bassett, M. T., Ojikutu, B. O., Sánchez, S. M., Linos, N., & Hall, K. T. (2022). Lifting universal masking in schools: Covid-19 incidence among students and staff. New England Journal of Medicine, 387(21), 1935–1946. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2211029

Davis, A. T. (1999). Early Black American leaders in nursing: Architects for integration and equality. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Donnelly, G. F. (2016). In praise of Harriet Tubman: Nurse, spy, abolitionist. Holistic Nursing Practice, 30(4), 191. https://doi.org/10.1097/HNP.0000000000000155

Dorwick, K., Siliciano, R., Dude, A., & Rogers, K. (2023, October 25). AIDS. In Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/AIDS. Accessed 27 October 2023.

Edmonds, J. K., Kneipp, S. M., & Campbell, L. (2020). A call to action for public health nurses during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Public Health Nursing, 37(3), 323–324. https://doi.org/10.1111/phn.12733

Evans, L. E., Foxworth, R., Sanchez, G. R., Ellenwood, C., & Roybal, C. M. (2022). Representative voices: Native American representation, political power, and COVID-19 in U.S. States. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 8(8), 135–152. https://doi.org/10.7758/RSF.2022.8.8.07

Florell, M. C. (2021). Concept analysis of nursing activism. Nursing Forum, 56(1), 134–140. https://doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12502

Fraser, D. W., Tsai, T. R., Orenstein, W., Parkin, W. E., Beecham, H. J., Sharrar, R. G., Harris, J., Mallison, G. F., Martin, S. M., McDade, J. E., Shepard, C. C., Brachman, P. S., & the Field Investigation Team. (1977). Legionnaires’ disease: Description of an epidemic of pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine, 297(22), 1189–1197. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197712012972201

Goldstick, J. E., Cunningham, R. M., and Carter, P. M. (2022, May 19). Current causes of death in children and adolescents in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine, 2022; 386:1955-1956. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmc2201761

Goodman, R. A., Bunnell, R., & Posner, S. F. (2014). What is “community health”? Examining the meaning of an evolving field in public health. Preventive Medicine, 67, S58–S61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.07.028

Guilamo-Ramos, V., Thimm-Kaiser, M., Benzekri, A., Hidalgo, A., Lanier, Y., Tlou, S., de Lourdes Rosas López, M., Soletti, A. B., & Hagan, H. (2021). Nurses at the frontline of public health emergency preparedness and response: Lessons learned from the HIV/AIDS pandemic and emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 21(10), e326–e333. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30983-X

Harris, M. (2019). The Henry Street Settlement celebrates 125th anniversary. Home Healthcare Now, 37(4), 240–240. https://doi.org/10.1097/NHH.0000000000000789

Howarth, M., Griffiths, A., da Silva, A., & Green, R. (2020). Social prescribing: A ‘natural’ community-based solution. British Journal of Community Nursing, 25(6), 294–298. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjcn.2020.25.6.294

Huerta, D. (2020). Bonnie Castillo. The 100 most influential people of 2020. Time Magazine. https://time.com/collection/100-most-influential-people-2020/5888341/bonnie-castillo/

Husk, K., Blockley, K., Lovell, R., Bethel, A., Lang, I., Byng, R., & Garside, R. (2020). What approaches to social prescribing work, for whom, and in what circumstances? A realist review. Health & Social Care in the Community, 28(2), 309–324. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12839

Jones, M., & James, J. (2021). Role of the nurse in addressing vaccine hesitancy and misinformation on social media. Nursing Standard, 36(12), 62–66. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.2021.e11759

Kociolek, L. K., Patel, A. B., Hultquist, J. F., Ozer, E. A., Simons, L. M., McHugh, M., Muller, W. J., & Lorenzo-Redondo, R. (2022). Viral whole-genome sequencing to assess impact of universal masking on SARS-CoV-2 transmission among pediatric healthcare workers. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 43(10), 1408–1412. https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2021.415

Kub, J., Kulbok, P., & Glick, D. (2015). Cornerstone documents, milestones, and policies: Shaping the direction of public health nursing 1890-1950. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 20(2). https://doi.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol20No02Man03

Kulig, J. C. (2000). Community resiliency: The potential for community health nursing theory development. Public Health Nursing, 17(5), 374–385. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1446.2000.00374.x

Lee, K. A., & Friese, C. R. (2021). Deaths by suicide among nurses: A rapid response call. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 59(8), 3–4. https://doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20210625-01

Luhby, T. (2023, January 25). Obamacare sign-ups soar to record 16.3 million for 2023. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2023/01/25/politics/aca-enrollment-2023/index.html

Markel, H. (2018). How a hotel convention became ground zero for this deadly bacteria. PBS News Hour. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/how-a-hotel-convention-became-ground-zero-for-this-deadly-bacteria

Martins, C., Godycki-Cwirko, M., Heleno, B., & Brodersen, J. (2018). Reviewing the concept: Quaternary prevention aims to protect patients from medical harm. European Journal of General Practice, 24(1), 106–111. https://doi.org/10.1080/13814788.2017.1422177

Mass General Brigham McLean. (2023, January 18). The social dilemma: Social media and your mental health. https://www.mcleanhospital.org/essential/it-or-not-social-medias-affecting-your-mental-health

Matthias, M. (2023). Harriet Tubman. In Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Harriet-Tubman

McDade, J. E., Shepard, C. C., Fraser, D. W., Tsai, T. R., Redus, M. A., Dowdle, W. R., & the Laboratory Investigation Team. (1977). Legionnaires’ disease: Isolation of a bacterium and demonstration of its role in other respiratory disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 297(22), 1197–1203. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197712012972202

National Commission to Address Racism in Nursing. (2022). Report series: Racism in nursing. American Nurses Association. https://www.nursingworld.org/~49c4d0/globalassets/practiceandpolicy/workforce/commission-to-address-racism/racism-in-nursing-report-series.pdf

National Institute of Mental Health. (2023). Substance use and co-occurring mental disorders. National Institute of Mental Health Information Resource Center. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/substance-use-and-mental-health

National Nurses United. (2023). About National Nurses United. https://www.nationalnursesunited.org/about

Office of the Surgeon General (OSG). (2021). Protecting youth mental health: The U.S. Surgeon General’s advisory. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK575984/

Painter, N. I. (2007). Sojourner Truth: A life, a symbol. W W Norton & Co Inc.

Pittman, P. (2019). Rising to the challenge: Re-embracing the Wald model of nursing. AJN, American Journal of Nursing, 119(7), 46–52. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NAJ.0000569444.12412.89

Population Reference Bureau. (2023). Just how many baby boomers are there? https://www.prb.org/resources/just-how-many-baby-boomers-are-there/

Quad Council Coalition Competency Review Task Force. (2018). Community/Public Health Nursing Competencies. https://www.cphno.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/QCC-C-PHN-COMPETENCIES-Approved_2018.05.04_Final-002.pdf

Robinson-Lane, S. G., & Patel, R. V. (2022). The imperative to address institutional racism in nursing practice. Nursing Outlook, 70(5), 691–693. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2022.06.001

Rothberg, E. (2022). Cori Bush. National Women’s History Museum. https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/cori-bush

Sake-Doucet, N. (2020). Beyond Florence: The racist lady with the lamp. Nursing Clio. https://nursingclio.org/2020/11/05/the-racist-lady-with-the-lamp/

Schaeffer, K. (2023). U.S. Congress continues to grow in racial, ethnic diversity. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/short-reads/2023/01/09/u-s-congress-continues-to-grow-in-racial-ethnic-diversity/

Schlanger, Z. (2020). Begging for thermometers, body bags, and gowns: U.S. health care workers are dangerously ill-equipped to fight COVID-19. Time Magazine. https://time.com/5823983/coronavirus-ppe-shortage/

Schofield, R., Ganann, R., Brooks, S., McGugan, J., Dalla Bona, K., Betker, C., Dilworth, K., Parton, L., Reid-Haughian, C., Slepkov, M., & Watson, C. (2011). Community health nursing vision for 2020: Shaping the future. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 33(8), 1047–1068. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193945910375819

Sharma Rani, R. (2020). This nurse is leading the fight for safer hospitals. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/09/us/09IHW-nurses-union-bonnie-castillo-ppe-healthcare.html

Temkin, E. (1999). Driving through: Postpartum care during World War II. American Journal of Public Health, 89(4), 587–595. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.89.4.587

University of Maryland School of Nursing. (2023). Following the patient: Nursing in the community. History of Nursing Practice. https://www.nursing.umaryland.edu/museum/virtual-tour/history-practice/nursing-community/#

Vieites, V. (2020). Nurse recalls his pioneering efforts to humanize AIDS care in the 1980s. FIU Magazine. https://news.fiu.edu/2020/nurse-recalls-his-pioneering-efforts-to-humanize-aids-care-in-the-1980s

Waters, C. M. (2022). Public health nursing’s impact on strengthening community resilience. American Journal of Public Health, 112(S3), S224–S225. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306873

Zweig, S. A., Zapf, A. J., Xu, H., Li, Q., Agarwal, S., Labrique, A. B., & Peters, D. H. (2021). Impact of public health and social measures on the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and other countries: Descriptive analysis. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 7(6), e27917. https://doi.org/10.2196/27917

Chapter 4 The Health of the Population

Administration for Strategic Preparedness and Response. (n.d.). Strategic national stockpile. https://aspr.hhs.gov/SNS/Pages/default.aspx

Ahmad, F. B., Cisewski, J. A., Xu, J., & Anderson, R. N. (2023). Provisional mortality data: United States, 2022. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 72(18), 488–492. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7218a3

American Cancer Society. (2022, January 12). Risk of dying from cancer continues to drop at an accelerated pace. https://www.cancer.org/research/acs-research-news/facts-and-figures-2022.html

American Diabetes Association. (n.d.). You can live well with diabetes. https://www2.diabetes.org/healthy-living

American Heart Association. (n.d.). Healthy living. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living

American Liver Foundation. (2022, August 5). How many people have liver disease? https://liverfoundation.org/about-your-liver/facts-about-liver-disease/how-many-people-have-liver-disease/

Ansah, J. P., & Chiu, C.-T. (2022). Projecting the chronic disease burden among the adult population in the United States using a multi-state population model. Front Public Health, 10, 1082183. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9881650/

Ariosto, D. A., Harper, E. M., Wilson, M. L., Hull, S. C., Nahm, E. S., & Sylvia, M. L. (2018). Population health: A nursing action plan. JAMIA Open, 1(1), 7–10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6951917/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). First report of AIDS. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(21), 429. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5021a1.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Well-being concepts. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL). https://www.cdc.gov/hrqol/wellbeing.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021a, June 16). Health-related quality of life (HRQOL). https://www.cdc.gov/hrqol/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021b, August 26). Healthy habits to help protect against flu. Influenza (flu). https://www.cdc.gov/flu/prevent/actions-prevent-flu.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021c, December 17). About global health security. Global health protection and security. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/healthprotection/ghs/about.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021d, December 17). Emergency preparedness & response. Global health protection and security. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/healthprotection/topics/emergency-preparedness-response.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a, February 28). Injuries and violence are leading causes of death. Injury prevention & control. https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/animated-leading-causes.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b, February 28). An update on cancer deaths in the United States. Cancer. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/dcpc/research/update-on-cancer-deaths/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c, May 18). What is global health security? Global health. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/security/what.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022d, May 19). Key achievements of GHSA. Global health. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/resources/factsheets/5-years-of-ghsa.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022e, July 1). What is health equity? Health equity. https://www.cdc.gov/healthequity/whatis/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022f, May 20). What is the Global Health Security Agenda? Global health. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/security/what-is-ghsa.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022g, October 21). About notifiable infectious diseases and conditions data. National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). https://www.cdc.gov/nndss/data-statistics/infectious-tables/about.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a). COVID Data Tracker. https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b, February 3). Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) fact sheet. Global health protection and security. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/healthprotection/resources/fact-sheets/fetp-factsheet.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023c, May 9). About rural health. Rural health. https://www.cdc.gov/ruralhealth/about.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023d, May 15). Heart disease facts. Heart disease. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023e, May 17). What is Ebola disease? Ebola disease. https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/about.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023f, May 19). Understanding health literacy. https://www.cdc.gov/healthliteracy/learn/Understanding.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023g, August 8). Understanding the opioid overdose epidemic. Opioids. https://www.cdc.gov/opioids/basics/epidemic.html

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Coronado, F., Melvin, S. C., Bell, R. A., & Zhao, G. (2022, December 8). Global responses to prevent, manage, and control cardiovascular diseases. Preventing Chronic Disease, 19, 220347. https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd19.220347

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Hoyert, D. L. (2023). Maternal mortality rates in the United States, 2021. NCHS Health E-Stats. https://doi.org/10.15620/cdc:124678

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McCartney, G., Popham, F., McMaster, R., & Cumbers, A. (2019). Defining health and health inequalities. Public Health, 172, 22–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2019.03.023

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National Center for Health Statistics. (2023d, November 9). National Health Interview Survey. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/index.htm

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National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2023). Kidney disease statistics for the United States. National Institutes of Health. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/kidney-disease

National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). What is prevalence? National Institutes of Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/what-is-prevalence

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New Mexico Department of Health. (2021, December 28). Summary measures of health status. NM-IBIS. https://ibis.doh.nm.gov/topic/healthstatus/SumaryMeasures.html

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Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.-c). Injury prevention. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/injury-prevention

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.-d). Leading health indicators. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/leading-health-indicators

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.-e). Overall Health and Well-Being Measures. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/overall-health-and-well-being-measures

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Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.-g). Reduce stroke deaths—HDS-03. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/heart-disease-and-stroke/reduce-stroke-deaths-hds-03

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.-h). Reduce the proportion of children and adolescents with obesity—NWS-04. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/overweight-and-obesity/reduce-proportion-children-and-adolescents-obesity-nws-04

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Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.-j). Social determinants of health. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2021a, August 24). About Healthy People. Health.gov. https://health.gov/our-work/national-health-initiatives/healthy-people/about- healthy-people

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2021b, August 24). History of Healthy People. Health.gov. https://health.gov/our-work/national-health-initiatives/healthy-people/about-healthy-people/history-healthy-people

Office of Minority Health. (2022). Infant mortality and African Americans. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/infant-mortality-and-african-americans

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Roser, M., Ritchie, H., & Spooner, F. (2021, September). Burden of disease. Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/burden-of-disease

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Unruh, L., Allin, S., Marchildon, G., Burke, S., Barry, S., Siersbaek, R., Thomas, S., Rajan, S., Koval, A., Alexander, M., Merkur, S., Webb, E., & Williams, G. A. (2022). A comparison of 2020 health policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Health Policy, 126(5), 427–437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2021.06.012

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World Health Organization. (n.d.-a). Constitution. https://www.who.int/about/accountability/governance/constitution

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World Health Organization. (n.d.-c). Global health estimates: Life expectancy and leading causes of death and disability. https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/mortality-and-global-health-estimates

World Health Organization. (n.d.-d). Life expectancy at birth. https://www.who.int/data/gho/indicator-metadata-registry/imr-details/3131

World Health Organization. (n.d.-e). Years of healthy life lost due to disability (YLD). https://www.who.int/data/gho/indicator-metadata-registry/imr-details/160

World Health Organization. (n.d.-f). Years of life lost from mortality (YLL). https://www.who.int/data/gho/indicator-metadata-registry/imr-details/159

World Health Organization. (2019, December 31). 20 health tips for 2020. https://www.who.int/philippines/news/feature-stories/detail/20-health-tips-for-2020

World Health Organization. (2021a). Health promotion glossary of terms 2021. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240038349

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World Health Organization. (2022a, February 3). Cancer. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cancer

World Health Organization. (2022b, May 20). World health statistics 2022. https://www.who.int/news/item/20-05-2022-world-health-statistics-2022

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World Health Organization. (2023f, April 21). Tuberculosis. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tuberculosis

World Health Organization. (2023g). SAFER: Raise prices on alcohol through excise taxes and pricing policies. https://www.who.int/initiatives/SAFER/pricing-policies#

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Chapter 5 Demographic Trends and Societal Changes

AARP. (2021, September). Trends in retail prices of specialty prescription drugs widely used by older Americans, 2006 to 2020. https://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/ppi/2021/09/trends-retail-prices-specialty-drugs.doi.10.26419-2Fppi.00073.006.pdf

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2020, June). Understanding quality measurement. https://www.ahrq.gov/patient-safety/quality-resources/tools/chtoolbx/understand/index.html

America Counts Staff. (2019, December 10). 2020 Census will help policymakers prepare for the incoming wave of aging boomers. United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2019/12/by-2030-all-baby-boomers-will-be-age-65-or-older.html

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2023). Fact sheet: Enhancing diversity in the nursing workforce. https://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/News/Factsheets/Enhancing-Diversity-Factsheet.pdf

American Hospital Association. (2023a). Data brief: Health care workforce challenges threaten hospitals' ability to care for patients. https://www.aha.org/fact-sheets/2021-11-01-data-brief-health-care-workforce-challenges-threaten-hospitals-ability-care

American Hospital Association. (2023b). Fact sheet: Strengthening the health care workforce. https://www.aha.org/fact-sheets/2021-05-26-fact-sheet-strengthening-health-care-workforce

American Hospital Association. (2023c). Fact sheet: Uncompensated hospital care costs. https://www.aha.org/fact-sheets/2020-01-06-fact-sheet-uncompensated-hospital-care-cost

American Nurses Association. (2023). Nurses in the workforce. https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/workforce/

American Psychiatric Association. (2023). Stigma, prejudice and discrimination against people with mental illness. https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/stigma-and-discrimination

Ashwood, J. S., Mehrotra, A, Cowling, D., & Uscher-Pines, L. (2017). Direct-to-consumer telehealth may increase access to care but does not decrease spending. Health Affairs. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.1130

Baker, D. W. (2020, December 15). Trust in health care in the time of COVID-19. JAMA. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2774033

Balasubramanian, S. (2022). The health care industry is crumbling due to staffing shortages. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/saibala/2022/08/26/the-healthcare-industry-is-crumbling-due-to-staffing-shortages/?sh=4a95dbcb7d6e

Buchan, J., & Catton, H. (2020). COVID-19 and the international supply of nurses. International Council of Nurses. http://www.icn.ch/system/files/documents/2020-07/COVID19_internationalsupplyofnurses_Report_FINAL.pdf

Call, G. (2022, January 28). Telehealth post-COVID: Going digital to reduce costs? Medical Economics. https://www.medicaleconomics.com/view/telehealth-post-covid-going-digital-to-reduce-costs-

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2022, February 10). Tracking the COVID-19 economy’s effects on food, housing, and employment hardships. https://www.cbpp.org/research/poverty-and-inequality/tracking-the-covid-19-recessions-effects-on-food-housing-and

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019a). Disability and obesity. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/obesity.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019b). Strategies used by adults aged 18-64 to reduce their prescription drug costs. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db333.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020a). Health disparities. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/disparities/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020b). Health disparities in HIV, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB: Asians. https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/healthdisparities/asians.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020c). National diabetes statistics report: Estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). About chronic diseases. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/about/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b, December 30). Prediabetes - Your chance to prevent type 2 diabetes. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/prediabetes.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c, July 12). Prioritizing minority mental health. https://www.cdc.gov/healthequity/features/minority-mental-health/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022d). Promoting health for older adults. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/factsheets/promoting-health-for-older-adults.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022e). Minority health and health equity. https://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealth/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022f). Reaching the racial and ethnic groups most affected by chronic diseases. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/factsheets/reach.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022g). What is health equity? https://www.cdc.gov/healthequity/whatis/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a). CDC’s CORE commitment to health equity. https://www.cdc.gov/healthequity/core/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b). LGBTQ+ youth: Addressing health disparities with a school-based approach. https://www.cdc.gov/lgbthealth/youth.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023c). Prioritizing minority mental health. https://www.cdc.gov/healthequity/features/minority-mental-health/index.html

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2022). Medicaid. https://www.medicaid.gov/medicaid/index.html

Chamlou, N. (2022, December 2). How states are addressing the nursing shortage. Nurse Journal. https://nursejournal.org/articles/how-are-states-addressing-the-nursing-shortage/

Chee, M. (2019, May 28). Understanding the impact of Medicaid on poverty. Chicago Policy Review. https://chicagopolicyreview.org/2019/05/28/understanding-the-impact-of-medicaid-on-poverty/#

Commonwealth Fund. (2021, June 9). Racial and ethnic inequities in health care coverage and access, 2013-2019. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2021/jun/racial-ethnic-inequities-health-care-coverage-access-2013-2019

Fry, R. (2020, April 28). Millennials overtake baby boomers as America’s largest generation. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/short-reads/2020/04/28/millennials-overtake-baby-boomers-as-americas-largest-generation/

Guth, M., & Ammula, M. (2021, May 6). Building the evidence base: Studies on the effects of Medicaid expansion, February 2020 to March 2021. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/report-section/building-on-the-evidence-base-studies-on-the-effects-of-medicaid-expansion-february-2020-to-march-2021-report/

Hamel, L., Lopes, L., Artiga, S., & Brodie, M. (2020, October 14). KFF/The undefeated survey on race and health. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/report-section/kff-the-undefeated-survey-on-race-and-health-main-findings/

Harvard Pilgrim Health Care. (2023). How rising health care costs are affecting American consumers. https://www.harvardpilgrim.org/hapiguide/how-rising-healthcare-costs-are-affecting-american-consumers/

Health Care Information and Management Systems Society. (2023). Technology’s vital role in health care and society. https://www.himss.org/resources/technologys-vital-role-healthcare-and-society

Health Resources and Services Administration. (2023, February 3). Telehealth and remote patient monitoring. https://telehealth.hhs.gov/providers/preparing-patients-for-telehealth/telehealth-and-remote-patient-monitoring

Hill, L., Ndugga, N., & Artiga, S. (2023, March 15). Key data on health and health care by race and ethnicity. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/racial-equity-and-health-policy/report/key-data-on-health-and-health-care-by-race-and-ethnicity/

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Chapter 6 Structural Racism and Systemic Inequities

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Nguyen, A., & Kim, S. (2021, September 9). Mapping healthcare deserts: 80% of the country lacks adequate access to healthcare. GoodRx Health. https://www.goodrx.com/healthcare-access/research/healthcare-deserts-80-percent-of-country-lacks-adequate-healthcare-access

Nugent R., & Knaul, F. (2006). Fiscal policies for health promotion and disease prevention. In: D. Jamison, J. Breman, A. Measham, G. Alleyne, M. Claeson, D. B. Evans, P. Jha, A. Mills & P. Musgrove (Eds.), Disease control priorities in developing countries (2nd ed., pp. 211–223). The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11714/

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.-a). Healthy People 2030 Framework. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/about/healthy-people-2030-framework#

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.-b). Health policy. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/health-policy

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.-c). Leading health indicators (LHI). Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/leading-health-indicators

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.-d). Tobacco use. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/tobacco-use

Radley, D., Baumgertner, J., Collins, S., Zephyrin, L., & Schneider, E. (2021, November 18). Achieving racial and ethnic equity in U.S. health care: A scorecard of state performance. Commonwealth Fund. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/scorecard/2021/nov/achieving-racial-ethnic-equity-us-health-care-state-performance

Rajkumar, V.S. (2020, April 23). The high cost of prescription drugs: causes and solutions. Blood Cancer Journal. 10, 71. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-0338-x

Rural Health Information Hub. (2021). Telehealth use in rural healthcare. https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/topics/telehealth

Rural Health Information Hub. (2022, November 21). Healthcare access in rural communities. https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/topics/healthcare-access#barriers

Soto, J., Zhang, Y., Huang, J., Feng, D. (2018). An overview of the American trauma system. Chin J Traumatol, 21(2):77–79. https://doi.org.10.1016/j.cjtee.2018.01.003

Tolbert, J., Drake, P., & Damico, A. (2022, December 19). Key facts about the uninsured population. KFF. https://www.kff.org/uninsured/issue-brief/key-facts-about-the-uninsured-population/#

Town of Arlington, Massachusetts. (n.d.). Title V - Regulations Upon the Use of Private Property. https://www.arlingtonma.gov/town-governance/laws-and-regulations/town-bylaws/title-v-regulations-upon-the-use-of-private-property#A3

United States Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. (n.d.) Special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children (WIC). https://www.fns.usda.gov/wic

United States Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. (2023, October 1). SNAP eligibility. https://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/recipient/eligibility

United States Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). About HHS. https://www.hhs.gov/about/index.html

United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2022). New reports show record 35 million people enrolled in coverage related to the Affordable Care Act, with historic 21 million people enrolled in Medicaid expansion coverage. https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2022/04/29/new-reports-show-record-35-million-people-enrolled-in-coverage-related-to-the-affordable-care-act.html

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2023, May 1). Progress cleaning the air and improving people’s health. https://www.epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/progress-cleaning-air-and-improving-peoples-health

United States Food and Drug Administration. (n.d.). COVID-19 vaccines. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/covid-19-vaccines

United States Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Full text of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). https://www.fda.gov/food/food-safety-modernization-act-fsma/full-text-food-safety-modernization-act-fsma

United States Food and Drug Administration. (2023). What we do. https://www.fda.gov/about-fda/what-we-do

United States Government Accountability Office. (2022, September 29). Telehealth in the pandemic—How has it changed health care delivery in Medicaid and Medicare? https://www.gao.gov/blog/telehealth-pandemic-how-has-it-changed-health-care-delivery-medicaid-and-medicare

United States Pharmacopeial Convention. (2023). Standards build a stronger supply chain and trust in medicines. https://www.usp.org/supply-chain

Weitzman Institute. (2023). Marginalized populations. https://www.weitzmaninstitute.org/research/marginalized-populations/

World Health Organization. (2022, December 10). Human Rights. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/human-rights-and-health

World Health Organization. (2023a). Constitution. https://www.who.int/about/governance/constitution

World Health Organization. (2023b). COVID-19 Policy Briefs. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-policy-briefs

Chapter 8 Social Determinants Affecting Health Outcomes

Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab. (n.d.). Evaluating the impact of moving to opportunity in the United States. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. https://www.povertyactionlab.org/evaluation/evaluating-impact-moving-opportunity-united-states

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (2016, November 3). Health effects of asbestos. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/asbestos/health_effects_asbestos.html

Alfonsi, S. (2020). Early results from 174 Flint children exposed to lead during water crisis shows 80% of them will require special education services. CBS News. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/flint-water-crisis-effect-on-children-60-minutes-2020-03-15/

Alliance of Nurses for Healthy Environments. (n.d.). About ANHE. https://envirn.org/about/

American Psychological Association. (2022, October 31). Discrimination: What it is and how to cope. https://www.apa.org/topics/racism-bias-discrimination/types-stress

American Psychological Association. (2023). Civic engagement. https://www.apa.org/education-career/undergrad/civic-engagement

American Public Health Association. (2022). Social justice and health. https://www.apha.org/what-is-public-health/generation-public-health/our-work/social-justice

The Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2021, February 13). Food deserts in the United States. https://www.aecf.org/blog/exploring-americas-food-deserts

Benefits.gov. (2021). Learn the difference between SNAP and WIC programs. https://www.benefits.gov/news/article/439

Bonaccio, M., Castelnuovo, A.D., Gaetano, G, D., & Iacoviello, L. (2020). Socioeconomic gradient in health: Mind the gap in “invisible” disparities. Annals of Translational Medicine, 8(18), 1–4. http://doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.04.46

Braveman, P.A., Arkin, E., Proctor, D., Kauh, T., & Holm, N. (2022). Systemic and structural racism: Definitions, examples, health damages, and approaches to dismantling. Health Affairs, 41(2), 171–178. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2021.01394

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Indoor air pollutants and toxic materials. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/publications/books/housing/cha05.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Loneliness and social isolation linked to serious health conditions. https://www.cdc.gov/aging/publications/features/lonely-older-adults.html

Centers for Disease and Control Prevention. (2020a). Flint water crisis. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/casper/pdf-html/flint_water_crisis_pdf.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020b). Waterborne disease in the United States. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/burden/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). Why is addressing social determinants of health important for CDC and public health? https://www.cdc.gov/about/sdoh/addressing-sdoh.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Social determinants of health at CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/about/sdoh/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c). Fast facts: Preventing adverse childhood experiences. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/aces/fastfact.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022d). Chemicals that can contaminate tap water. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/contamination/chemicals.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022e). Drinking water regulations. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/public/regulations.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022f). Health effects of lead exposure. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/prevention/health-effects.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022g). What is health equity? https://www.cdc.gov/healthequity/whatis/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). Asbestos. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/asbestos/default.html

Creamer, J., Shrider, E.A., Burns, K., and Chan, F. (2022, September). Poverty in the United States: 2021. United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2022/demo/p60-277.pdf

Denchak, M., & Turrentine, J. (2021). What is climate change? Natural Resources Defense Council. https://www.nrdc.org/stories/what-climate-change

Fuller, R., Landrigan, P. J., Balakrishnan, K., Bathan, G., Bose-O’Reilly, S., Brauer, M., Caravanos, J., Chiles, T., Cohen, A., Corra, L., Cropper, M., Ferraro, G., Hanna, J., Hanrahan, D., Hu, H., Hunter, D., Janata, G., Kupka, R., Lanphear, B., Lichtveld, M., Martin, K., Mustapha, A., Sanchez-Triana, E., Sandilya, K., Schaefli, L., Shaw, J., Seddon, J., Suk, W., Tellez-Rojo, M. M., & Yan, C. (2022). Pollution and health: A progress update. The Lancet, 6(6), E535–E547. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(22)00090-0

Glasmeier, A. (2023). New data posted: 2023 living wage calculator. https://livingwage.mit.edu/articles/103-new-data-posted-2023-living-wage-calculator

Global Living Wage Coalition. (2018). What is a living wage? https://www.globallivingwage.org/about/what-is-a-living-wage/

Gramlich, J. (2020, May 6). Black imprisonment rate in the U.S. has fallen by a third since 2006. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/05/06/share-of-black-white-hispanic-americans-in-prison-2018-vs-2006/

Habitat for Humanity. (2023). What is poverty? https://www.habitat.org/stories/what-is-poverty

Infurna, F. J., Okun, M. A., & Grimm, K. J. (2016). Volunteering is associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64(11), 2263–2269. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.14398

Kansas Department of Health and Environment, Bureau of Health Promotion. (2015). Economic instability: A social determinant of health. https://cdm16884.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p16884coll4/id/818

Kennedy, M. (2016). Lead-laced water in Flint: A step-by-step look at the makings of a crisis. NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/04/20/465545378/lead-laced-water-in-flint-a-step-by-step-look-at-the-makings-of-a-crisis

Khan, A., & Khattar, R. (2022). It’s long past time to increase the federal minimum wage. Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/article/its-long-past-time-to-increase-the-federal-minimum-wage/

Langston, A. (2018). 100 million and counting: A portrait of economic insecurity in the United States. Policy Link and the Program for Environmental and Regional Equity. https://www.policylink.org/resources-tools/100-million

Levy, K., Smith, S. M., & Carlton, E. J. (2018). Climate change impacts on waterborne diseases: Moving toward designing interventions. Current Environmental Health Reports, 5(2), 272–282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40572-018-0199-7

Massachusetts General Hospital Institute of Health Professions. (2023). Center for Climate Change, Climate Justice, and Health. https://www.mghihp.edu/nursing/centers-initiatives/center-climate-change-climate-justice-and-health

Matsaganis, M. D., & Wilkin, H. A. (2015). Communicative social capital and collective efficacy as determinants of access to health-enhancing resources in residential communities. Journal of Health Communication, 20(4), 377–386. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2014.927037

Merriam-Webster. (2023). Poverty. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/poverty

Milken Institute School of Public Health. (2020). Equity vs. equality: What’s the difference? The George Washington University. https://onlinepublichealth.gwu.edu/resources/equity-vs-equality/

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2021). Lead. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/lead/default.html

Ndugga, N., & Artiga, S. (2021). Extreme heat and racial health equity. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/policy-watch/extreme-heat-racial-health-equity/

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020a). Economic stability. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/economic-stability

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020b). Poverty. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/poverty

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020c). Education access and quality. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/education-access-and-quality

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020d). Neighborhood and built environment. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/neighborhood-and-built-environment

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020e). Crime and violence. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/crime-and-violence

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020f). Social and community context. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/social-and-community-context

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020g). Civic participation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/civic-participation

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020h). Discrimination. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/discrimination

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020i). Incarceration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/incarceration

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020j). Social cohesion. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/social-cohesion

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020k). Quality of housing. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/quality-housing

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020l). Language and literacy. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/language-and-literacy

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020m). Early childhood development and education. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/early-childhood-development-and-education

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020n). Enrollment in higher education. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/enrollment-higher-education

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020o). High school graduation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/high-school-graduation

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020p). Environmental conditions. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/environmental-conditions

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020q). Access to foods that support healthy dietary patterns. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/access-foods-support-healthy-dietary-patterns

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020r). Food insecurity. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/food-insecurity

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020s). Housing instability. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/housing-instability

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020t). Language and literacy. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/language-and-literacy

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020u). Employment. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/employment

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020v). Social determinants of health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/language-and-literacy

Rivara, F., Adhia, A., Lyons, V., Massey, A., Mills, B., Morgan, E., Simckes, M. & Rowhani-Rahbar, A. (2019). The effects of violence on health. Health Affairs, 38(10), 1622–1629. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2019.00480

Ruckart, P. Z., Ettinger, A. S., Hanna-Attisha, M., Jones, N., Davis, S. I., & Breysse, P. N. (2019). The Flint water crisis: A coordinated public health emergency response and recovery initiative. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 25, S84–S90. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000000871

Rural Health Information Hub. (2020a). Economic stability. https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/sdoh/2/economic-stability

Rural Health Information Hub. (2020b). Defining the social determinants of health. https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/sdoh/1/definition

Shah, A. S., Alonso, A., Whitsel, E. A., Soliman, E. Z., Vaccarino, V., & Shah, A. J. (2021). Association of psychosocial factors with short-term resting heart rate variability: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Journal of the American Heart Association, 10(5), e017172. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017172

Stevens, C., Liu, C. H., & Chen, J. A. (2018). Racial/ethnic disparities in U.S. college students’ experience: Discrimination as an impediment to academic performance. Journal of American College Health, 66(7), 665–673. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2018.1452745

Szaflarski, M., & Bauldry, S. (2019). The effects of perceived discrimination on immigrant and refugee physical and mental health. In R. Frank (Ed.), Immigration and health (pp. 173–204). Emerald Publishing.

Taylor, A. (2022). Millions of Americans live near toxic waste sites. How does this affect their health? Housing Matters. https://housingmatters.urban.org/articles/millions-americans-live-near-toxic-waste-sites-how-does-affect-their-health

Taylor, J., Novoa, C., & Hamm, K. (2019). Eliminating racial disparities in maternal and infant mortality. Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/article/eliminating-racial-disparities-maternal-infant-mortality/

United States Census Bureau. (2023). How the Census Bureau measures poverty. https://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/poverty/guidance/poverty-measures.html

United States Consumer Product Safety Commission. (n.d.). Asbestos in the home. https://www.cpsc.gov/safety-education/safety-guides/home/asbestos-home

United States Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). Climate hubs: Extreme weather. https://www.climatehubs.usda.gov/content/extreme-weather

United States Department of Agriculture. (2017). Low-income and low-supermarket-access census tracts, 2010-2015. https://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/pub-details/?pubid=82100

United States Department of Agriculture. (2022). Definitions of food security. https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/food-nutrition-assistance/food-security-in-the-u-s/definitions-of-food-security/

United States Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (2021). Infant mortality and African Americans. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=4&lvlid=23

United States Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health. (2021). Effects of domestic violence on children. https://www.womenshealth.gov/relationships-and-safety/domestic-violence/effects-domestic-violence-children

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Community Planning and Development. (2022, December). The 2022 annual homelessness assessment report (AHAR) to congress. https://www.huduser.gov/portal/sites/default/files/pdf/2022-AHAR-Part-1.pdf

Wagmiller, R.L. and Adelman, R.M. (2009, November). Childhood and intergenerational poverty: The long-term consequences of growing up poor. National Center for Children in Poverty. https://www.nccp.org/publication/childhood-and-intergenerational-poverty/

Wakefield, M. K., Williams, D. R., Le Menestrel, S., & Flaubert, J. L. (Eds.). (2021). The future of nursing 2020–2030: Charting a path to achieve health equity. National Academies Press. https://nap.nationalacademies.org/catalog/25982/the-future-of-nursing-2020-2030-charting-a-path-to

Wang, L. (2022). Both sides of the bars: How mass incarceration punishes families. Prison Policy Initiative. https://www.prisonpolicy.org/blog/2022/08/11/parental_incarceration/

Weinstein, J. N., Geller, A., Negussie, Y., & Baciu, A. (Eds.). (2017). The root causes of health inequity. In Communities in action: Pathways to health equity (pp. 99–184). National Academies Press. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK425845/

Whitman, A., Lew, N. D., Chappel, A., Aysola, V., Zuckerman, R., & Sommers, B. D. (2022). Addressing social determinants of health: Examples of successful evidence-based strategies and current federal efforts. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/e2b650cd64cf84aae8ff0fae7474af82/SDOH-Evidence-Review.pdf

Wisniewski, M. (2022). What is the gender wage gap in your state? United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2022/03/what-is-the-gender-wage-gap-in-your-state.html

World Health Organization. (2018). Health inequities and their causes. https://www.who.int/news-room/facts-in-pictures/detail/health-inequities-and-their-causes

World Health Organization. (2021). Health equity and its determinants. https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/world-health-day-2021/health-equity-and-its-determinants.pdf

Yaluma, C. B., & Tyner, A. (2021). Are U.S. schools closing the “gifted gap”? Analyzing elementary and middle schools’ gifted participation and representation trends (2012–2016). Journal of Advanced Academics, 32(1), 28–53. https://doi.org/10.1177/1932202X20937633

Chapter 9 Health Disparities

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (October 2022). 2022 national healthcare quality and disparities report. https://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/research/findings/nhqrdr/2022qdr.pdf

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2023). Access to care. https://www.ahrq.gov/topics/access-care.html

Alzheimer’s Association. (2023). Black Americans and Alzheimer’s. https://www.alz.org/help-support/resources/black-americans-and-alzheimers

Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. (2018). Asthma capitals 2018. https://community.aafa.org/blog/2018-asthma-capitals-report-identifies-nation-s-asthma-belts

Braveman, P. A., Arkin, E., Proctor, D., Kauh, T., & Holm, N. (2022). Systemic and structural racism: Definitions, examples, health damages, and approaches to dismantling. Health Affairs, 41(2). https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.2021.01394

Business Credit and Assistance, 13 C.F.R. § 124.103 (2023). https://www.ecfr.gov/current/title-13/chapter-I/part-124/subpart-A/subject-group-ECFR4ef1291a4a984ab/section-124.103

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017, September 22). Rural and urban differences in passenger-vehicle–occupant deaths and seat belt use among adults — United States, 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/ss/ss6617a1.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, June 23). Commercial tobacco use within American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. https://www.cdc.gov/healthytribes/native-american-smoking.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Trends in racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 hospitalizations, by region—United States, March–December 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7015e2.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a, May 17). National diabetes statistics report. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics-report/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b, July 1). What is health equity? https://www.cdc.gov/healthequity/whatis/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c, November 3). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health. https://www.cdc.gov/lgbthealth/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022d, November 14). Binge drinking. https://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/fact-sheets/binge-drinking.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a, May 4). Data and statistics. Smoking and tobacco use. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b, March 23). Pregnancy mortality surveillance system. https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternal-mortality/pregnancy-mortality-surveillance-system.htm#

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Chapter 10 Socio-Ecological Perspectives and Health

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Wang, J., & Geng, L. (2019). Effects of socioeconomic status on physical and psychological health: Lifestyle as a mediator. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(2), 281. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020281

Willand, N., & Nethercote, M. (2020). Smoking in apartment buildings: Spatiality, meanings, and understandings. Health & Place, 61, 102269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.102269

Willie, T. C., Bastida, C., Olavarrieta, C. D., Scolese, A., Campos, P. A., Falb, K. L., & Gupta, J. (2020). Socioecological determinants of community resource utilisation among low-income women in Mexico City who experienced male-to-female intimate partner violence. Global Public Health, 15(11), 1627–1638. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2020.1775868

World Health Organization. (2023). Adolescent pregnancy. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/adolescent-pregnancy

Wu, D., Gu, H., Gu, S., & You, H. (2021). Individual motivation and social influence: A study of telemedicine adoption in China based on social cognitive theory. Health Policy and Technology, 10(3), 100525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlpt.2021.100525

Yuchi, W., Sbihi, H., Davies, H., Tamburic, L., & Brauer, M. (2020). Road proximity, air pollution, noise, green space, and neurologic disease incidence: A population-based cohort study. Environmental Health, 19(1), 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-020-0565-4

Zhou, Y., Mak, L., Zhao, C., He, F., Huang, X., Tian, X., Yi-zheng, & Sun, J. (2022). Correlates of suicidal ideation in rural Chinese junior high school left-behind children: A socioecological resilience framework. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13, 901627. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.901627

Chapter 11 Evidence-Based Decision-Making

Ayub, S. M. (2022). “See one, do one, teach one”: Balancing patient care and surgical training in an emergency trauma department. Journal of Global Health. https://jogh.org/2022/jogh-12-03051

Brandt, A. M. (1978). Racism and research: The case of the Tuskegee syphilis study. The Hastings Center Report, 8(6), 21–29. https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/3372911/Brandt_Racism.pdf?isAllowed=y&sequence=1

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2021). Research implications. The U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. https://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/after.htm#

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2022). The syphilis study at Tuskegee timeline. The U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. https://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2023a). Event-based surveillance. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/healthprotection/gddopscenter/event-based-surveillance.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2023b). 10 essential public health services. https://www.cdc.gov/publichealthgateway/publichealthservices/essentialhealthservices.html

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC). (2023). Evidence-based decision making. https://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/research/divisions/j/anderson-center/evidence-based-care

Copeland, D. (2021). Nurses’ participation in the Holocaust: A call to nursing educators. Journal of Professional Nursing, 37(2), 426–428. doi: 10.1016/j.profnurs.2020.05.003

Erwin, P. C., Padek, M. M., Allen, P., Smith, R., & Brownson, R. C. (2020). The association between evidence-based decision making and accreditation of state health departments. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice26(5), 419–427. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000001162

Henry, J. (2022). Henry JHNEBPModel [video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/iI-sFeLP148

Johns Hopkins Hospital. (2017). Appendix D: Evidence level and quality guide. https://hsl.upstate.edu/uploads/20200214-jhneb/2017_Appendix-D_Evidence-Level-and-Quality-Guide.pdf

Johns Hopkins University & Medicine. (2020). Nursing resources. https://browse.welch.jhmi.edu/nursing_resources/jhnebp

National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT). (2017). Using evidence in public health decisions: Why it matters [video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/S0KQb1F9azY

National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT). (2018). NCCMT – URE – Evidence informed decision making – A guiding framework for public health [video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/QtrnT3sFSLo

National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT). (2023a). Evidence-informed decision making in public health. https://www.nccmt.ca/tools/eiph

National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT). (2023b). How National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools’ learning centre supports evidence-informed public health. https://www.nccmt.ca/learning-centre

National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT). (2023c). 6S search pyramid tool. https://www.nccmt.ca/tools/6s-search-pyramid

National Institutes of Health. (2023). List of registries. https://www.nih.gov/health-information/nih-clinical-research-trials-you/list-registries

Ruebush, E. (2019). Advancing evidence-based public health: A scoping review of trainings for public health practitioners [MPH Capstone, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health]. Johns Hopkins University.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). The Belmont report. https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/belmont-report/index.html

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2023a). Evidence-based practices resource center. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/tools-action/browse-evidence-based-resources/evidence-based-practices-resource-center

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2023b). Health Equity in Healthy People 2030. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/health-equity-healthy-people-2030

Wolters Kluwer. (2023a). About Lexicomp. https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/solutions/lexicomp

Wolters Kluwer. (2023b). About UpToDate. https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/solutions/uptodate/about

World Health Organization. (2021). 21st century health challenges: Can the essential public health functions make a difference? https://iris.who.int/bitstream/handle/10665/351510/9789240038929-eng.pdf?sequence=1

World Health Organization. (2023). Assessment of essential public health functions in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. https://www.emro.who.int/about-who/public-health-functions/index.html

Chapter 12 Epidemiology for Informing Population/Community Health Decisions

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2019). Communication and dissemination strategies to facilitate the use of health-related evidence. Effective Health Care Program. https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/products/medical-evidence-communication/research-protocol

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2023a). Evidence-based practice center (EPC) reports. https://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/evidence-based-reports/index.html

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2023b). Mission and budget. https://www.ahrq.gov/cpi/about/mission/index.html

Aldrich, M. C., Hidalgo, B., Widome, R., Briss, P., Brownson, R. C., & Teutsch, S. M. (2015). The role of epidemiology in evidence-based policy making: A case study of tobacco use in youth. Annals of Epidemiology, 25(5), 360–365. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4211989/pdf/nihms599570.pdf

Andersson, C., Nayor, M., Tsao, C. W., Levy, D., & Vasan, R. S. (2021). Framingham Heart Study: JACC focus seminar, 1/8. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 77(21), 2680–2692. https://doi.org

Andrews, R. J. (2022). How Florence Nightingale changed data visualization forever. Scientific American. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-florence-nightingale-changed-data-visualization-forever/

Bradshaw, N. A. (2020). Florence Nightingale (1820–1910): An unexpected master of data. Patterns, 1, 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.patter.2020.100036

Catalogue of Bias Collaboration, Nunan, D., Bankhead, C., & Aronson, J. K. (2017). Selection bias. Catalogue of Bias 2017. https://catalogofbias.org/biases/selection-bias/

Celentano, D. D., & Szklo, M. (2019). Gordis epidemiology (6th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1999). Achievements in public health, 1900–1999: Tobacco use—United States, 1900–1999. MMWR Weekly, 48(43), 986–993. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4843a2.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2003). Hepatitis A outbreak associated with green onions at a restaurant—Monaca, Pennsylvania, 2003. MMWR Weekly, 52(47), 1155–1157. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5247a5.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Principles of epidemiology in public health practice (3rd ed.). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://archive.cdc.gov/#/details?url=https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/SS1978.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). 10 essential public health services. https://www.cdc.gov/publichealthgateway/publichealthservices/essentialhealthservices.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Drug overdose deaths. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/deaths/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c). Racial and ethnic approaches to community health. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/state-local-programs/reach/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). Current cigarette smoking among adults in the United States. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/adult_data/cig_smoking/index.htm

Fee, E., & Garofalo, M. E. (2010). Florence Nightingale and the Crimean War. American Journal of Public Health, 100(9), 1591. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.188607

Frérot, M., Lefebvre, A., Aho, S., Callier, P., Astruc, K., & Glélé, S. A. (2018). What is epidemiology? Changing definitions of epidemiology 1978–2017. PLoS ONE, 13(12), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208442

Gershon, L. (2020). Florence Nightingale, data visualization visionary. JSTOR Daily. https://daily.jstor.org/florence-nightingale-data-visualization-visionary/

Green, M. D., Freedman, M., & Gordis, L. (2011). Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence (3rd ed.). The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13163

Hodis, H. N., & Mack, W. J. (2022). Menopausal hormone replacement therapy and reduction of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease: It’s about time and timing. Cancer Journal, 28(3), 208–223. doi:10.1097/PPO.0000000000000591

Kleisiaris, C. F., Sfakianakis, C., & Papathanasiou, I. V. (2014). Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4263393/

Louten, J. (2022). Essential human virology (p. 323). Elsevier Science.

Mawdsley, S. (2022). More than truth or lies: Staging Dr Semmelweis. The Lancet, 399(10325), 623. https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals

McDonald, L. (2014). Florence Nightingale, statistics, and the Crimean War. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A, 177(3), 569–586. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43965414

Omair, A. (2016). Selecting the appropriate study design: Case-control and cohort study designs. Journal of Health Specialties, 4(1), 37–41. https://applications.emro.who.int/imemrf/J_Health_Spec/J_Health_Spec_2016_4_1_37_41.pdf

Riedel, S. (2005). Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings, 18(1), 21–25. doi: 10.1080/08998280.2005.11928028

Society for Public Health Education. (2020). REACH rural areas. https://www.sophe.org/focus-areas/health-equity/reach/reach-rural-areas/

Soto, L. (2018). Framingham: The study and the town that changed the health of a generation. American Heart Association. https://www.heart.org/en/news/2018/10/10/framingham-the-study-and-the-town-that-changed-the-health-of-a-generation

Thomas, K. K. (2020). The experiment that proved airborne transmission. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. https://publichealth.jhu.edu/2020/the-experiment-that-proved-airborne-disease-transmission

Trumpey, A. J., Daigle, D., & Nowak, G. (2018). The CDC field epidemiology manual (S. A. Rasmussen & R. A. Goodman, Eds.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/eis/field-epi-manual/index.html

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (n.d.). About the USPSTF. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/about-uspstf

Ventriglio, A., Bellomo, A., & Bhugra, D. (2016). Web of causation and its implications for epidemiological research. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 62(1), 3–4. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764015587629

Wheeler, C., Vogt, T. M., Armstrong, G. L., Vaughan, G., Weltman, A. Nainan, O. V., Dat, V., Xia, G., Waller, K., Amon, J., Lee, T., Highbaugh-Battle, A., Hembree, C., Evenson, S., Ruta, M. A., Williams, I. T., Fiore, A. E., & Bell, B. P. (2005, September 1). An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. New England Journal of Medicine, 353, 890–897. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa050855

Wills, M. (2018). John Snow and the birth of epidemiology. JSTOR Daily. https://daily.jstor.org/john-snow-and-the-birth-of-epidemiology/

Chapter 13 Pandemics and Infectious Disease Outbreaks

The Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action. (2018). Guidance note: Protection of children during infectious disease outbreaks. https://alliancecpha.org/en/child-protection-online-library/guidance-note-protection-children-during-infectious-disease

American Lung Association. (2022). Pneumonia. https://www.lung.org/lung-health-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/pneumonia

Association of Public Health Nurses (APHN). (2022). What is a PHN? https://www.phnurse.org/what-is-a-phn-

Ayala, G., & Spieldenner, A. (2021). HIV is a story first written on the bodies of gay and bisexual men. American Journal of Public Health, 111(7), 1240–1242. https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306348

Beyrer, C. (2021). A pandemic anniversary: 40 years of HIV/AIDS. The Lancet, 397(10290), 2142–2143. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01167-3

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1999, July 30). Achievements in public health, 1900-1999: Control of infectious diseases. MMWR Weekly. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4829a1.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Principles of epidemiology in public health practice (3rd ed.). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/6914

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018a). 1918 Pandemic influenza historic timeline. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-commemoration/pandemic-timeline-1918.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018b). Introduction to public health surveillance. https://www.cdc.gov/training/publichealth101/surveillance.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018c). Our history: Our story. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/about/history/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019a). 1918 Pandemic: Why it matters 100 years later. https://blogs.cdc.gov/publichealthmatters/2018/05/1918-flu/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019b). 1957–1958 Pandemic (H2N2 virus). https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1957-1958-pandemic.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019c). 1968 Pandemic (H3N2 virus). https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1968-pandemic.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019d). 2009 H1N1 Pandemic. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/2009-h1n1-pandemic.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019e). 2009 H1N1 Timeline. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/2009-pandemic-timeline.html

Centers for Disease and Control Prevention. (2019f). Detecting and investigating waterborne diseases and outbreaks. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/detecting-investigating.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019g). Importance of outbreak investigations. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/why.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019h). Investing and reporting. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/investigating-reporting.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019i). NCEZID: Vector-borne diseases. https://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/what-we-do/our-topics/vector-borne-diseases.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019j). Parasites – Cryptosporidium (also known as “Crypto”). https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019k). Role of public health departments. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/role-of-health-departments.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019l). Waterborne diseases & outbreak surveillance reporting. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/tracking-systems.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019m). Zika Virus: Clinical evaluation and disease. https://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/preparing-for-zika/clinicalevaluationdisease.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020a). CDC and malaria. https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/activities.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020b). Diseases carried by vectors. https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/effects/vectors.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020c). Findings. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/burden/findings.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020d). Flint water crisis. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/casper/pdf-html/flint_water_crisis_pdf.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020e). Implications of waterborne disease estimates. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/burden/implications.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020f). Hepatitis C questions and answers for health professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/hcvfaq.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020g). HIV: Populations at greater risk. https://web.archive.org/web/20230209012650/https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/policies/hip/risk.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020h). Waterborne disease in the United States. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/burden/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021a). The AIDS epidemic in the United States, 1981–early 1990s. https://www.cdc.gov/museum/online/story-of-cdc/aids/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021b). Chronic diseases: A 21st century public health challenge. https://www.cdc.gov/museum/online/story-of-cdc/chronic/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021c). Common settings of norovirus outbreaks. https://www.cdc.gov/norovirus/outbreaks/common-settings.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021d). Diarrhea and swimming. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/swimming/swimmers/rwi/diarrheal-illness.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021e). Global viral hepatitis: Millions of people are affected. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/global/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021f). Legionella (Legionnaires’ Disease and Pontiac Fever). https://www.cdc.gov/legionella/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). About HIV. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). CDC and food safety. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/cdc-and-food-safety.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c). Chlamydia – CDC detailed fact sheet https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/stdfact-chlamydia-detailed.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022d). Cholera: General information. https://www.cdc.gov/cholera/general/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022e). COVID-19 timeline. https://www.cdc.gov/museum/timeline/covid19.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022f). Diseases & related conditions. https://www.cdc.gov/std/default.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022g). Diseases you almost forgot about (thanks to vaccines). https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/diseases/forgot-14-diseases.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022h). Drinking water standards and regulations. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/public/regulations.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022i). Drug-resistant TB. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/drtb/default.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022j). E. coli (Escherichia coli). https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022k). E. coli and food safety. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/communication/ecoli-and-food-safety.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022l). Foodborne germs and illnesses. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/foodborne-germs.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022m). Food safety. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022n). Frequently asked questions for health professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hbv/hbvfaq.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022o). Gonorrhea – CDC detailed fact sheet. https://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/stdfact-gonorrhea-detailed.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022p). Health disparities in TB. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/populations/healthdisparities/default.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022q). Health, United States, 2020–2021: Vaccination. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/topics/vaccination.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022r). HIV: Getting tested. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/hiv-testing/getting-tested.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022s). HIV Testing. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/testing/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022t). How flu viruses can change: “Drift” and “shift.” https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/viruses/change.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022u). How TB spreads. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/howtbspreads.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022v). How we conduct case surveillance. https://www.cdc.gov/nndss/about/conduct.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022w). How you can prevent sexually transmitted diseases. https://www.cdc.gov/std/prevention/default.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022x). Key facts about influenza (flu). https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/keyfacts.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022y). Lyme disease. https://www.cdc.gov/ticks/tickbornediseases/lyme.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022z). Malaria: Frequently asked questions. https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/faqs.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022aa). Plague in the United States. https://www.cdc.gov/plague/maps/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022ab). Pneumonia. https://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022ac). Preventing waterborne germs at home. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/preventing-waterborne-germs-at-home.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022ad). Salmonella and food. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/communication/salmonella-food.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022ae). Salmonella: Information for healthcare professionals and laboratories. https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/technical.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022af). The state of STDsInfographic. https://www.cdc.gov/std/statistics/infographic.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022ag). Steps in a multistate foodborne outbreak investigation. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/outbreaks/steps/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022ah). Surveillance case definitions for current and historical conditions. https://ndc.services.cdc.gov/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022ai). Surveillance reports for drinking water-associated disease and outbreaks. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/drinking-surveillance-reports.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022aj). Surveillance reports for recreational water-associated disease & outbreaks. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/rec-water-surveillance-reports.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022ak). Syphilis – CDC detailed fact sheet. https://www.cdc.gov/std/syphilis/stdfact-syphilis-detailed.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022al). Testing for TB infection. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/testing/tbtesttypes.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022am). West Nile virus. https://www.cdc.gov/westnile/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022an). What is case surveillance? https://www.cdc.gov/nndss/about/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022ao). Whooping cough outbreaks. https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/outbreaks.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022ap). Who we are. https://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/what-we-do/2021-highlights/who-we-are.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022aq). Zika virus. https://www.cdc.gov/zika/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a). Basic statistics. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/statistics.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b). CDC timeline. https://www.cdc.gov/museum/timeline/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023c). Clinical evaluation & disease. https://www.cdc.gov/westnile/healthcareproviders/healthCareProviders-ClinLabEval.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023d). Food poisoning symptoms. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/symptoms.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023e). Hepatitis B. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hbv/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023f). Hepatitis C: CDC Yellow Book. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2024/infections-diseases/hepatitis-c

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023g). HIV treatment and care. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/clinicians/treatment-care/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023h). Leading causes of death. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023i). Listeria (Listeriosis). https://www.cdc.gov/listeria/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023j). Locally acquired malaria cases identified in the United States. https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2023/han00494.asp

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023k). Morbidity and mortality weekly report (MMWR). https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023l). Norovirus. https://www.cdc.gov/norovirus/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023m). Treatment for latent TB infection and TB disease. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/treatment/default.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023n). Tuberculosis (TB). https://www.cdc.gov/tb/default.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023o). Tuberculosis: Data and statistics. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/statistics/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023p). What is viral hepatitis? https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/abc/index.htm

Christensen, R., Fisher, D., Salmon, S., Drury, P., & Effler, P. (2021). Training for outbreak response through the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network. BMC Medicine, 19(123), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-01996-5

Dadonaite, B., & Roser, M. (2019). Pneumonia. Our world in data. https://ourworldindata.org/pneumonia

Eisinger, R. W., & Fauci, A. S. (2018). Ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 413–416. https://doi.org/10.3201%2Feid2403.171797

Eldred, S. M. (2022). Research shows that medical caregivers often don’t know what tick bites look like on Black and brown skin. That can mean delayed diagnoses of Lyme disease and other illnesses. Sahan Journal. https://sahanjournal.com/climate-environment/ticks-lyme-disease-people-of-color-minnesota-outdoors/

Frith, J. (2012). The history of plague – Part 1. The three great pandemics. Journal of Military and Veterans’ Health, 20(2), 1–16. https://jmvh.org/article/the-history-of-plague-part-1-the-three-great-pandemics/

Hajar R. (2012). The air of history (part II) medicine in the middle ages. Heart Views, 13(4), 158–162. https://doi.org/10.4103/1995-705X.105744

Hunt, K. M., Michelson, K. A., Balamuth, F., Thompson, A. D., Levas, M. N., Neville, D. N., Kharbanda, A. B., Chapman, L., & Nigrovic, L. E. (2023). Racial differences in the diagnosis of Lyme disease in children. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 76(6), 1129–1131. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciac863

Jester, B. J., Uyeki, T. M., & Jernigan, D. B. (2020). Fifty years of Influenza A (H3N2) following the pandemic of 1968. American Journal of Public Health, 110(5), 669–676. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2019.305557

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Jordan, D., Tumpey, T., & Jester, B. (2019). The Deadliest Flu: The Complete Story of the Discovery and Reconstruction of the 1918 Pandemic Virus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), December, 17.

Klein, C. (2020). Why October 1918 was American’s deadliest month ever. History. https://www.history.com/news/spanish-flu-deaths-october-1918

Little, B. (2020). How the 1957 flu pandemic was stopped early in its path. History. https://www.history.com/news/1957-flu-pandemic-vaccine-hilleman

Ly, D. (2021). Black-white differences in the clinical manifestations and timing of initial Lyme disease diagnoses. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 37(10), 2597–2600. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-021-07129-1

Matta, S., Arora, V. K., & Chopra, K. K. (2020). Lessons to be learnt from 100 year old 1918 influenza pandemic viz a viz 2019 corona pandemic with an eye on NTEP. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, 67(4), S132–S138. doi: 10.1016/j.ijtb.2020.09.032

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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; National Academy of Medicine; Committee on the Future of Nursing 2020–2030. (2021). Nurses in disaster preparedness and public health emergency response. In J. L. Flaubert, S. Le Menestrel, & D. R. Williams (Eds.), The Future of Nursing 2020-2030: Charting a Path to Achieve Health Equity. National Academies Press. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK573904/

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Onion, A., Sullivan, M., & Mullen, M. (2021). Pandemics that changed history. History. https://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages/pandemics-timeline

Palmiere, J. R., Kushwaha-Wagner, A., Bekele, A. M., Chang, J., Nguyen, A., Hoskins, N. N., Menon, R., Mohamed, M., & Mecham, S. L. (2019). Missed diagnosis and the development of acute late lyme disease in dark skinned populations of Appalachia. Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research, 21(2), 15782–15787. doi: 10.26717/BJSTR.2019.21.003583

Piret, J., & Boivin, G. (2020). Pandemics throughout history. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11, 1–16. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.631736

Regunath, H., & Oba, Y. (2022). Community-acquired pneumonia. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430749/

Ruckart, P. Z., Ettinger, A. S., Hanna-Attisha, M., Jones, N., Davis, S. I., & Breysse, P. N. (2019). The Flint water crisis: A coordinated public health emergency response and recovery initiative. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 25, S84–S90. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000871

Somse, P., & Eba, P.M. (2020). Lessons from HIV to guide COVID-19 responses in the Central African Republic. Health and Human Rights Journal, 22(1), 371 – 374. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7348452/

Sullivan, P. S., Johnson, A. S., Pembleton, E. S., Stephenson, R., Justice, A. C., Althoff, K. N., Bradley, H., Castel, A. D., Oster, A. M., Rosenberg, E. S., Mayer, K. H, & Beyrer, C. (2021). Epidemiology of HIV in the USA: Epidemic burden, inequities, contexts, and responses. The Lancet, 397(10279), 1095–1106. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00395-0

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Viney, K., Islam, T., Hoa, N.B., Morishita, F., & Lonnroth, K. (2019). The financial burden of tuberculosis for patients in the Western-Pacific region. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 4(94), 1 – 12. doi:10.3390/tropicalmed4020094

Wang, W.H., Thitithanyanont, A., Urbina, A. N., & Wang, S. F. (2021). Emerging and re-emerging diseases. Pathogens, 10(7), 827. doi: 10.3390/pathogens10070827

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World Health Organization. (2020). Vector-borne diseases. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/vector-borne-diseases

World Health Organization. (2022a). Cholera: Global situation. https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2022-DON426

World Health Organization. (2022b). Tuberculosis. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tuberculosis

World Health Organization. (2023a). Communicable and noncommunicable diseases, and mental health. https://www.who.int/our-work/communicable-and-noncommunicable-diseases-and-mental-health

World Health Organization. (2023b). Coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard. https://covid19.who.int/

World Health Organization. (2023c, September 13). Drinking-water: Key facts. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/drinking-water

Chapter 14 Environmental Health

Air Now. (2023). Air quality index (AQI) basics. https://www.airnow.gov/aqi/aqi-basics/

Aizenman, N. (2019). Why climate change poses a particular threat to child health. NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2019/11/14/778992862/why-climate-change-poses-a-particular-threat-to-childhealth

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American Lung Association. (2023b, September 13). Dust mites. https://www.lung.org/clean-air/at-home/indoor-air-pollutants/dust-mites

The Associated Press. (2023a). Phoenix ends 31-day streak of highs at or above 110 degrees — by reaching 108. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2023/08/01/1191238086/phoenix-ends-31-day-streak-of-highs-at-or-above-110-degrees-by-reaching-108

The Associated Press. (2023b). Smoke from Canadian wildfires sent more asthma sufferers to the emergency room. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2023/08/25/1195926923/canada-wildfire-smoke-asthma-cdc-new-york-hospital-visits

Atwoli, L., Baqui, A. H., Benfield, T., Bosurgi, R., Godlee, F., Hancocks, S., Horton, R., Laybourn-Langton, L., Monteiro, C. A., Norman, I., Patrick, K., Praities, N., Olde Rikkert, M. G. M., Rubin, E. J., Sahni, P., Smith, R., Talley, N., Turale, S., & Vázquez, D. (2021). Call for emergency action to limit global temperature increases, restore biodiversity, and protect health. New England Journal of Medicine, 385(12), 1134–1137. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejme2113200

Baggaley, K. (2017). Drones are fighting wildfires in some very surprising ways. NBC. https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/drones-are-fighting-wildfires-some-very-surprising-ways-ncna820966

Braun, J. M. (2023). Enhancing regulations to reduce exposure to PFAS— Federal action on “forever chemicals.” New England Journal of Medicine, 388(21), 1924–1926. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2303333

Buonocore, J. J., Reka, S., Yang, D., Chang, C., Roy, A., Thompson, T., Lyon, D., McVay, R., Michanowicz, D., & Arunachalam, S. (2023). Air pollution and health impacts of oil and gas production in the United States. Environmental Research: Health, 1(2), 021006. https://doi.org/10.1088/2752-5309/acc886

Butterfield, P. (2021, June 14). Nursing’s pivotal role in global climate action. BMJ; 373 :n1049 doi:10.1136/bmj.n1049

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). Biomonitoring factsheet. https://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/pdf/Biomonitoring_Factsheet.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Exposure assessment program. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/programs/exap/default.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c). FY 2022 strategic framework. https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/docs/agency-climate-health-external-strategic-framework-508.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022d). Health effects of lead exposure. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/prevention/health-effects.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022e). Health problems caused by secondhand smoke. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/secondhand-smoke/health.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022f). One Health basics. https://www.cdc.gov/onehealth/basics/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023, January 3). How to control wild rodent infestations. https://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/pets/wildlife/rodent-control.html

Chatterjee, R. (2023, June 16). How the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy in India has hurt multiple generations [Radio broadcast transcript]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2023/06/16/1182853996/how-the-1984-bhopal-gas-tragedy-in-india-has-hurt-multiple-generations

Dawson, C. (2022). In a warmer world, half of all species are on the move. Where are they going? USC, Viterbi School of Engineering. https://viterbischool.usc.edu/news/2022/09/in-a-warmer-world-half-of-all-species-are-on-the-move-where-are-they-going/

Dion, K. W., Oerther, D. B., & Lavin, R. (2022). Promoting climate change resilience. Nursing Economic$, 40(3), 139–145.

Environmental Protection Agency. (2021a). EPA report shows disproportionate impacts of climate change on socially vulnerable populations in the United States. https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/epa-report-shows-disproportionate-impacts-climate-change-socially-vulnerable

Environmental Protection Agency. (2021b). Toxics in the food web. https://www.epa.gov/salish-sea/toxics-food-web

Environmental Protection Agency. (2022a, October 12). Pesticides’ impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/pesticides-impact-indoor-air-quality

Environmental Protection Agency. (2022b, December 13). Climate change and the health of older adults [Overviews and factsheets]. https://www.epa.gov/climateimpacts/climate-change-and-health-older-adults

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023a). Basic information about lead in drinking water. https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/basic-information-about-lead-drinking-water

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023b). Climate change indicators: Arctic sea ice. https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-arctic-sea-ice

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023c). Climate change indicators: Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-atmospheric-concentrations-greenhouse-gases

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023d). Climate change indicators: Coastal flooding. https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-coastal-flooding

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023e). Climate change indicators: Greenhouse gases. https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/greenhouse-gases

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023f). Climate change indicators: Heat waves. https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-heat-waves

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023g). Climate change indicators: Ice sheets. https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-ice-sheets

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023h). Climate change indicators: Ocean acidity. https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-ocean-acidity

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023i). Climate change indicators: Oceans. https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/oceans

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023j). Environmental justice. https://www.epa.gov/environmentaljustice

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023k). Human health risk assessment. https://www.epa.gov/risk/human-health-risk-assessment

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023l). Overview of EPA’s brownfields program. https://www.epa.gov/brownfields/overview-epas-brownfields-program

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023m). Summary of Executive Order 12898 - Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-executive-order-12898-federal-actions-address-environmental-justice

Environmental Protection Agency. (2023n). What is superfund? https://www.epa.gov/superfund/what-superfund

Exec. Order No. 14008, 86 Fed. Reg. 7619 (January 27, 2021). https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2021/02/01/2021-02177/tackling-the-climate-crisis-at-home-and-abroad

Gilbert, H.A. (2020). Florence Nightingale’s environmental theory and its influence on contemporary infection control. Collegian, Volume 27, Issue 6, pages 626-633, ISSN 1322-7696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2020.09.006

Goodwin, S., & Jacobs, D. (2022, August 16). Inflation reduction act includes new funds for climate resiliency and improved indoor air quality in homes. National Center for Healthy Housing. https://nchh.org/2022/08/inflation-reduction-act-includes-new-funds-for-climate-resiliency-and-improved-indoor-air-quality-in-homes/

Grinsted, A., Ditlevsen, P., & Christensen, J. H. (2019). Normalized US hurricane damage estimates using area of total destruction, 1900−2018. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(48), 23942–23946. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1912277116

Guterras, Antonio. (2023). Secretary-General’s opening remarks at press conference on climate. United Nations. https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/speeches/2023-07-27/secretary-generals-opening-remarks-press-conference-climate

Hassan, A., & Betts, H. (2023). Maui wildfires latest: Lahaina reopens to residents. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/article/maui-wildfires-hawaii.html

Herscher, R. (2023). This week has had several days of the hottest temperatures on record. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2023/07/05/1186003959/el-nino-plus-climate-change-means-record-breaking-heat

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2019). Polar regions. In The Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate: Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Chang (pp. 203–320). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009157964.005

Jo, S., Kim, Y.-J., Park, K. W., Hwang, Y. S., Lee, S. H., Kim, B. J., & Chung, S. J. (2021). Association of NO2 and other air pollution exposures with the risk of Parkinson disease. JAMA Neurology, 78(7), 800. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1335

Kuta, S. (2023). Water temperatures hit ‘hot tub’ levels in the Florida Keys. Smithsonian Magazine. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/water-temperatures-hit-hot-tub-levels-in-the-florida-keys-180982610/

Lai, H., Liu, X., & Qu, M. (2022). Nanoplastics and human health: Hazard identification and biointerface. Nanomaterials, 12(8), 1298. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081298

Lilienfeld, E., Nicholas, P. K., Breakey, S., & Corless, I. B. (2018). Addressing climate change through a nursing lens within the framework of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Nursing Outlook, 66(5), 482-494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2018.06.010

Lokmic-Tomkins, Z., Nayna Schwerdtle, P., & Armstrong, F. (2023). Engaging with our responsibility to protect health from climate change. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 79(6). https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15508

Lynch, E. E., Malcoe, L. H., Laurent, S. E., Richardson, J., Mitchell, B. C., & Meier, H. (2021). The legacy of structural racism: Associations between historic redlining, current mortgage lending, and health. SSM-Population Health, 14(100793), 1–10.

Manisalidis, I., Stavropoulou, E., Stavropoulos, A., & Bezirtzoglou, E. (2020). Environmental and health impacts of air pollution: A review. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 505570. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00014

Martin, M. A., Pugach, O., Mosnaim, G., Weinstein, S., Rosales, G., Roy, A., Pappalardo, A. A., & Walton, S. (2021). Community health worker asthma interventions for children: Results from a clinically integrated randomized comparative effectiveness trial (2016–2019). American Journal of Public Health, 111(7), 1328–1337. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306272

McCauley, L., & Hayes, R. (2021). From Florence to fossil fuels: Nursing has always been about environmental health. Nursing Outlook, 69(5), 720–731. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2021.06.007

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2020). Annual 2020 global climate report. https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/monitoring/monthly-report/global/202013#

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2023). Ocean heat content. NASA global climate change. https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/ocean-warming

National Center for Healthy Housing. (2023). The principles of a healthy home. https://nchh.org/information-and-evidence/learn-about-healthy-housing/healthy-homes-principles/

National Integrated Drought Information System. (2023). Wildfire management. Drought.gov. https://www.drought.gov/sectors/wildfire-management

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2017, September 16–30). Hurricane Maria (AL152017). National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report. https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL152017_Maria.pdf

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2023a, January 18). Climate change: Global temperature. https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-global-temperature#

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2023b, January 20). How does climate change affect coral reefs? https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/coralreef-climate.html

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2023c, August 14). Record shattering: Earth had its hottest July in 174 years. https://www.noaa.gov/news/record-shattering-earth-had-its-hottest-july-in-174-years

National Weather Service. (2019, October 9). Hurricane Michael 2018. https://www.weather.gov/tae/HurricaneMichael2018

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. (2023, July 14). Global climate summary for June 2023. Climate.gov. https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/global-climate-summary-june-2023

Ostrander, M. (2022, July 23). The era of climate change has created a new emotion. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2022/07/climate-change-damage-displacement-solastalgia/670614/

Our World in Data. (n.d.). Life expectancy, 1880 to 2021. https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/life-expectancy?tab=chart&country=~USA&region=World

Paranzino, G. K., Butterfield, P., Nastoff, T., & Ranger, C. (2005). I PREPARE: development and clinical utility of an environmental exposure history mnemonic. AAOHN Journal: Official Journal of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, 53(1), 37–42.

Pfleiderer, P., Nath, S., & Schleussner, C.-F. (2022). Extreme Atlantic hurricane seasons made twice as likely by ocean warming. Weather and Climate Dynamics, 3(2), 471–482. https://doi.org/10.5194/wcd-3-471-2022

Rogers-Bennett, L., & Catton, C. A. (2019). Marine heat wave and multiple stressors tip bull kelp forest to sea urchin barrens. Scientific Reports, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51114-y

Romanello, M., Di Napoli, C., Drummond, P., Green, C., Kennard, H., Lampard, P., Scamman, D., Arnell, N., Ayeb-Karlsson, S., Ford, L. B., Belesova, K., Bowen, K., Cai, W., Callaghan, M., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Chambers, J., Van Daalen, K. R., Dalin, C., Dasandi, N., . . . Costello, A. (2022). The 2022 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: Health at the mercy of fossil fuels. The Lancet, 400(10363), 1619–1654. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(22)01540-9

Salvador Costa, M. J., Melo, P., Azeiteiro, U., Carvalho, S., & Ryan, R. (2023). Nursing interventions to reduce health risks from climate change impact in urban areas: A scoping review protocol. Nursing Reports, 13, 496–505. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/nursrep13010045

Sheahan, M., Gould, C., Neumann, J. E., Kinney, P., Hoffman, S., Fant, C., Wang, X., & Kolian, M. (2022). Examining the relationship between climate change and vibriosis in the United States: Projected health and economic impacts for the 21st century. Environmental Health Perspectives, 130(8), 1–13. https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/full/10.1289/EHP9999a

Suran, M. (2022). GAO calls for nationwide analysis of “forever chemicals.” JAMA, 328(20), 2002. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2022.18482

Trevisan, R., Uzochukwu, D., & Di Giulio, R. T. (2020). PAH sorption to nanoplastics and the Trojan horse effect as drivers of mitochondrial toxicity and PAH localization in zebrafish. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 8, 540362. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2020.00078

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U.S. Department of Energy. (2023). What is environmental justice? https://www.energy.gov/lm/what-environmental-justice

U.S. Global Change Research Program. (2016). The impacts of climate change on human health in the United States: A scientific assessment. (A. Crimmins, J. Balbus, J. L. Gamble, C. B. Beard, J. E. Bell, D. Dodgen, R. J. Eisen, N. Fann, M. D. Hawkins, S. C. Herring, L. Jantarasami, D. M. Mills, S. Saha, M. C. Sarofim, J. Trtanj, & L. Ziska, Eds.). https://health2016.globalchange.gov/low/ClimateHealth2016_FullReport_small.pdf

U.S. Global Change Research Program. (2018). Impacts, risks, and adaptation in the United States: Fourth national climate assessment, Volume II. (D. R. Reidmiller, C. W. Avery, D. R. Easterling, K. E. Kunkel, K. L. M. Lewis, T. K. Maycock, and B. C. Stewart, Eds.). https://nca2018.globalchange.gov/downloads/NCA4_2018_FullReport.pdf

U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2022). Persistent chemicals: EPA should use new data to analyze the demographics of communities with PFAS in their drinking water. https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-22-105135

Wade, R. (2023). Climate change and healthcare: Creating a sustainable and climate-resilient health delivery system. Journal of Healthcare Management, 68(4), 227–238. https://doi.org/10.1097/JHM-D-23-00096

Western Fire Chiefs Association. (2023, August 22). Deadliest wildfires in U.S. history. https://wfca.com/articles/deadliest-wildfires-in-us-history/

World Health Organization. (2023a). Environmental health. https://www.who.int/health-topics/environmental-health#tab=tab_1

World Health Organization. (2023b). Climate change. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/climate-change-and-health#

World Meteorological Organization. (2023). State of the global climate 2022. https://library.wmo.int/doc_num.php?explnum_id=11593

Wylie, B. & Malits, J. (2022). Beware of “forever chemicals.” Well Woman, 66(7). https://www.proquest.com/openview/e29c67d897a6a11cb2db4bfec1f764cf/1.pdf?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=48920

Yee, M. S.-L., Hii, L.-W., Looi, C. K., Lim, W.-M., Wong, S.-F., Kok, Y.-Y., Tan, B.-K., Wong, C.-Y., & Leong, C.-O. (2021). Impact of microplastics and nanoplastics on human health. Nanomaterials, 11(2), 496. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020496

Chapter 15 Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Strategies

Airports Council International. (2023). ACI airport health accreditation. https://aci.aero/programs-and-services/accreditations/aci-airport-health-accreditation-program/

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2021). The essentials: Core competencies for professional nursing education. https://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/AcademicNursing/pdf/Essentials-2021.pdf

American Nurses Association. (n.d.). Advocacy. https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/advocacy/

American Nurses Association. (2015). View the code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/nursing-excellence/ethics/code-of-ethics-for-nurses/

American Public Health Association. (2022). About public health nursing. https://www.apha.org/apha-communities/member-sections/public-health-nursing/who-we-are

Austin Public Health. (2023). My faith community. https://www.healthyplaceshealthypeople.org/my-faith-community/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Fact sheet: Talking about fall prevention with your patients. https://www.cdc.gov/steadi/pdf/Talking_about_Fall_Prevention_with_Your_Patients-print.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019a, May 2). About CDC healthy schools. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/about.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019b, March 27). Standards for Health Education. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/sher/standards/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019c, September 24). Virtual healthy school. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/features/virtual_healthy_school.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Correctional health is community health. https://www.cdc.gov/correctionalhealth/default.htm

Churchwell, K., Elkind, M. S. V., Benjamin, R. M., Carson, A. P., Change, E. K., Lawrence, W., Mills, A., Odom, T. M., Rodriguez., C. J., Rodriguez, F., Sanchez, E., Sharrief, A. Z., Sims, M., & Williams, O. (2020, November 10). Call to action: Structural racism as a fundamental driver of health disparities: A presidential advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 142(24), e454–e468. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000936

Community Health Coalition. (2023). About Community Health Coalition. https://www.chealthc.org/about

Freitas, Â., Rodrigues, T. C., & Santana, P. (2020). Assessing Urban Health Inequities through a Multidimensional and Participatory Framework: Evidence from the EURO-HEALTHY Project. Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 97(6), 857–875. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-020-00471-5

Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. (2020, November 30). Social determinants of health: Breaking down the barriers. https://www.himss.org/resources/social-determinants-health-breaking-down-barriers

House of Commons. (2022, September 5). The future of coastal communities. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cdp-2022-0153/

International Council of Nurses. (2021). The ICN code of ethics for nurses. https://www.icn.ch/sites/default/files/2023-06/ICN_Code-of-Ethics_EN_Web.pdf

Iriarte-Roteta, A., Lopez-Dicastillo, O., Mujika, A., Ruiz-Zaldibar, C., Hernantes, N., Bermejo-Martins, E., & Pumar-Mendez, M. J. (2020). Nurses’ role in health promotion and prevention: A critical interpretive synthesis. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(21–22), 3937–3949. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15441

Kisling, L. A., & Das, J. M. (2023, August 1). Prevention strategies. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved February 4, 2023 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537222/

Kokko, S., & Baybutt, M. (2022). Handbook of settings-based health promotion. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-95856-5

Kwon, S. C., Choy, C., Zanowiak, J., Rideout, C., Yi, S., Wyatt, L., Gardia-Dia, M. J., Kim, S. S., Denholm, T. K., Kavethe, R., & Islam, N. S. (2017). Implementing health promotion activities using community-engaged approaches in Asian American faith-based organizations in New York City and New Jersey. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 7(3), 444–466. https://doi.10.1007/s13142-017-0506-0

Meals on Wheels America. (2021). Learn more. https://www.mealsonwheelsamerica.org/learn-more/national

National Cancer Institute. (2005). Theory at a glance: A guide for health promotion practice (2nd ed.). National Institutes of Health. https://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/sites/default/files/2020-06/theory.pdf

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2023, May 8). Chronic disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/index.htm

Ohkubo, S., Limaye, R., & Harlan, S. (2015). K4Health theory primer: Diffusion of innovations. Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs. https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00M9RG.pdf

Oxford Reference. (2023). Intersectoral action. https://www.oxfordreference.com/display/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100008479;jsessionid=2863100087F1ADC59B7AB78123F10420

Platt, J. M., Keyes, K. M., & Galea, S. (2017). Efficiency or equity? Simulating the impact of high-risk and population intervention strategies for the prevention of disease. SSM Population Health, 3, 1–8. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352827316301434?via%3Dihub

Rejeski, W. J., & Fanning, J. (2019). Models and theories of health behavior and clinical interventions in aging: A contemporary, integrative approach. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 14, 1007–1019. https://doi.10.2147/CIA.S206974

Rogers, H. L., Herbando, S. P., Núñez-Fernández, S., Sanchez, A., Martos, C., Moreno, M., & Grandes, G. (2021). Barriers and facilitators in the implementation of an evidence-based health promotion intervention in a primary care setting: A qualitative study. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 35(9), 349–367. https://doi.10.1108/JHOM-12-2020-0512

Rose, G. A. (1992). Roses’s strategy of preventive medicine. Oxford University Press.

Rural Health Information Hub. (2022). LIFE: Living well through intergenerational fitness and exercise. https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/project-examples/774

Tomalin, E., Sadgrove, J., & Summers, R. (2019). Health, faith, and therapeutic landscapes: Places of worship as Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) public health settings in the United Kingdom. Social Science & Medicine, 230, 57–65. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S027795361930142X?via%3Dihub

The University of Alabama at Birmingham. (2023). Health promoting university. https://www.uab.edu/health-promoting-university/

The University of Kansas. (2023). Chapter 2. Section 2. Precede/proceed. Community Tool Box. https://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-contents/overview/other-models-promoting-community-health-and-development/preceder-proceder/main

University of Michigan. (2023). Thrive! stress management resources. Human resources. https://hr.umich.edu/benefits-wellness/health-well-being/mental-emotional-health/learn-more-about-mental-emotional-health/national-mental-health-month/thrive-stress-management-program

U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (n.d). Preventive services. https://www.healthcare.gov/glossary/preventive-services/

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.-a). Healthy People 2030 framework. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/about/healthy-people-2030-framework

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.-b). Social determinants of health. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2021, July 7). Health literacy. National Institutes of Health. https://www.nih.gov/institutes-nih/nih-office-director/office-communications-public-liaison/clear-communication/health-literacy

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2022, September 26). Undiagnosed hypertension. Million Hearts. https://millionhearts.hhs.gov/about-million-hearts/optimizing-care/undiagnosed-hypertension.html#

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2021, May). U.S. Preventive Services Task Force procedure manual. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/sites/default/files/inline-files/procedure-manual-2022.pdf

Walker, S. N., Sechrist, K. R., & Pender, N. J. (1995). Psychometric evaluation of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II [unpublished manuscript]. University of Michigan Library. https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/85349

Weintraub, W. S., Daniels, S. R., Burke, L. E., Franklin, B. A., Goff, D. C, Jr., Hayman, L. L., Lloyd-Jones, D., Pandey, D. K., Sanchez, E. J., Schram, A. P., Whitsel, L. P., American Heart Association Advocacy Coordinating Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, … & Stroke Council. (2011, August 23). Value of primordial and primary prevention for cardiovascular disease. A policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 124(8), 967–990. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0b013e3182285a81

Wilson, A., Barnett, P., Rowbotham, S., & Wutzke, S. (2017, March 30). High risk prevention strategies. Oxford Bibliographies: Public Health. https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/display/document/obo-9780199756797/obo-9780199756797-0159.xml

Woodall, J., & Freeman, C. (2019). Promoting health and well-being in prisons: An analysis of one year’s prison inspection reports. Critical Public Health, 30(5), 555–566. https://doi.org/10.1080/09581596.2019.1612516

Woodard, N., Williams, R. M., Fryer, C. S., Wang, M. Q., Zhang, J., & Knott, C. L. (2020). Correlates of health promotion in a community sample of African American churches. Journal of Community Health, 45(4), 828–835. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10900-020-00799-8

World Health Organization. (1986). Ottawa charter for health promotion, 1986. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/349652

World Health Organization. (2021a). Global strategy on digital health 2020-2025. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/documents/gs4dhdaa2a9f352b0445bafbc79ca799dce4d.pdf

World Health Organization. (2021b). Health promotion glossary of terms 2021. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240038349

World Health Organization. (2023a). The 1st International Conference on Health Promotion, Ottawa, 1986. https://www.who.int/teams/health-promotion/enhanced-wellbeing/first-global-conference

World Health Organization. (2023b, February 10). WHO kicks off deliberations on ethical framework and tools for social listening and infodemic management. https://www.who.int/news/item/10-02-2023-who-kicks-off-deliberations-on-ethical-framework-and-tools-for-social-listening-and-infodemic-management

World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. (2023). About us. https://www.emro.who.int/about-who/public-health-functions/health-promotion-disease-prevention.html

Zajacova, A., & Lawrence, E. M. (2018). The relationship between education and health: Reducing disparities through a contextual approach. Annual Reviews of Public Health, 39, 273–289. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031816-044628

Chapter 16 Creating a Healthy Community

Adhikari, B., Pell, C., & Cheah, P. Y. (2020). Community engagement and ethical global health research. Global Bioethics, 31(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/11287462.2019.1703504

Albalawi, Y., & Sixsmith, J. (2015). Agenda setting for health promotion: Exploring an adapted model for the social media era. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 1(2), e21. https://doi.org/10.2196/publichealth.5014

American Psychological Association. (2009). Civic engagement. Undergraduate Education. https://www.apa.org/education-career/undergrad/civic-engagement

Behm, B., Tevendale, H., Carrigan, S., Stone, C., Morris, K., & Rosenthal, J. (2022). A national communication effort addressing maternal mortality in the United States: Implementation of the Hear Her campaign. Journal of Women’s Health, 31(12), 1677–1685. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2022.0428

Bekkers, V., Moody, R., & Edwards, A. (2011). Micro-mobilization, social media and coping strategies: Some Dutch experiences. Policy & Internet, 3(4), 1–29. https://doi.org/10.2202/1944-2866.1061

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Action step 4: Gather data. In Community Health Assessment and Group Evaluation (CHANGE) action guide: Building a foundation of knowledge to prioritize community health needs (pp. 13–18). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dch/programs/healthycommunitiesprogram/tools/change/pdf/changeactionguide.pdf

Chandra, A., Acosta, J., Carman, K. G., Dubowitz, T., Leviton, L., Martin, L. T., Miller, C., Nelson, C., Orleans, T., Tait, M., Trujillo, M., Towe, V., Yeung, D., & Plough, A. L. (2017). Building a national culture of health: Background, action framework, measures, and next steps. Rand Health Quarterly, 6(2), 3. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28845341

Chandra, A., Miller, C. E., Acosta, J. D., Weilant, S., Trujillo, M., & Plough, A. (2016). Drivers of health as a shared value: Mindset, expectations, sense of community, and civic engagement. Health Affairs, 35(11), 1959–1963. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0603

Chisholm, E., & O’Sullivan, K. (2017). Using Twitter to explore (un)healthy housing: Learning from the #characterbuildings campaign in New Zealand. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(11), 1424. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111424

Dubowitz, T., Orleans, T., Nelson, C., May, L. W., Sloan, J. C., & Chandra, A. (2016). Creating healthier, more equitable communities by improving governance and policy. Health Affairs, 35(11), 1970–1975. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0608

Fontenot, J., & McMurray, P. (2020). Decolonizing entry to practice: Reconceptualizing methods to facilitate diversity in nursing programs. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 15(4), 272–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2020.07.002

Gordon, M. (1982). Nursing diagnosis: Process and application. McGraw-Hill.

Haldane, V., Chuah, F. L. H., Srivastava, A., Singh, S. R., Koh, G. C. H., Seng, C. K., & Legido-Quigley, H. (2019). Community participation in health services development, implementation, and evaluation: A systematic review of empowerment, health, community, and process outcomes. PLOS ONE, 14(5), e0216112. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0216112

Hefler, M., Freeman, B., & Chapman, S. (2013). Tobacco control advocacy in the age of social media: Using Facebook, Twitter, and Change. Tobacco Control, 22(3), 210–214. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050721

Jackson, M., Brennan, L., & Parker, L. (2021). The public health community’s use of social media for policy advocacy: A scoping review and suggestions to advance the field. Public Health, 198, 146–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2021.07.015

Kimani, R. W. (2023). Racism, colonialism, and the implications for nursing scholarship: A discussion paper. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 79(5), 1745–1753. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15634

Kriegler, N. F., & Harton, M. K. (1992). Community Health Assessment Tool: A patterns approach to data collection and diagnosis. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(4), 229–234. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327655jchn0904_4

Li, Y., & Pagán, J. A. (2016, October 17). The Culture of Health Action Framework and systems science: Opportunities and challenges. Health Affairs. https://doi.org/10.1377/forefront.20161017.057073

Lin, C. Y., Loyola-Sanchez, A., Boyling, E., & Barnabe, C. (2020). Community engagement approaches for Indigenous health research: Recommendations based on an integrative review. BMJ Open, 10(11), e039736. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039736

Lotfi, M., Zamanzadeh, V., Valizadeh, L., Khajehgoodari, M., Ebrahimpour Rezaei, M., & Khalilzad, M. A. (2020). The implementation of the nursing process in lower‐income countries: An integrative review. Nursing Open, 7(1), 42–57. https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.410

Martin, L. T., Plough, A., Carman, K. G., Leviton, L., Bogdan, O., & Miller, C. E. (2016). Strengthening integration of health services and systems. Health Affairs, 35(11), 1976–1981. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0605

McCreedy, D., Maryboy, N., Litts, B., Streit, T., & Jafri, J. (2018). What does working “with” (not “for”) our communities look like? National Science Foundation, Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education. https://www.informalscience.org/sites/default/files/BP-11-Working-With-Communities.pdf

Peuchaud, S. (2014). Social media activism and Egyptians’ use of social media to combat sexual violence: An HiAP case study. Health Promotion International, 29(suppl. 1), i113–i120. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dau046

Quinn, B. L., El Ghaziri, M., & Knight, M. (2019). Incorporating social justice, community partnerships, and student engagement in community health nursing courses. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 14(3), 183–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2019.02.006

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (n.d.-a). Our history and founder. About RWJF. https://www.rwjf.org/en/about-rwjf/our-guiding-principles/our-history.html

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (n.d.-b). Why build a culture of health? https://www.rwjf.org/en/building-a-culture-of-health/why-health-equity.html

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2018). Putting the Culture of Health Action Framework to use. https://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/COH/PDFs/PuttingtheCoHActionFrameworktoUse.pdf

Tan, M. L., Vlahov, D., Hagan, E., Glymour, M. M., Gottlieb, L. M., Matthay, E. C., & Adler, N. E. (2019). Building the evidence on Making Health a Shared Value: Insights and considerations for research. SSM - Population Health, 9, 100474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100474

Thornton, L. (2019). A brief history and overview of holistic nursing. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal, 18(4), 32–33. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32549829

Towe, V. L., Leviton, L., Chandra, A., Sloan, J. C., Tait, M., & Orleans, T. (2016). Cross-sector collaborations and partnerships: Essential ingredients to help shape health and well-being. Health Affairs, 35(11), 1964–1969. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0604

Wagoro, M. C. A., & Rakuom, C. P. (2015). Mainstreaming Kenya-Nursing Process in clinical settings: The case of Kenya. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, 3, 31–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijans.2015.07.002

Wray‐Lake, L., & Abrams, L. S. (2020). Pathways to civic engagement among urban youth of color. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 85(2), 7–154. https://doi.org/10.1111/mono.12415

Xue, Y., Kannan, V., Greener, E., Smith, J. A., Brasch, J., Johnson, B. A., & Spetz, J. (2018). Full scope-of-practice regulation is associated with higher supply of nurse practitioners in rural and primary care health professional shortage counties. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 8(4), 5–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2155-8256(17)30176-X

Zhang, D., Son, H., Shen, Y., Chen, Z., Rajbhandari-Thapa, J., Li, Y., Eom, H., Bu, D., Mu, L., Li, G., & Pagán, J. A. (2020). Assessment of changes in rural and urban primary care workforce in the United States from 2009 to 2017. JAMA Network Open, 3(10), e2022914. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.22914

Chapter 17 Assessment, Analysis, and Diagnosis

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2020). AHRQ Health Literacy Universal Precautions toolkit. https://www.ahrq.gov/health-literacy/improve/precautions/index.html

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (2023). ATSDR Action Model. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/sites/brownfields/model.html

American Hospital Association. (2017). Association for Community Health Improvement, Community Health Assessment toolkit. Healthy Communities. https://www.healthycommunities.org/resources/community-health-assessment-toolkit

Berkman, N. D., Sheridan, S. L., Donahue, K. E., Halpern, D. J., Viera, A., Crotty, K., Holland, A., Brasure, M., Lohr, K. N., Harden, E., Tant, E., Wallace, I., & Viswanathan, M. (2011). Health literacy interventions and outcomes: An updated systematic review. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, 199. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Boston University. (2023). Health Literacy Tool Shed: A database of health literacy measures. http://healthliteracy.bu.edu/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Community Health Assessment aNd Group Evaluation (CHANGE) action guide: Building a foundation of knowledge to prioritize community needs. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dch/programs/healthycommunitiesprogram/tools/change/pdf/changeactionguide.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). GIS and public health at CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/gis/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Health literacy: Plain language materials and resources. https://www.cdc.gov/healthliteracy/developmaterials/plainlanguage.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). Community health assessment & health improvement planning: Assessment & planning models, frameworks & tools. https://www.cdc.gov/publichealthgateway/cha/assessment.html

Couillard, B. K., Foote, C. L., Gandhi, K., Meara, E., & Skinner, J. (2021). Rising geographic disparities in U.S. mortality. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 35(4), 123–146. DOI: 10.1257/jep.35.4.123

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Lhachimi, S. K., Bala, M. M., & Vanagas, G. (2016). Evidence-based public health. BioMed Research International, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5681409

National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). (2016). National public health performance standards: Glossary. https://www.naccho.org/uploads/downloadable-resources/Programs/Public-Health-Infrastructure/Glossary.pdf

National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). (2020). MAPP evaluation blueprint executive summary. https://www.naccho.org/uploads/full-width-images/MAPP-Evolution-Blueprint-Executive-Summary-V3-FINAL.pdf

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National Cancer Institute. (2005). Theory at a glance: A guide for health promotion practice (2nd ed.). National Institutes of Health. https://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/sites/default/files/2020-06/theory.pdf

Nutbeam, D. & Muscat, D. M. (2020). Advancing health literacy interventions. In R. A. Logan & E. R. Siegel (Eds.), Health literacy in clinical practice and public health (pp. 115–127). IOS Press. doi:10.3233/SHTI200026

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2021). Health literacy in Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/health-literacy-healthy-people-2030

Ohio Department of Health. (2023). OHYES! Ohio Youth Surveys. https://ohyes.ohio.gov/

Pedigo, A., Aldrick, T., & Odoi, A. (2011). Neighborhood disparities in stroke and myocardial infarction mortality: A GIS and spatial scan statistics approach. BMC Public Health, 11(644). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-644

Porter, C. M. (2016). Revisiting Precede–Proceed: A leading model for ecological and ethical health promotion. Health Education Journal75(6), 753–764. https://doi.org/10.1177/0017896915619645

Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB). (2022). Standards and measures for reaccreditation, Version 2022. https://phaboard.org/wp-content/uploads/Standard-Measures-Version-2022-Reaccreditation.pdf

Rudd, R. E., Oelschlegel, S., Grabeel, K. L., Tester, E., & Heidel, E. (2019) HLE2: The Health Literacy Environment of Hospitals and Health Centers. Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health. https://cdn1.sph.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/135/2019/05/april-30-FINAL_The-Health-Literacy-Environment2_Locked.pdf

Santana, S., Brach, C., Harris, L., Ochiai, E., Blakey, C., Bevington, F., Kleinman, D., & Pronk, N. (2021). Updating health literacy for Healthy People 2030: Defining its importance for a new decade in public health. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 27(6), S258–S264. doi:10.1097/PHH.0000000000001324

Schmidt, E. (2022). Reading the numbers: 130 million American adults have low literacy skills, but funding differs drastically by state. American Public Media. https://www.apmresearchlab.org/10x-adult-literacy

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Strategic Preparedness and Response. (2023). Declarations of a public health emergency. https://aspr.hhs.gov/legal/PHE/Pages/default.aspx

Chapter 18 Planning Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Interventions

Akrami, F., Zali, A., Abbasi, M., Majdzadeh, R., Karimi, A., Fadavi, M., & Bahar, A. M. (2018). An ethical framework for evaluation of public health plans: A systematic process for legitimate and fair decision making. Public Health, 164, 30–38. https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.puhe.2018.07.018

American Public Health Association. (APHA). (2019). Public health code of ethics. https://www.apha.org/-/media/files/pdf/membergroups/ethics/code_of_ethics.ashx

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (CDC). (2013). Program planning: Participant workbook. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/healthprotection/fetp/training_modules/17/program-planning_pw_final_09252013.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (CDC). (2019). NCHHSTP social determinants of health: Frequently asked questions. https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/socialdeterminants/faq.html#

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (CDC). (2021). A guide for using incentives to enroll and retain participants in the National Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Change Program. https://nccdphp.my.salesforce.com/sfc/p/#t

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (CDC). (2023). Program Performance and Evaluation Office (PPEO). https://www.cdc.gov/evaluation/

Dahlgren, G. (1995). The need for intersectional action for health. In P. Harrington & A. Ritsatakis (Eds.), European Health Policy Conference: Opportunities for the Future, Copenhagen 5-9 December 1994 Volume II. The policy framework to meet the challenges—Intersectoral action for health. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

De Lew, N., & Sommers, B. D. (2022). Addressing social determinants of health in federal programs. JAMA Health Forum, 3(3), e221064. doi:10.1001/jamahealthforum.2022.1064

Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention (DHDSP). (2018). Evaluation Briefs: Writing SMART objectives. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/programs/evaluation/Guide/PDF/b_write_objective.pdf

Dozier, A., Hacker, K., Silberberg, M., & Ziegan, L. (2015). The value of social networking in community engagement. In Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (Eds.), Principles of community engagement (pp. 151–160). https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/communityengagement/pce_social_intro.html

Fernandez, M. E., Ruiter, R. A., Markham, C. M., & Kok, G. (2019). Intervention mapping: Theory- and evidence-based health promotion program planning: Perspectives and examples. Frontiers in Public Health, 7(209). doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2019.00209

Healthy Places by Design. (2016). Communities in action: New Orleans, LA. https://healthyplacesbydesign.org/communities-in-action-new-orleans-la/

Hood, C. M., Gennuso, K. P., Swain, G. R., & Catlin, B. B. (2016). County health rankings: Relationship between determinant factors and health outcomes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 50(2), 129–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.08.024.

Hunsicker, J. (2020). Evaluation of the Kenton Hardin County Family Bike Program [Doctoral dissertation, Case Western Reserve University]. OhioLINK. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=casednp1571153144525499

Issel, L. M., & Wells, R. (2018). Health program planning and evaluation: A practical systematic approach for community health (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.

John Snow, Inc. (JSI). (2014). Engaging your community: A toolkit for partnership, collaboration, and action. https://publications.jsi.com/JSIInternet/Inc/Common/_download_pub.cfm?id=14333&lid=3

NC Farmworker Health Program, Office of Rural Health (NCFHP). (2023). NC Farmworker Heath Program. https://ncfhp.ncdhhs.gov/

Porter, C. M. (2016). Revisiting Precede-Proceed: A leading model for ecological and ethical health promotion. Health Education Journal, 75(6), 753764. doi: 10.1177/0017896915619645

Public Health Accreditation Board. (PHAB). (2022). Acronyms & glossary of terms. https://phaboard.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Acronyms-and-Glossary-of-Terms.pdf

Sharma, A. (2023). Effective methods to improve team dynamics and employee behaviors. Adaface. https://www.adaface.com/blog/team-dynamics/

Society for Public Health Education. (SOPHE). (2016). Coalition guide resource. https://www.sophe.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Full-Resource-Guide.pdf

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (SAMHSA). (2018). Setting goals and developing specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound objectives. https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/nc-smart-goals-fact-sheet.pdf

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (n.d.). Social determinant of health. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (HHS). (2001). Planned approach to community health: Guide for the local coordinator. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.sophe.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Planned-approach-to-communiy-health-PATCH-a-guide.pdf

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (HUD). (2012). Community involvement in program planning. https://www.hud.gov/sites/documents/HHPGM_FINAL_CH2.PDF

Walsh, L., Hyett, N., Juniper, N., Li, C., Rodier, S., & Hill, S. (2021). The use of social media as a tool for stakeholder engagement in health service design and quality improvement: A scoping review. Digital Health, 7, 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055207621996870

Whitman, A., De Lew, N., Chappel, A., Aysola, V., Zuckerman, R., & Sommers, B. D. (2022). Addressing social determinants of health: Examples of successful evidence-based strategies and current efforts. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Health Policy. https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/e2b650cd64cf84aae8ff0fae7474af82/SDOH-Evidence-Review.pdf

W. K. Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic model development guide. https://www.naccho.org/uploads/downloadable-resources/Programs/Public-Health-Infrastructure/KelloggLogicModelGuide_161122_162808.pdf

World Health Organization & UNICEF. (2020). Integrating stakeholder and community engagement in quality of care initiatives for maternal, newborn, and child health. The Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health. https://www.qualityofcarenetwork.org/integrating-stakeholder-and-community-engagement-module/building-and-strengthening

Zhang, W. J., & Fornili, K. (2023). Screening for social determinants of health among Medicare beneficiaries in primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Prince George’s County, Maryland. Journal of Community Health, 48, 903–911. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-023-01236-2

Chapter 19 Planning Community Health Education

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2023). TeamSTEPPS. https://www.ahrq.gov/teamstepps/instructor/essentials/pocketguide.html

Ahmad, N. A., Abd Rauf, M. F., Mohd Zaid, N. N., Zainal, A., Tengku Shahdan, T. S., & Abdul Razak, F. H. (2022). Effectiveness of instructional strategies designed for older adults in learning digital technologies: A systematic literature review. SN Computer Science3(2), 130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42979-022-01016-0

American Public Health Association. (2023). What is public health? https://www.apha.org/what-is-public-health

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). Drug-free communities coalitions. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/drug-free-communities/coalitions.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). HEAR HER campaign. https://www.cdc.gov/hearher/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a). 10 Essential Public Health Services. https://www.cdc.gov/publichealthgateway/publichealthservices/essentialhealthservices.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b). High blood pressure. https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/measure.htm

D’souza, F., Shah, S., Oki, O., Scrivens, L. & Guckian, J. (2021). Social media: Medical education’s double-edged sword. Future Healthcare Journal 8(2), 307–310. https://www.rcpjournals.org/content/futurehosp/8/2/e307.full.pdf

National Institute of Mental Health. (2023). The teen brain: 7 things to know. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/the-teen-brain-7-things-to-know

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2021). Health literacy and health equity: Connecting the dots. https://health.gov/news/202110/health-literacy-and-health-equity-connecting-dots

Rodziewicz, T. L, Houseman, B., & Hipskind, J. E. (2023). Medical error reduction and prevention. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499956/

Rural Health Information Hub. (2023). Health education. https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/health-promotion/2/strategies/health-education

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2019). Health literacy reports and publications. https://www.hhs.gov/surgeongeneral/reports-and-publications/health-literacy/index.html

Virginia Commonwealth University. (2022). Why education matters to health: Exploring the causes. https://societyhealth.vcu.edu/work/the-projects/why-education-matters-to-health-exploring-the-causes.html#gsc.tab=0

World Health Organization. (2023). Health promotion and disease prevention through population-based interventions, including action to address social determinants and health inequity. https://www.emro.who.int/about-who/public-health-functions/health-promotion-disease-prevention.html

Chapter 20 Implementation and Evaluation Considerations

Barnes-Proby, D., Shcults, D., Jaycox, L. H., & Ayer, L. (2017). A RAND toolkit: Five strategies for successful recruitment and retention of children and families in human service programs. RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/tools/TL200/TL242/RAND_TL242.pdf

Carter, N., Corey, M., & O’Brien, C. (2016). Integrating community health workers in Ohio’s health care teams. UHCAN Ohio. https://www.chcf.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/IntegratingCHWsOhiosHealthCareTeams.pdf

Center for Rural Health. (2023). Creating a communication plan. University of North Dakota School of Medicine & Health Sciences. https://ruralhealth.und.edu/communication/plan

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1999). Framework for program evaluation in public health. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 48. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr4811.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Developing an effective evaluation plan. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/downloads/cdc-evaluation-workbook-508.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Introduction to program evaluation for public health programs: A self-study guide. https://www.cdc.gov/evaluation/guide/introduction/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Types of evaluation. https://www.cdc.gov/std/program/pupestd/types%20of%20evaluation.pdf

Cooper, J., Murphy, J., Woods, C., Van Nassau, F., McGrath, A., Callaghan, D., Carroll, P., Kelly, P., Murphy, N., Murphy, M., & Irish Physical Activity Research Collaboration. (2021). Barriers and facilitators to implementing community-based physical activity interventions: A qualitative systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 18(118). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-021-01177-w

Fernandez, M. E., Damschroder, L., & Balasubramanian, B. (2022). Understanding barriers and facilitators for implementation across settings. In B. J. Weiner, C. C. Lewis, & K. Sherr (Eds.), Practical implementation science: Moving evidence into action. Springer Publishing. DOI: 10.1891/9780826186935

Georgia Health Policy Center. (2011). Bringing the future into focus: A step-by-step sustainability planning workbook. https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/sustainability/pdf/bringing-the-future-into-focus-sustainability-planning-workbook.pdf

Georgia Health Policy Center. (2020). The DNA of program sustainability: Findings from a study of federal office of rural health policy grantees. https://ghpc.gsu.edu/download/the-dna-of-program-sustainability-findings-from-a-study-of-federal-office-of-rural-health-policy-grantees/

Hull, K. J., Suellentrop, K., & Rios Villacorta, N. (2022). Recruitment and retention. Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Family and Youth Services Bureau. https://teenpregnancy.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/resource-files/RecruitmentAndRetention.pdf

Hunsicker, J. (2020). Evaluation of the Kenton Hardin County Family Bike Program [Doctoral dissertation, Case Western Reserve University]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=casednp1571153144525499

Issel, L. M. & Wells, R. (2018). Health program planning and evaluation: A practical systematic approach for community health (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.

Krebs, F., Lorenz, L., Nawabi, F., Luck, I., Bau, A-M., Alavli, A., & Stock, S. (2021). Recruitment in health services research: A student on facilitators and barriers for recruitment of community-based healthcare providers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(10521). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910521

Mathieson, A., Grande, G., & Luker, K. (2019). Strategies, facilitators and barriers to implementation of evidence-based practice in community nursing: A systematic mixed-studies review and qualitative synthesis. Primary Health Care Research & Development, 20(e6). DOI: 10.1017/S1463423618000488

National Archives. (2023). Top 10 principles for plain language. https://www.archives.gov/open/plain-writing/10-principles.html

Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario), Snelling, S., & Meserve, A. (2016). Evaluating health promotion programs: Introductory workbook. Queens Printer for Ontario. ISBN: 978-14606-8317-0

Prevention First. (2022). Delivering culturally response prevention services professional development resource guide. https://www.prevention.org/Resources/648ff313-5591-4528-8449-a883089d3e13/Delivering%20Culturally%20Responsive%20Prevention%20Resource%20Guide%20FY22%20FINAL.pdf

Rural Health Information Hub. (2018a). Health communication. https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/health-promotion/2/strategies/health-communication

Rural Health Information Hub. (2018b). Recruiting and retaining program participants. https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/health-promotion/3/recruiting-and-maintaining

Rural Health Information Hub. (2022). Module 5: Planning for funding and sustainability. https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/rural-toolkit/5/sustainability-planning

Smith, N. M. & Wallace, A. D. (n.d.). Plain English: At a glance. U.S. General Services Administration. https://www.plainlanguage.gov/resources/articles/at-a-glance/

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). Making health communication programs work. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/health-communication/pink-book.pdf

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2012). Program sustainability. In U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control (Eds.), Healthy Homes Program guidance manual (pp 157–172). https://www.hud.gov/sites/documents/HHPGM_FINAL_CH7.PDF

W. K. Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic model development guide. https://www.naccho.org/uploads/downloadable-resources/Programs/Public-Health-Infrastructure/KelloggLogicModelGuide_161122_162808.pdf

Chapter 21 Cultural Influences on Health Beliefs and Practices

Adhikari, B., & Mishra, S. R. (2019). Culture and epidemiology of diabetes in South Asia. Journal of Global Health, 9(2), 020301. https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.09.020301

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Auguste, E., & Rasmussen, A. (2019). Vodou’s role in Haitian mental health. Global Mental Health, 6, e25. https://doi.org/10.1017/gmh.2019.23

Baig, A. A., Benitez, A., Quinn, M. T., & Burnet, D. L. (2015). Family interventions to improve diabetes outcomes for adults. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1353(1), 89–112. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12844

Begic, I., & Mercer, S. (2017). Looking back, looking forward, living in the moment: Understanding the individual temporal perspectives of secondary school EFL learners. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 11(3), 267–281. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2017.1317261

Bhandari, P., & Titzmann, F. (2017). Family realities in South Asia: Adaptations and resilience. South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, 16. https://doi.org/10.4000/samaj.4365

Clayton, J. (2020). Multiculturalism. In A. Kobayashi (Ed.), International encyclopedia of human geography (2nd ed., pp. 211–219). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102295-5.10296-3

Dowling, J. (2002). Transversing the Cultural Gap—Cultural Awareness on Deployments. First Annual ADF Nurses Forum

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Fabietti, U. E. (2016). Cultural traits and identity. In F. Panebianco & E. Serrelli (Eds.), Understanding cultural traits (pp. 43–59). Springer.

Fatehi, K., Priestley, J. L., & Taasoobshirazi, G. (2020). The expanded view of individualism and collectivism: One, two, or four dimensions? International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 20(1), 7–24. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470595820913077

Fiese, B. H., Tomcho, T. J., Douglas, M., Josephs, K., Poltrock, S., & Baker, T. (2002). A review of 50 years of research on naturally occurring family routines and rituals: Cause for celebration? Journal of Family Psychology, 16(4), 381–390. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.16.4.381

Forbes, B. D., & Mahan, J. H. (Eds.). (2017). Religion and population culture in America (3rd ed.). University of California Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9780520965225

Forbes, N., Yang, L.C., & Lim, S. (2023). Intersectional discrimination and its impact on Asian American women’s mental health: A mixed-methods scoping review. Public Health Education and Promotion, 11, 993396. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2023.993396

García, A. (2018). Race and ethnicity: Fluid concepts in society. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 25(3), 112–130.

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Giger, J. N., & Davidhizar, R. (2002). The Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model. Journal of transcultural nursing : official journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society, 13(3), 185–201. https://doi.org/10.1177/10459602013003004

Giger, J., & Haddad, L. (2021). Transcultural nursing (8th ed.). Elsevier.

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Hills, A. P., Arena, R., Khunti, K., Yajnik, C. S., Jayawardena, R., Henry, C. J., Street, S. J., Soares, M. J., & Misra, A. (2018). Epidemiology and determinants of type 2 diabetes in south Asia. The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology, 6(12), 966–978. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30204-3

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1014

Jensen, E., Jones, N., Rabe, M., Pratt, B., Medina, L., Orozco, K., & Spell, L. (2021). 2020 U.S. population more racially and ethnically diverse than measured in 2010. United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2021/08/2020-united-states-population-more-racially-ethnically-diverse-than-2010.html

Johnson-Lafleur, J., Nadeau, L., & Rousseau, C. (2023). Families’ and practitioners’ use of culture in youth mental health services: A double-edged sword. Child & Youth Care Forum, 52, 311–329. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-022-09688-8

Jones, C. P., & Bullock, M. (2019). Racism and health: A public health perspective on racial and ethnic disparities. Annual Review of Public Health, 40, 105-125. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043750

Jones, N., Marks, R., Ramirez, R., & Ríos-Vargas, M. (2021). Improved race and ethnicity measures reveal U.S. population is much more multiracial. United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2021/08/improved-race-ethnicity-measures-reveal-united-states-population-much-more-multiracial.html

Kahissay, M. H., Fenta, T. G., & Boon, H. (2017). Beliefs and perception of ill-health causation: A socio-cultural qualitative study in rural North-Eastern Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 124. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4052-y

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Singer, M. K., Dressler, W., & George, S. (2016). Culture: The missing link in health research. Social Science & Medicine, 170, 237–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.07.015

Smith, P. B., & Bond, M. H. (2019). Cultures and persons: Characterizing national and other types of cultural difference can also aid our understanding and prediction of individual variability. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2689. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02

Solomon, D., Maxwell, C., & Casto, A. (2019, August 7). Systemic inequality: Displacement, exclusion, and segregation: How America’s housing system undermines wealth building in communities of color. CAP 20. https://www.americanprogress.org/article/systemic-inequality-displacement-exclusion-segregation/

Spradley, J. P., McCurdy, D. W., & Shandy, D. J. (2016). The cultural experience: Ethnography in complex society (4th ed.). Waveland Press.

Sruthi, M. (2023). Understanding pica (eating disorder). MedicineNet. https://www.medicinenet.com/understanding_pica_eating_disorder/article.htm

Subhan, F. B., Fernando, D. N., Thorlakson, J., & Chan, C. B. (2023). Dietary interventions for type 2 diabetes in South Asian populations: A systematic review. Current Nutrition Reports, 12(1), 39–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13668-022-00446-9

Svalastog, A. L., Donev, D., Kristoffersen, N. J., & Gajovic, S. (2017). Concepts and definitions of health and health-related values in the knowledge landscapes of the digital society. Croatian Medical Journal, 58(6), 431–435. https://doi.org/10.3325/cmj.2017.58.431

Swihart, D. L., Yarrarapu, S. N. S., & Martin, R. L. (2023). Cultural religious competence in clinical practice. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493216/

Toney, A. M., Martin, T., Sanchez, S., Kelley, M. S., Palmer-Wackerly, A. L., & Chaidez, V. (2022). Examining the macrosystem level of influence on community health worker effectiveness in the state of Nebraska: A qualitative approach. Journal of Community Health, 47(3), 510–518.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-022-01075-7

Turner, T. (2023). Medicare for green card holders: Everything you should know. Retire Guide. https://www.retireguide.com/guides/medicare-for-green-card-holders/

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White, P. (2015). The concept of diseases and health care in African traditional religion in Ghana. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, 71(3), a2762. https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v71i3.2762

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Ziólkowska-Weiss, K. (2020). Cultural pluralism on the example of national minorities in the United States of America. Ukrainian Policymaker, 6, 114–121. https://doi.org/10.29202/up/6/11

Chapter 22 Transcultural Nursing

Albougami, A. S., Pounds, K. G., & Alotaibi, J. S. (2016). Comparison of four cultural competence models in transcultural nursing: A discussion paper. International Archives of Nursing and Health Care, 2(053). https://doi.org/10.23937/2469-5823/1510053

Alligood, M.R. (2014). Nursing Theorists and Their Work. United Kingdom: Elsevier. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Nursing_Theorists_and_Their_Work/qbAKAQAAQBAJ

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A model of care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), 181-184. https://doi.org/10.1177/104365960201300305

Campinha-Bacote, J. (December 4, 2018). “Cultural Competemility: A Paradigm Shift in the Cultural Competence versus Cultural Humility Debate – Part I” OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, Vol. 24, No. 1.

Giger, J. N., & Davidhizar, R. (2002). The Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), 185–201. https://doi.org/10.1177/10459602013003004

Gopalkrishnan, N. (2019). Cultural competence and beyond: Working across cultures in culturally dynamic partnerships. The International Journal of Community and Social Development, 1(1), 28-41. https://doi.org/10.1177/2516602619826712

Hagerty, T. A., Samuels, W., Norcini-Pala, A., & Gigliotti, E. (2017). Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations: An Alternate Factor Structure for Patient Experience Data? Nursing Science Quarterly, 30(2), 160–167. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894318417693286

Jongen, C., McCalman, J., & Bainbridge, R. (2018). Health workforce cultural competency interventions: a systematic scoping review. BMC health services research, 18(1), 232. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3001-5

Leininger, M. M. (2002). Transcultural nursing: Concepts, theories, research & practice (3rd ed.).

The Madeleine M. Leininger Collection Papers, 1953-1995. (Predominantly 1961-1995). Wayne State University. https://reuther.wayne.edu/files/WSP000725.pdf

McFarland, M. R., & Wehbe-Alamah, H. B. (2019). Leininger’s theory of culture care diversity and universality: An overview with a historical retrospective and a view toward the future. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 30(6), 540-557. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659619867134

Narayan, M.C. & Mallinson, R.K. (2022). Transcultural Nurse Views on Culture-Sensitive/Patient-Centered Assessment and Care Planning: A Descriptive Study. Journal of Transcultural Nursing. 2022;33(2):150-160. doi:10.1177/10436596211046986

Narayan, M.C. (2003). Cultural assessment and care planning. Home Healthcare Nurse: The Journal of the Home Care and Hospice Professional. 21(9):611-8. doi: 10.1097/00004045-200309000-00011. PMID: 14534460

Nguyen, T., Tran, T., Luo, W., & Wright, L. (2019). Culturally sensitive intervention for Vietnamese American women with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 30(4), 383-392. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659618817667

Purnell, L. (2002). The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. Journal of Transcultural Nursing. 13(3):193-196. doi:10.1177/10459602013003006

Purnell, L. (2013). Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach. 4th Edition, F. A. Davis.

Purnell, L. (2018). Update: The Purnell Theory and Model for Culturally Competent Health Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Vol. 30, Issue 2, pp. 98–105. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659618817587

Chapter 23 Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Nursing Care

Alcendor, D. J. (2020). Racial disparities-associated COVID-19 mortality among minority populations in the U.S. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(2442), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082442

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Arias, E., Xu, J., Curtin, S., Bastian, B., & Tejada-Vera, B. (2021). Mortality profile of the non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native population, 2019. National Vital Statistics Reports, 70(12):1–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.15620/cdc:110370

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Attum, B., Hafiz, S., Malik, A., & Shamoon, Z. (2023). Cultural competence in the care of Muslim patients and their families. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499933/

Berger, J. T., & Ribeiro Miller, D. (2021). Health disparities, systemic racism, and failures of cultural competence. The American Journal of Bioethics, 21(9), 4–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2021.1915411

Beser, A., Tekkas Kerman, K., Ersin, F., & Arkan, G. (2021). The effects of ethnocentrism and some features on intercultural sensitivityin nursing students: A comparative descriptive study. Nurse Education in Practice, 56, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2021.103180

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A model of care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 181–184. https://doi.org/10.1177/10459602013003003

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2018). Cultural competemility: A paradigm shift in the cultural competence versus cultural humility debate—part I. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 24(1).https://doi.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol24No01PPT20

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Cross, T. L., Bazron, B. J., Dennis, K. W., & Isaacs, M. R. (1989, March). Towards a culturally competent system of care: a monograph on effective services for minority children who are severely emotionally disturbed. Georgetown University Child Development Center.

Day, L., & Beard, K. V. (2019). Meaningful inclusion of diverse voices: The case for culturally responsive teaching in nursing education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 35(4), 277–281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2019.01.002

Foronda, C., Prather, S., Baptiste, D., & Luctkar-Flude, M. (2022). Cultural humility toolkit. Nurse Educator, 47(5), 267–271. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000001182

Foronda, C. L., Baptiste, D., Pfaff, T., Velez, R., Reinholdt, M., Sanchez, M, & Warren Hudson, K. (2018). Cultural competency and cultural humility in simulation-based education: An integrative review. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 15, 42–60. https://doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2017.09.006

Fry, F., & Parker, K. (2018, November 15). Early benchmarks show “post-millennials” on track to be most diverse, best-educated generation yet. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/social-trends/2018/11/15/early-benchmarks-show-post-millennials-on-track-to-be-most-diverse-best-educated-generation-yet/

Giger, J. N., & Davidhizar, R. (2002). The Giger and Davidhizar transcultural assessment model. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), 185–188. https://doi.org/10.1177/10459602013003004

Greenwood, B. N., Hardeman, R. R., Huang, L., & Sojourner, A. (2020). Physician–patient racial concordance and disparities in birthing mortality for newborns. PNAS, 117(35), 21194–21200. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1913405117

Im, E. O., & Chee, W. (2021). Components of culturally tailored interventions: A discussion paper. Advances in Nursing Science, 44(2), 123–135. https://doi.org/10.1097/ANS.0000000000000340

James, C. V. M., R.; Wilson-Frederick, S.M.; Hall, J.E.; Penman-Aguilar, A.; Bouye, K. (2017). Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities Among Rural Adults — United States, 2012–2015. Morbidity and Mortality Surveillance Summary, 66(23), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6623a1

Jeffreys, M. R., & Dogan, E. (2010). Factor analysis of the Transcultural Self-Efficacy Tool (TSET). Journal of Nursing Measurement, 18(2), 120–139.https://doi.org/10.1891/1061-3749.18.2.120

Kelly, N., Graves, D., & Txabarriaga, R. (2007, March). Culturally capable translations: The essential role of culture in translation quality processes. The ATA Chronicle. https://www.ata-chronicle.online/wp-content/uploads/3603_20_nataly_kelly_darci_graves_rocio_txabarriaga.pdf

Kentucky Inclusive Health Collaborative. (2021, March 19). Cultural competency in health [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vHePY3J5wJs

Kim, M. T., Heitkemper, E. M., Hébert, E. T., Hecht, J., Crawford, A., Nnaka, T., Hutson T. S., Rhee, H., & Radhakrishnan, K. (2022). Redesigning culturally tailored intervention in the precision health era: Self-management science context. Nursing Outlook, 70(5), 710–724. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2022.05.015

Leininger, M. M. (1970). Nursing and anthropology: Two worlds to blend. Wiley.

Leininger, M. M. (1991). Culture care diversity & universality: A theory of nursing. National League for Nursing Press.

Leininger, M. M. (1999). What is transcultural nursing and culturally competent care? Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 10(1), 9. https://doi.org/10.1177/104365969901000105

Lick, D. J., Durso, L. E., & Johnson, K. L. (2013). Minority stress and physical health among sexual minorities. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(5), 521–548. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691613497965

Mahowald, L. (2021, June 24). LGBTQ people of color encounter heightened discrimination: 2020 survey results on experiences in health care, housing, and education. Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/article/lgbtq-people-color-encounter-heightened-discrimination/

Marion, L., Douglas, M., Lavin, M. A., Barr, N., Gazaway, S., Thomas, E., & Bickford, C. (2016). Implementing the new ANA Standard 8: Culturally congruent practice. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 22(1). https://doi.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol22No01PPT20

McDonald, M., & Shenkman, L. (2018). Health Literacy and Health Outcomes of Adults in the United States: Implications for Providers. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice, 16(4), 1-5.

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.-a) Increase the health literacy of the population—HC/HIT-R01. Healthy People 2030. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/health-communication/increase-health-literacy-population-hchit-r01

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.-b) Social determinants of health. Healthy People 2030. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health

Office of Minority Health. (n.d.). National CLAS standards: National standards for culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS) in health and health care. Think Cultural Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.https://thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/clas

Pacquiao, D. F., Joanna, B. M., Ludwig-Beymer, P., Stievano, A., Sagar, P. L., Purnell, L., Daub, K. F., & Halabi, J. O. (2023). Integration of population health, social determinants, and social justice in transcultural nursing and culturally competent care: White paper by the Scholars Education Interest Group. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 34(3), 175–177. https://doi.org/10.1177/10436596231163878

Project Implicit. (2011). Preliminary information: Implicit Association Test. https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/takeatest.html

Purnell, L. (2019). Update: The Purnell theory and model for culturally competent health care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 30(2), 98–105.https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659618817587

Purnell, L. D., & Fenkl, E. A. (Eds.). (2021). Textbook for transcultural health care: A population approach (5th ed.). Springer. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-51399-3

Rasmus, S., Allen, J., Connor, W., Freeman, W., Native Transformations Community Action Board, & Skewes, M. (2016). Native transformations in the Pacific Northwest: A strength-based model of protection against substance use disorder. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 23(3), 158–186. https://10.5820/aian.2303.2016.158

Rasmus, S., Charles, B., & Mohatt, G. V. (2014). Creating Qungasvik (a Yup’ik intervention “toolbox”): case examples from a community-developed and culturally-driven intervention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 54, 140–152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-014-9651-5

Schildknecht, K. R., Pratt, R. H., Feng, P-J. I., Price, S. F., & Self, J. L. (2023). Tuberculosis—United States, 2022. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 72(12), 297–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7212a1

Schwartz, S. M. (2023). A Cauldron of Tears: Cultural factors and vulnerability in human trafficking. In M. S. de Chesnay, Donna (Ed.), Human Trafficking: A Global Emergency Perspectives in Nursing, Criminal Justice, and the Social Sciences. Springer Nature.

Schwartz, S. M., & Silva, A. N. (2023). Cultural Competence in Caring for Victims of Sex Trafficking: Understanding the Unique Needs, Barriers, and Challenges of Survivors. Global Qualitative Nursing Research, 10. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/23333936231180342

Shahid, R., Shoker, M., Chu, L. M., Frehlick, R., Ward, H., & Pahwa, P. (2022). Impact of low health literacy on patients’ health outcomes: A multicenter cohort study. BMC Health Services Research, 22(1148), 1–9. https://doi.org/doi:10.1186/s12913-022-08527-9

Sharifi, N., Adib-Hajbaghery, M., & Najafi, M. (2019). Cultural competence in nursing: A concept analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 99, 103386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2019.103386

Terlizzi, E. P., Connor, E. M., Zelaya, C. E., Ji, A. A., & Bakos, A.D. (2019). Reported importance and access to health care providers who understand or share cultural characteristics with their patients among adults, by race and ethnicity. National Health Statistics Reports, 130, 1–12.

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). Selected social characteristics in the United States: 2021: ACS 5-year estimates data profiles. American Community Survey. https://data.census.gov/table?tid=ACSDP5Y2021.DP02&hidePreview=true

U.S. Department of Education. (2019, July). Adult literacy in the United States. Data Point. National Center for Education Statistics. https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2019/2019179.pdf

White, M. E., Cartwright, A. D., Reyes, A. G., Morris, H., Lindo, N. A., Singh, A. A., & Bennett, C. M. (2020). “A whole other layer of complexity”: Black transgender men’s experiences. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling14(3), 248–267. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538605.2020.1790468

Chapter 24 Designing Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Programs

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2019). Planning culturally and linguistically appropriate services. https://www.ahrq.gov/ncepcr/tools/cultural-competence/planclas.html

American Nurses Association. (2021). Nursing: Scope and standards of practice (4th ed.). American Nurses Association.

Beach, M. C., Saha, S., Korthuis, P. T., Sharp, V. L., Cohn, J. A., Wilson, I. B., ... Eggly, S. (2020). Patient-centered, culturally sensitive health care. Annals of Internal Medicine, 172(10_Supplement), S123–S131. https://doi.org.10.7326/M20-0856

Berger, J. T., & Ribeiro Miller, D. (2021). Health Disparities, Systemic Racism, and Failures of Cultural Competence. The American Journal of Bioethics, 21(9), 4-10. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2021.1915411

Beser, A., Tekkas Kerman, K., Ersin, F., & Arkan, G. (2021). The effects of ethnocentrism and some features on intercultural sensitivity in nursing students: A comparative descriptive study. Nurse Education in Practice, 56, 103180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2021.103180

Betancourt, J. R., Green, A. R., Carrillo, J. E., & Ananeh-Firempong, O., 2nd. (2003). Defining cultural competence: A practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public Health Reports, (Washington, D.C. : 1974) 118 (4), 293–302. https://doi.org/10.1093/phr/118.4.293

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A model of care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), 181–184. doi: 10.1177/104365960201300305

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2018). The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A culturally competent model of care. (Rev.ed). Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates. Lulu.com.

Cervený, M., Kratochvílová, I., Hellerová, V., & Tóthová, V. (2022). Methods of increasing cultural competence in nurses working in clinical practice: A scoping review of literature 2011-2021. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 936181. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.936181

Damaskos, P., Amaya, B., Gordon, R., & Walters, C. B. (2018). Intersectionality and the LGBT Cancer Patient. Seminars in oncology nursing34(1), 30–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soncn.2017.11.004

Day, L., & Beard, K. V. (2019). Meaningful inclusion of diverse voices: The case for culturally responsive teaching in nursing education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 35(4), 277-281. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2019.01.002

Federal Register. (2013, September 24). National standards for culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS) in health and health care. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2013/09/24/2013-23164/national-standards-for-culturally-and-linguistically-appropriate-services-clas-in-health-and-health

Handtke O, Schilgen B, Mösko M. (2019). Culturally competent healthcare – A scoping review of strategies implemented in healthcare organizations and a model of culturally competent healthcare provision. PLoS ONE 14(7): e0219971. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219971

Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Phelan, J. C., & Link, B. G. (2013). Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities. American Journal of Public Health, 103(5), 813–821.

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Jongen, C., McCalman, J., & Bainbridge, R. (2018). Health workforce cultural competency interventions: a systematic scoping review. BMC health services research18(1), 232. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3001-5

Kline, N., Ali, P. A., & Hajjar, R. T. (2019). Collaborating across cultures: A systematic review of intercultural competence in healthcare settings. Journal of Healthcare Leadership, 11, 75–87. https://doi.org/10.2147/JHL.S183420

Latif, A. S. (2020). The importance of understanding social and cultural norms in delivering quality health Care—A personal experience commentary. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 5(1), 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010022

Lavizzo-Mourey, R. J., Besser, R. E., & Williams, D. R. (2021). Understanding and Mitigating Health Inequities—Past, Current, and Future Directions. The New England Journal of Medicine, 384(18), 1681–1684. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2008628

Lekas, H. M., Pahl, K., & Fuller Lewis, C. (2020). Rethinking cultural competence: Shifting to cultural humility. Health Services Insights, 13, 1178632920970580. https://doi.org/10.1177/1178632920970580

Marion, L., Douglas, M., Lavin, M., Barr, N., Gazaway, S., Thomas, L., & Bickford, C. (2016). Implementing the new ANA standard 8: Culturally congruent practice. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 22(1). https://doi.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol22No01PPT20

Medina-Martínez, J., Saus-Ortega, C., Sánchez-Lorente, M. M., Sosa-Palanca, E. M., García-Martínez, P., & Mármol-López, M. I. (2021). Health inequities in LGBT people and nursing interventions to reduce them: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(22), 11801. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211801

Narayanasamy A. (2002). The ACCESS model: A transcultural nursing practice framework. British Journal of Nursing, 11(9), 643–650. https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/bjon.2002.11.9.10178

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National Center for Cultural Competence. (2013). Promoting cultural and linguistic competency: Self-assessment checklist for personnel providing primary health care services. Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development. https://nccc.georgetown.edu/resources/assessment.html

Ngo-Metzger, Q., Sorkin, D. H., Phillips, R. S., Greenfield, S., Massagli, M. P., Clarridge, B., & Kaplan, S. H. (2007). Providing high-quality care for limited English proficient patients: the importance of language concordance and interpreter use. Journal of General Internal Medicine22 Suppl 2(Suppl 2), 324–330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-007-0340-z

Nutbeam , D., & Lloyd, J. E. (2021). Understanding and responding to health literacy as a social determinant of health. In: Annual Review of Public Health. (Vol. 42, Issue 1, pp. 159–173). Annual Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-090419-102529

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Chapter 25 Managing the Dynamics of Difference

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Freimuth, V. S., Quinn, S. C., Thomas, S. B., Cole, G., Zook, E., & Duncan, T. (2001). African Americans’ views on research and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Social science & medicine (1982), 52(5), 797–808. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(00)00178-7

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Lu, Y., Elwyn, G., Moulton, B. W., Volk, R. J., Frosch, D. L., & Spatz, E. S. (2022). Shared Decision-making in the U.S.: Evidence exists, but implementation science must now inform policy for real change to occur. Schwerpunkt/Special Issue “International Shared Decision Making Conference 2022” 171, 144-149. https://www.zefq-journal.com/article/S1865-9217(22)00082-4/abstract

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Chapter 26 Health Promotion and Maintenance Across the Lifespan

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020b, May 12). Risk and protective factors. Elder abuse. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/elderabuse/riskprotectivefactors.html

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021b, February 22). Middle childhood (9–11 years of age). https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/middle2.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021c, February 22). Preschoolers (3–5 years of age). https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/preschoolers.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021d, February 22). Teenagers (15–17 years of age). https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/adolescence2.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021e, February 22). Young teens (12–14 years of age). https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/adolescence.html

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021i, June 23). Outpatient care. STEADI—older adult fall prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/steadi/outpatient-care.html

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021l, October 12). National statistics. Arthritis. https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/data_statistics/national-statistics.html

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021n, November 29). Newborn screening portal. https://www.cdc.gov/newbornscreening/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021o). For pregnant women: A positive Zika virus test What does it mean for me? https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/zika/pregnancy/documents/zika-positive-test.pdf

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U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2022). Agent Orange exposure and VA disability compensation. https://www.va.gov/disability/eligibility/hazardous-materials-exposure/agent-orange/

Vela, M. B., Erondu, A. I., Smith, N. A., Peek, M. E., Woodruff, J. N., & Chin, M. H. (2022). Eliminating explicit and implicit biases in health care: Evidence and research needs. Annual Review of Public Health, 43, 477–501. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-052620-103528

Vespa, J. E. (2020). Those who served: America’s veterans from World War II to the War on Terror. American Community Survey Report. U.S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2020/demo/acs-43.pdf

Vohra, N., Paudyal, V., & Price, M. J. (2022). Homelessness and the use of emergency department as a source of health: a systematic review. International Journal of Emergency Medicine, 32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12245-022-00435-3

Wagmiller, R. L., & Adelman, R. M. (2009). Childhood and intergenerational poverty: The long-term consequences of growing up poor. National Center for Children in Poverty. https://www.nccp.org/publication/childhood-and-intergenerational-poverty/

Watts, G. R. (2021). Homelessness is an ethical issue in America. AMA Journal of Ethics, 23(11), E835–839. https://doi.org/10.1001/amajethics.2021.835

Weber, J. J., Lee, R. C., Martsolf, D. (2020). Experiences of care in the emergency department among a sample of homeless male veterans: A qualitative study. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 46(1), 51–58. https://www.jenonline.org/article/S0099-1767(19)30098-4/fulltext

World Health Organization. (2018). Health inequities and their causes. https://www.who.int/news-room/facts-in-pictures/detail/health-inequities-and-their-causes

World Health Organization. (2022). WHO report shows poorer health outcomes for many vulnerable refugees and migrants. https://www.who.int/news/item/20-07-2022-who-report-shows-poorer-health-outcomes-for-many-vulnerable-refugees-and-migrants

Yedlinsky, N. T., Neff, L. A., & Jordan, K. M. (2019). Care of the military veteran: Selected health issues. American Family Physician, 100(9), 544–551. https://www.aafp.org/pubs/afp/issues/2019/1101/p544.html

Zychowicz, M. E., Ertha, J., Koerper, E. C., Naimoli, V., & Reynolds, A. (2022). Meeting the complex healthcare needs of veterans. The Nurse Practitioner, 47(9), 20–28. doi: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000855292.67169.4b

Chapter 28 Caring for Families

American Academy of Family Physicians. (2021). Poverty and health—The family medicine perspective (position paper). https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/poverty-health.html

American Psychological Association. (2023). General systems theory. APA dictionary of psychology. https://dictionary.apa.org/general-systems-theory

Barnes, M., Hanson, C., Novilla, L. Magnusson, B., Crandall, A., & Bradford, G. (2020). Family-centered health promotion: Perspectives for engaging families and achieving better health outcomes. Inquiry: A Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing, 57, 46958020923537. https://doi.org/10.1177/0046958020923537

Berge, J., Loth, K., Hanson, C., Croll-Lampert, J., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2012). Family life cycle transitions and the onset of eating disorders: A retrospective grounded theory approach. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(9–10), 1355–1363. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03762.x

Bray, B. (2022). Behind the book: Crisis intervention ethics casebook. American Counseling Association. https://ct.counseling.org/2022/07/behind-the-book-crisis-intervention-ethics-casebook/

Brenne, B., Hedlund, M., & Ingstad, K. (2022). Exploring home-based care nurses’ mindset for nursing practices: A phenomenological study. BMC Nursing, 21, 291. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-022-01068-w

Broekema, S., Paans, W., Roodbol, P. F., & Luttik, M. L. A. (2020). Nurses’ application of the components of family nursing conversations in home health care: A qualitative content analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 34(2), 322–331. https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12731

Carone, N., Bos, H. M. W., Shenkman, G., & Tasker, F. (2021). Editorial: LGBTQ Parents and their children during the family life cycle. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 643647. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643647

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, May 12). Risk and protective factors. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/elderabuse/riskprotectivefactors.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021a). About teen pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/about/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021b). Elder abuse. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/elderabuse/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). Fast facts: Preventing child abuse and neglect. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/fastfact.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Fast facts: Preventing intimate partner violence. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/fastfact.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c). The socio-ecological model: A framework for prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/about/social-ecologicalmodel.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). How does social connectedness affect health? https://www.cdc.gov/emotional-wellbeing/social-connectedness/affect-health.htm#

Cherry, K. E., Gerstein, E. D., & Ciciolla, L. (2019). Parenting stress and children’s behavior: Transactional models during Early Head Start. Journal of Family Psychology, 33(8), 916–926. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000574

Clark-Jones, T. (2018, April 2). Qualities of a healthy family. Michigan State University. https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/traits_of_a_healthy_family

Crapo, J., & Bradford, K. (2021). Multidimensional family development theory: A reconceptualization of family development. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 13(2), 202–223. doi:10.1111/jftr.12414

Davidson, P., Rushton, C. H., Kurtz, M., Wise, B., Jackson, D., Beaman, A., & Broome, M. (2018). A social–ecological framework: A model for addressing ethical practice in nursing. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27(5–6), e1233–e1241. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.14158

Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center. (2022). Assessing family crisis. https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/mental-health/article/assessing-family-crisis

Families USA. (2023). Our mission: Building the health care movement. https://familiesusa.org/about/#our-focus-areas

Glazer, E. (2022, March 21). Paths to parenting: Choosing single parenthood through pregnancy. Harvard Health Publishing. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/paths-to-parenting-choosing-single-parenthood-through-pregnancy-202203282709

Gonzalez, D., Bethencourt, M. A., McCall, J. D., & Doerr, C. (2022). Child abuse and neglect (Nursing). StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK568689/

Gronewald, B. (2013, May 1). Embracing family values. National Council on Family Relations. https://www.ncfr.org/cfle-network/past-issues/spring-2013/embracing-family-values

Guner, N., Kulikova, Y., & Lull, J. (2018). Marriage and health: Selection, protection, and assortative mating. https://www.cemfi.es/~guner/glk-healthandmarriage-2018_02.pdf

Hasselle, A. J., Howell, K. H., Bottomley, J., Sheddan, H. C., Capers, J. M., & Miller-Graff, L. E. (2020). Barriers to intervention engagement among women experiencing intimate partner violence proximal to pregnancy. Psychology of Violence, 10(3), 290–299. https://doi.org/10.1037/vio0000253

Huecker, M. R., King, K. C., Jordan, G. A., & Smock, W. (2023). Domestic violence. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499891/

International Family Nursing Association. (2023). Welcome to The International Family Nursing Association. https://internationalfamilynursing.org/

Kisling, L., & Das, J. (2023). Prevention strategies. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537222/

Kuhn, J., Ford, K., & Dawalt, L. S. (2018). Brief report: Mapping systems of support and psychological well-being of mothers of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 48(3), 940–946. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3381-0

Lawrence, E., Rogers, R., Zajacova, A., & Wadsworth, T. (2018). Marital happiness, marital status, health, and longevity. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20(1): 1–23. https://l ink.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-018-0009-9

Leahey, M., & Wright, L. (2016). Application of the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models: Reflections on the reciprocity between the personal and the professional. Journal of Family Nursing 22(4): 450–459. doi: 10.1177/1074840716667972

Lin, M. C. (2020). Communication neglect, caregiver anger and hostility, and perceptions of older care receivers’ cognitive status and problem behaviors in explaining elder abuse. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 32(3), 235–258. https://doi.org/10.1080/08946566.2020.1741054

Martin, T. F. (2018). Family development theory 30 years later. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 10(1), 49–69. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jftr.12237

Martinez-Escudero, J., Villarejo, S., Garcia, O., & Garcia, F. (2020). Parental socialization and its impact across the lifespan. Behavioral Sciences, 10(6), 101. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10060101

McLeod, S. (2023). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Simple Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html

Medina-Martínez, J., Saus-Ortega, C., Sánchez-Lorente, M., Sosa-Palanca, E., García-Martínez, P., & Mármol-López, M. (2021). Health inequities in LGBT people and nursing interventions to reduce them: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(22), 11801. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211801

Melariri, H., Osoba, T. A., Williams, M. M., & Melariri, P. (2022). An assessment of nurses’ participation in health promotion: A knowledge, perception, and practice perspective. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 63(1), E27–E34. https://doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.1.2209

Messing, J. T. (2019). Risk-informed intervention: Using intimate partner violence risk assessment within an evidence-based practice framework. Social Work, 64(2), 103–112. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/swz009

Michaelson, V., Pilato, K. A., & Davison, C. M. (2021). Family as a health promotion setting: A scoping review of conceptual models of the health-promoting family. PLoS One, 16(4), e0249707.

Mileski, M., McClay, R., Heinemann, K., & Dray, G. (2022). Efficacy of the use of the Calgary Family Intervention Model in bedside nursing education: A systematic review. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 15, 1323–1347. https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S370053

Mueller, J. (2022, December 1). Is same sex marriage legal in all 50 states? The Hill. https://thehill.com/changing-america/respect/equality/3758722-is-same-sex-marriage-legal-in-all-50-states/

National Partnership for Women & Families. (2023). Vision & values. https://nationalpartnership.org/about-us/vision-values/

Obergefell v. Hodges. 576 U.S. ___ (2015). https://www.oyez.org/cases/2014/14-556

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (n.d.). Home healthcare. https://www.osha.gov/home-healthcare/

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.) Healthy People 2030 literature summary: Poverty. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health/literature-summaries/poverty

Roy, R. N., Rollins, A., James Jr., A. G., & Perry-Jenkins, M. (2022). An introduction to the special section on multiracial families: The challenges, strengths, and work that remains. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 31(3), 599–608. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-022-02260-x

Seltzer, J. A. (2019). Family change and changing family demography. Demography, 56(2), 405–426. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450727/

Stanford Medicine. (2023). Screening teens. https://childabuse.stanford.edu/screening/teens.html

Steinbach, A., Augustijn, L., & Corkadi, G. (2021). Joint physical custody and adolescents’ life satisfaction in 37 North American and European countries. Family Process, 60(1), 145–158. https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12536

Tobias, A. (2018). The use of genograms in educational psychology practice. Educational Psychology in Practice, 34(1), 89–104. https://doi.org/10.1080/02667363.2017.1411787

U.S. Census Bureau. (2021a). Income, poverty and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2020. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2021/income-poverty-health-insurance-coverage.html

U.S. Census Bureau. (2021b). Subject definitions: Family, family group, family household. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/cps/technical-documentation/subject-definitions.html#family

U.S. Census Bureau. (2022a, November 17). Census bureau releases new estimates on America’s families and living arrangements. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2022/americas-families-and-living-arrangements.html

U.S. Census Bureau. (2022b). Most kids with parent in same-sex relationship live with female couple. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2022/07/most-kids-with-parent-in-same-sex-relationship-live-with-female-couple.html

U.S. Census Bureau. (2022c). Number of same-sex couple households exceeded 1 million in 2021. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2022/11/same-sex-couple-households-exceeded-one-million.html

U.S. Department of Justice. (n.d.). Elder abuse and elder financial exploitation statutes. https://www.justice.gov/elderjustice/prosecutors/statutes

U.S. Department of Labor. (n.d.) Family and Medical Leave Act. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/whd/fmla

World Bank Group Family Network. (2023). Domestic abuse tips—The cycle of violence. https://www.wbfn.org/page/cycle-violence

World Health Organization. (1986). Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, 1986. https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/129532/Ottawa_Charter.pdf

World Health Organization. (2022). Abuse of older people. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/abuse-of-older-people

Wright, L. M., & Leahey, M. (1999). Maximizing time, minimizing suffering: The 15-minute (or less) family interview. Journal of Family Nursing, 5(3), 259–274. doi:10.1177/107484079900500302

Zimansky, M., Stasielowicz, L., Franke, I., Remmers, H., Friedel, H., & Atzpodien, J. (2020). Effects of implementing a brief family nursing intervention with hospitalized oncology patients and their families in Germany: A quasi-experimental study. Journal of Family Nursing, 26(4), 346–357. https://doi.org/10.1177/1074840720967022

Chapter 29 Caring Across Practice Settings

American Academy of Family Physicians. (2021). Incarceration and health: A family medicine perspective. https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/incarceration.html

American Association of Occupational Health Nursing. (n.d.). Occupational health nursing as a career.

American Association of Occupational Health Nursing. (2012). Standards of occupational and environmental health nursing. Workplace Health & Safety, 60(3), 1–7. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/216507991206000301

American Association of Occupational Health Nursing. (2015). Competencies in occupational and environmental health nursing. Workplace Health & Safety, 63(11), 493–494. https://doi.org/10.1177/2165079915608192

American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. (2019). Standards of occupational health nursing. https://aaohn.users.membersuite.com/shop/store/a7e69e88-00ce-cfd3-121d-0b4446b557d4/detail

American Board for Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. (n.d.). Occupational Health Nursing Profession. Retrieved from https://www.abohn.org/sites/default/files/ABOHNCarGde_032714WEB.pdf

American Board for Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. (2018). Executive summary of a practice analysis study of the certified occupational health nurse. https://www.abohn.org/resources/latest-practice-analysis

American Board for Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. (2021). Eligibility: Case management. https://www.abohn.org/certification/eligibility-case-management#

American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology. (2023). Food Allergy. https://acaai.org/allergies/allergic-conditions/food/

American College of Obstetrician and Gynecologists. (2021). Reproductive health care for incarcerated pregnant, postpartum, and nonpregnant individuals. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 138(1), e24–e34. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2021/07/reproductive-health-care-for-incarcerated-pregnant-postpartum-and-nonpregnant-individuals

American Nurses Association. (n.d.). Public health nursing. Retrieved from https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/workforce/public-health-nursing/

American Nurses Association. (2021a). Correctional nursing: Scope and standards of practice (3rd ed.). American Nurses Association.

American Nurses Association. (2022b). Public health nursing scope and standards of practice (3rd ed.). American Nurses Association.

Association of Public Health Nurses. (2022). What is a PHN? https://www.phnurse.org/what-is-a-phn-

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. (2023). Profile of state and territorial public health. https://www.astho.org/topic/public-health-infrastructure/profile/#about

American Public Health Association. (n.d.). Environmental health. Retrieved from https://www.apha.org/topics-and-issues/environmental-health#.

Aufderheide, D. (2014). Mental illness in America’s jails and prisons: Toward a public safety/public health model. Health Affairs. https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/forefront.20140401.038180/

Bergren, M.D. (2017). School nursing and population health: Past, present, and future. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 22(3), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol22No03Man03

Bitsko, R. H., Claussen, A. H., Lichstein, J., et al. (2022). Mental Health Surveillance Among Children - United States, 2013-2019. MMWR supplements, 71(2), 1–42. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.su7102a1

Budd, K.M., & Monazzam, N. (2023). Private prisons in the United States. The Sentencing Project. https://www.sentencingproject.org/reports/private-prisons-in-the-united-states/

Center for American Progress. (2018, March 2). Education opportunities in prison are key to reducing crime. https://www.americanprogress.org/article/education-opportunities-prison-key-reducing-crime/

Center for American Progress. (2022, December 7). Disparities in housing, health care, child care, and economic security affect babies for life. https://www.americanprogress.org/article/disparities-in-housing-health-care-child-care-and-economic-security-affect-babies-for-life/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Workplace health promotion: Assessment. https://www.cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/model/assessment/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). School Health Policies and Practices Brief: Epilepsy and Seizure Disorder. United States Dept of Health and Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/epilepsy/pdfs/SchoolHealthProfilesBrief.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019a). Protecting youth from HIV, STDs, and Pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/about/cdc-dash-health-program-impact.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019b). Strategies for using the WSCC framework. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/wscc/strategies.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020a). Adolescent and school health: Why schools? https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/about/why_schools.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020b). What is Total Worker Health? https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/twh/totalhealth.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021a). Components of the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC). https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/wscc/components.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021b). Reproductive health: Teen pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/about/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021c). Sexually transmitted diseases: Adolescents and young adults. https://www.cdc.gov/std/life-stages-populations/adolescents-youngadults.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). Asthma. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/asthma/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Children’s Oral Health. https://www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/basics/childrens-oral-health/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c). Defining adult overweight and obesity. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/basics/adult-defining.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022d). Diabetes. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/npao/diabetes.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022e). Epilepsy. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/npao/epilepsy.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022f). Food allergies. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/foodallergies/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022g). Health department governance. https://www.cdc.gov/publichealthgateway/sitesgovernance/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022h). High-risk substance use among youth. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/substance-use/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022i). National Occupational Research Agenda: About NORA. https://www.cdc.gov/nora/about.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022j). Obesity. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/obesity/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022k). School nurses help keep students healthy. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/features/school_nurse.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a). About the division of adolescent and school health (DASH). https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/about/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b). Correctional health. https://www.cdc.gov/correctionalhealth/default.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023c). Correctional health: CDC recommendations for correctional and detention settings. https://www.cdc.gov/correctionalhealth/rec-guide.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023d). Correctional health: Data and statistics. https://www.cdc.gov/correctionalhealth/health-data.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023e). Defining child BMI categories. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/basics/childhood-defining.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023f). Guidance on management of COVID-19 in homeless service sites and in correctional and detention facilities. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/homeless-correctional-settings.html?

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023g). National voluntary accreditation for public health departments. https://www.cdc.gov/publichealthgateway/accreditation/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023h). Oral Health. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/npao/oralhealth.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023i). Related conditions and concerns with children’s mental health. https://www.cdc.gov/childrensmentalhealth/related-conditions.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023j). Sexual risk behaviors. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/sexualbehaviors/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023k). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: About NIOSH. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/about/default.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023l). Therapy to Improve Children’s Mental Health. https://www.cdc.gov/childrensmentalhealth/parent-behavior-therapy.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023m). What is Children’s Mental Health? https://www.cdc.gov/childrensmentalhealth/basics.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023n). Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC). https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/wscc/index.htm

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. (2023a). Department of public health. https://www.mass.gov/orgs/department-of-public-health#

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. (2023b). Overview of local public health in Massachusetts. https://www.mass.gov/service-details/overview-of-local-public-health-in-massachusetts

Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations. (2023a). Looking back and ahead: CPHNO in historical perspective. https://www.cphno.org/about/

Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations. (2023b). Members. https://www.cphno.org/members/

Federal Bureau of Prisons. (n.d.) Our Locations. Retrieved from https://www.bop.gov/locations/list.jsp

Galan, N. (2023). Faith community nurse career overview. Nurse Journal. https://nursejournal.org/careers/parish-nurse/

Griffin, S.O, Wei, L., Gooch, B.F., Weno, K., & Espinoza, L. (2016). Dental sealant use and untreated tooth decay among U.S. school-aged children. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65, 1141 – 1145. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6541e1

Hahn, J.W. (2022). How to lower the high level of jail suicides. Brennan Center for Justice. https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/analysis-opinion/how-lower-high-level-jail-suicides

International Association of Forensic Nurses. (2023). Forensic Nursing. https://www.forensicnurses.org/page/WhatisFN/

Johns, M., & Rosenthal, J. (2022). How investing in public health will strengthen America’s health. Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/article/how-investing-in-public-health-will-strengthen-americas-health/

Kisling, L.A., & Das, J.M. (2023). Prevention strategies. StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537222/

Lange, S.J., Kompaniyets, L., Freedman, D.S., Kraus, E.M., Porter, R., Blanck, H.M., & Goodman, A.B. (2021). Longitudinal trends in body mass index before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among persons aged 2 – 19 years – United States, 2018 – 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 70, 1278 – 1283. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7037a3

Leider, J.P., Resnick, B. Bishai, D., & Scutchfield, F.D. (2018). Expenditures in the United States at the federal, state, and local levels. Annual Review of Public Health, 39, 471 – 487. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013455

LeMasters, K., Ranapurwala, S., Maner, M., Nowotny, K.M., Peterson, M., & Brinkley-Rubinstein, L. (2022). COVID-19 community spread and consequences for prison case rates. PLoS One, 17(4), e0266772. https://doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0266772

Maruschak, L.M., Bronson, J., & Alper, M. (2021). Survey of prison inmates, 2016: Medical problems reported by prisoners. U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs: Bureau of Justice Statistics. https://bjs.ojp.gov/sites/g/files/xyckuh236/files/media/document/mprpspi16st.pdf

Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. (2016). Managing life-threatening allergies in school. https://johnstalkerinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Mng-Allergies.pdf

Mayo Clinic. (2023). Office ergonomics: Your how-to guide. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/office-ergonomics/art-20046169

Minton, T.D., & Zeng, Z. (2021, December). Jail inmates in 2020–Statistical tables. https://bjs.ojp.gov/content/pub/pdf/ji20st.pdf

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2019). Medications for Opioid Use Disorder Save Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25310

National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2023.) Mental Health in Schools. https://www.nami.org/Advocacy/Policy-Priorities/Improving-Health/Mental-Health-in-Schools

National Association of County & City Health Officials. (2017). Local health departments impact our lives every day. https://www.naccho.org/uploads/downloadable-resources/transition-appendix-A-Infographic.pdf

National Association of School Nurses [NASN]. (2016). Framework for 21st century school nursing practice: National Association of School Nurses. NASN School Nurse, 31(1), 45-53. doi: 10.1177/1942602X15618644

National Association of School Nurses. (2022). Comprehensive health education in schools [Position Statement]. https://www.nasn.org/nasn-resources/professional-practice-documents/position-statements/ps-health-education

National Association of School Nurses. (2023). About NASN. https://www.nasn.org/about-nasn/about

National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments. (2023). Substance abuse. https://safesupportivelearning.ed.gov/topic-research/safety/substance-abuse

National Commission on Correctional Health Care. (2016). Position Statement: Solitary Confinement (Isolation). https://www.ncchc.org/wp-content/uploads/Solitary-Confinement-Isolation.pdf

National Commission on Correctional Health Care. (2020). Women’s health care in correctional settings. https://www.ncchc.org/position-statements/womens-health-care-in-correctional-settings-2020/

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease. (2020). Helping the student with diabetes succeed. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/professionals/clinical-tools-patient-management/diabetes/helping-student-diabetes-succeed-guide-school-personnel?dkrd=hispt1099

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2020). Drug facts: Criminal justice. National Institute of Health. Department of Health & Human Services. https://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugfacts/criminal-justice

Nellis, A., (2021). The color of justice: racial and ethnic disparity in state prisons. The Sentencing Project. https://www.sentencingproject.org/reports/the-color-of-justice-racial-and-ethnic-disparity-in-state-prisons-the-sentencing-project/

Nighswander, M.L., & Blair, P.A. (2022). From institutions to inclusion: How children with disabilities gained educational rights in the U.S. The Journal of School Nursing, 0(0), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/10598405221105054

Pew Charitable Trusts. (2023, May 16). Racial disparities persist in many U.S. jails. https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/issue-briefs/2023/05/racial-disparities-persist-in-many-us-jails

Public Health Law Center. (2015). State and local public health: An overview of regulatory authority. https://publichealthlawcenter.org/sites/default/files/resources/phlc-fs-state-local-reg-authority-publichealth-2015_0.pdf

Roth, A. (2021). The truth about deinstitutionalization. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2021/05/truth-about-deinstitutionalization/618986/

Sanyaolu, A., Okorie, C., Qi, X., Locke, J., & Rehman, S. (2019). Childhood and adolescent obesity in the United States: A public health concern. Global Pediatric Health, 6, 1–11. doi: 10.1177/2333794X19891305

Schoenly, L., & Knox, C.M. (Eds.). (2012). Essentials of Correctional Nursing. Springer Publishing.

Sikka, N. & Brizuela, M. (2023, March 19). Glass Ionomer Cement. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK582145/ https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/dental-composite-resin

Singh, N., Dubey, N., Rathore, M., & Pandey, P. (2020). Impact of early childhood caries on quality of life: Child and parent perspectives. Journal of oral biology and craniofacial research, 10(2), 83–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2020.02.006

Thompson, M.C., & Wachs, J.E. (2012). Occupational health nursing in the United States. Workplace Health & Safety, 60(3), 127–33. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/216507991206000308

Topcu, S., & Ardahan, M. (2019). Occupational health nursing and pioneer leaders from past to present. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 12(3), 1931–1936. http://www.internationaljournalofcaringsciences.org/docs/68_topku_review_12_3.pdf

United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2022a). Census of fatal occupational injuries summary, 2021. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/cfoi.nr0.htm

United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2022b). Employer-reported workplace injuries and illnesses, 2021. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/osh.nr0.htm

United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2023c). Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t01.htm

United States Department of Education. (2023). A history of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. https://sites.ed.gov/idea/IDEA-History#1980s-90s

United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2023). SAMHSA announces national survey on drug use and health results detailing mental illness and substance use levels in 2021. https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2023/01/04/samhsa-announces-national-survey-drug-use-health-results-detailing-mental-illness-substance-use-levels-2021.html#

United States Department of Justice. (n.d.). Planning a reentry program: A toolkit for tribal communities. https://bja.ojp.gov/sites/g/files/xyckuh186/files/media/document/Planning-Reentry-Program-Toolkit-for-Tribal-Communities.pdf

United States Department of Labor. (n.d.-a.). Federal Coal Mine and Safety Act of 1969. https://www.msha.gov/federal-coal-mine-and-safety-act-1969

United States Department of Labor. (n.d.-b). Occupational safety and health administration: About OSHA. https://www.osha.gov/aboutosha

United States Department of Labor. (n.d.-c). OSHA: Law and regulations. https://www.osha.gov/laws-regs

United States Department of Labor. (2016a). The Importance of Root Cause Analysis During Incident Investigation [Fact Sheet]. https://www.osha.gov/sites/default/files/publications/OSHA3895.pdf

United States Department of Labor. (2016b). Recommended Practices for Safety and Health Programs. https://www.osha.gov/sites/default/files/publications/OSHA3885.pdf

Wang, L. (2022). Chronic punishment: The unmet health needs of people in state prisons. Prison Policy Initiative. https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/chronicpunishment.html#physicalhealth

Willgerodt, M.A., Brock, D.M., & Maughan, E.D. (2018). Public school nursing practice in the United States. The Journal of School Nursing, 34(3), 232-244. https://doi: 10.1177/1059840517752456

Yohanna, D. (2013). Deinstitutionalization of people with mental illness: Causes and consequences. Virtual Mentor, 15(10), 886–891. https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/deinstitutionalization-people-mental-illness-causes-and-consequences/2013-10

Yonkaitis, C.F., & Reiner, K.L. (2022). School nursing: Scope and standards. NASN School Nurse, 37(5), 277–280. https://doi: 10.1177/1942602X221115192

Chapter 30 Care Transition and Coordination Across the Community

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2017). Strategy 4: Care transitions from hospital to home: IDEAL Discharge Planning. https://www.ahrq.gov/patient-safety/patients-families/engagingfamilies/strategy4/index.html

American Society of Health-System Pharmacists and American Pharmacists Association. (2013). ASHP-APhA medication management in care transitions best practices. https://www.ashp.org/-/media/assets/pharmacy-practice/resource-centers/quality-improvement/learn-about-quality-improvement-medication-management-care-transitions.ashx

Anderson, T. S., O’Donoghue, A. L., Dechen, T., Herzig, S. J., & Stevens, J. P. (2021). Trends in telehealth and in-person transitional care management visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 69(10), 2745–2751. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17329

Bachynsky, N. (2020). Implications for policy: The Triple Aim, Quadruple Aim, and interprofessional collaboration. Nursing Forum, 55(1), 54-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12382

Caleres, G., Modig, S., Midlöv, P., Chalmers, J., & Bondesson, Å. (2020). Medication Discrepancies in Discharge Summaries and Associated Risk Factors for Elderly Patients with Many Drugs. Drugs - real world outcomes, 7(1), 53–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40801-019-00176-5

Coleman, E. A., & Boult, C. (2003). Improving the quality of transitional care for persons with complex care needs. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(4), 556–557. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51186.x

Crocker, J. B., Crocker, J. T., & Greenwald, J. L. (2012). Telephone follow-up as a primary care intervention for postdischarge outcomes improvement: A systematic review. American Journal of Medicine, 125(9), 915–921. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2012.01.035

Debon, R., Coleone, J. D., Bellei, E. A., & De Marchi, A. C. B. (2019). Mobile health applications for chronic diseases: A systematic review of features for lifestyle improvement. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 13(4), 2507–2512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.016

Duan-Porter, W., Ullman, K., Majeski, B., Miake-Lye, I., Diem, S., & Wilt, T. J. (2020). Care coordination models and tools: A systematic review and key informant interviews. In VA evidence-based synthesis program reports. Department of Veterans Affairs. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33400451/

Earl, T., Katapodis, N. & Schneiderman, S. (2020, March 15). Care transitions. In Making healthcare safer III: A critical analysis of existing and emerging patient safety practices (K. K. Hall, S. Shoemaker-Hunt, L. Hoffman, et al.). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK555516/

Institute of Medicine. (2010). The healthcare imperative: Lowering costs and improving outcomes: Workshop series summary. National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/12750

Iwamoto, S. (2023). Developing a theory of community caring for public health nursing. Healthcare, 11(3), 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11030349

Jack, B. W., Chetty, V. K., Anthony, D., Greenwald, J. L., Sanchez, G. M., Johnson, A. E., Forsythe, S. R., O’Donnell, J. K., Paasche-Orlow, M. K., Manasseh, C., Martin, S., & Culpepper, L. (2009). A reengineered hospital discharge program to decrease rehospitalization: a randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine, 150(3), 178–187. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-150-3-200902030-00007

Katz, D. T., Fernandez-Sanchez, J. V., Loeffler, L. A., Chang, S. M., Puertolas-Lopez, M. V., Ramdial, F. R., Fisher, G. R., Gutierrez, S. A., Mahajan, N., Keerthy, D. R., Cavallaro, S. P., Landaeta, C. E., Pascall, A. S., Acevedo, K. T., Chan-Poon, K. T., Abraham, B. R., Siri, M., Reynolds, K. L., Van Kirk, K., & Bayes Santos, L. Y. (2020). Timely delivery of discharge medications to patients’ bedsides: A patient-centered quality improvement project. Pediatric Quality & Safety, 5(3), e297. https://doi.org/10.1097/pq9.0000000000000297

Lalonde, L., Lampron, A. M., Vanier, M. C., Levasseur, P., Khaddag, R., & Chaar, N. (2008). Effectiveness of a medication discharge plan for transitions of care from hospital to outpatient settings. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 65(15), 1451–1457. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp070565

Lopez, C., Kim, B., & Sacks, K. (2022). Health literacy in the United States: Enhancing assessments and reducing disparities. Milken Institute. https://milkeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/2022-05/Health_Literacy_United_States_Final_Report.pdf

Mai Ba, H., Son, Y. J., Lee, K., & Kim, B. H. (2020). Transitional care interventions for patients with heart failure: An integrative review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(8), 2925. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082925

Mansukhani, R. P., Bridgeman, M. B., Candelario, D., & Eckert, L. J. (2015). Exploring transitional care: Evidence-based strategies for improving provider communication and reducing readmissions. P & T: A Peer-Reviewed Journal for Formulary Management, 40(10), 690–694.

Marcotte, L., Kirtane, J., Lynn, J., & McKethan, A. (2015). Integrating health information technology to achieve seamless care transitions. Journal of Patient Safety, 11(4), 185–190. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26633097

McIlvennan, C. K., Eapen, Z. J., & Allen, L. A. (2015). Hospital readmissions reduction program. Circulation, 131(20), 1796–1803. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.010270

Mueller SK, Sponsler KC, Kripalani S, Schnipper JL. Hospital-Based Medication Reconciliation Practices: A Systematic Review. Arch Intern Med. (2012). 172(14):1057–1069. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.2246

National Alliance for Suicide Prevention. (2019). Best practices in care transitions for individuals with suicide risk: Inpatient care to outpatient care. https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/suicide-risk-practices-in-care-transitions-11192019.pdf

National Institute of Mental Health. (2019). Transition to Mental Health Care. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/getting-help-locate-services/transition-to-mental-health-care.shtml

Naylor, M. D., Brooten, D. A., Campbell, R. L., Maislin, G., McCauley, K. M., & Schwartz, J. S. (2004). Transitional care of older adults hospitalized with heart failure: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(5), 675–684. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52202.x

Ouslander, J. G., Bonner, A., Herndon, L., & Shutes, J. (2014). The Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers (INTERACT) quality improvement program: An overview for medical directors and primary care clinicians in long term care. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 15(3), 162–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2013.12.005

Pedersen, P. U., Ersgard, K. B., Soerensen, T. B., & Larsen, P. (2017). Effectiveness of structured planned post discharge support to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for reducing readmission rates: A systematic review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 15(8), 2060–2086. https://doi.org/10.11124/JBISRIR-2016-003045

Pincus, H.A., Spaeth-Rublee, B., Sara, G., Goldner, E. M., Prince, P. N., Ramanuj, P., Gaebel, W., Zielasek, J., Großimlinghaus, I., Wrigley, M., van Weeghel, J., Smith, M., Ruud, T., Mitchell, J. R. & Patton, L. (2016). A review of mental health recovery programs in selected industrialized countries. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 10(73). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-016-0104-4

Reeves, E., Liebig, B., & Schweighoffer, R. (2020). Care coordination in palliative home care: Who plays the key role? International Journal of Integrated Care, 20(3), 15. https://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.5466

Reeves, S., Pelone, F., Harrison, R., Goldman, J., & Zwarenstein, M. (2017). Interprofessional collaboration to improve professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6(6), CD000072. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000072.pub3

Srivastava, A., Do, J. M., Sales, V. L., Ly, S., & Joseph, J. (2019). Impact of patient-centered home telehealth programme on outcomes in heart failure. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 25(7), 425–430. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X18775852

Tomlinson, J., Cheong, V. L., Fylan, B., Silcock, J., Smith, H., Karban, K., & Blenkinsopp, A. (2020). Successful care transitions for older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of interventions that support medication continuity. Age and Ageing, 49(4), 558–569. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa002

Van Spall, H. G. C., Lee, S. F., Xie, F., Oz, U. E., Perez, R., Mitoff, P. R., Maingi, M., Tjandrawidjaja, M. C., Heffernan, M., Zia, M. I., Porepa, L., Panju, M., Thabane, L., Graham, I. D., Haynes, R. B., Haughton, D., Simek, K. D., Ko, D. T., & Connolly, S. J. (2019). Effect of patient-centered transitional care services on clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized for heart failure. JAMA, 321(8), 753–761. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.0710

Wadhera, R. K., Yeh, R. W., & Joynt Maddox, K. E. (2019). The hospital readmissions reduction program—Time for a reboot. The New England Journal of Medicine, 380(24), 2289–2291. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1901225

Weir, D. L., Motulsky, A., Abrahamowicz, M., Lee, T. C., Morgan, S., Buckeridge, D. L., & Tamblyn, R. (2020). Failure to follow medication changes made at hospital discharge is associated with adverse events in 30 days. Health Services Research, 55(4), 512–523. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13292

Yeoh, E. K., Wong, M. C. S., Wong, E. L. Y., Yam, C., Poon, C. M., Chung, R. Y., Chong, M., Fang, Y., Wang, H. H. X., Liang, M., Cheung, W. W. L., Chan, C. H., Zee, B., & Coats, A. J. S. (2018). Benefits and limitations of implementing Chronic Care Model (CCM) in primary care programs: A systematic review. International Journal of Cardiology, 258, 279–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.11.057

Chapter 31 Caring for Populations and Communities in Crisis

Abbas, M., Aloudat, T., Bartolomei, J., Carballo, M., Durieux-Paillard, S., Gabus, L., Jablonka, A., Jackson, Y., et al. (2018). Migrant and refugee populations: A public health and policy perspective on a continuing global crisis. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 7(113). doi: 10.1186/s13756-018-0403-4

African American Wellness Project. (2023). Mental Health and Black America: A Different Disease in Black Communities. https://aawellnessproject.org/mental-health-and-black-america

Altare C, Kahi V, Ngwa M, et al. (2019). Infectious disease epidemics in refugee camps: A retrospective analysis of UNHCR data (2009-2017). Journal of Global Health Reports, 3,e2019064. doi:10.29392/joghr.3.e2019064

Amaro, H., Sanchez, M., Bautista, T., & Cox, R. (2021). Social vulnerabilities for substance use: Stressors, socially toxic environments, and discrimination and racism. Neuropharmacology, 188, 108518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108518

American Heart Association. (2018). Stigma and Substance Abuse Disorders. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z62xa_AJijQ

American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of Ethics for Nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/nursing-excellence/ethics/code-of-ethics-for-nurses/coe-view-only/

American Nurses Association. (2018). The opioid epidemic: The evolving role of nursing. https://www.ncsbn.org/public-files/2018_ANA_Opioid_Epidemic.pdf

American Psychiatric Association. (2023). Stigma, prejudice and discrimination against people with mental illness. https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/stigma-and-discrimination

Americans With Disabilities Act National Network. (2023). Mental health conditions in the workplace and the ADA. https://adata.org/factsheet/health

Amnesty International. (2023). Refugees, Asylum Seekers, and Migrants. https://www.amnesty.org/en/what-we-do/refugees-asylum-seekers-and-migrants/#

ARK2Freedom. (2022). Violence, Fear, and The Gorilla Pimp. https://ark2freedom.org/our-blog/f/violence-fear-and-the-gorilla-pimp

Baldwin, G. T., Seth, P., & Noonan, R. K. (2021). Continued increases in overdose deaths related to synthetic opioids: Implications for clinical practice. JAMA, 325(12), 1151–1152. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.1169

Blue Campaign. (2022, September 22). What is Forced Labor? https://www.dhs.gov/blue-campaign/forced-labor

Blue Campaign. (2023, November 3). What is human trafficking? Infographic. https://www.dhs.gov/blue-campaign/infographic

Bonyan Organization. (2023). The Cholera Outbreaks in Refugee Camps in Syria. https://bonyan.ngo/the-cholera-outbreaks-in-refugee-camps/#

The Borgen Project. (2020, March 18). 9 Facts About the Refugee Water Crisis. https://borgenproject.org/refugee-water-crisis/

British Medical Association. (2023, September 4). Refugee and asylum seeker patient health toolkit Unique health challenges for refugees and asylum seekers. https://www.bma.org.uk/advice-and-support/ethics/refugees-overseas-visitors-and-vulnerable-migrants/refugee-and-asylum-seeker-patient-health-toolkit/unique-health-challenges-for-refugees-and-asylum-seekers

Canadian Women’s Foundation. (n.d.). Become a Signal for Help Responder. https://canadianwomen.org/signal-for-help/

Caplan, G. (1964). Principles of preventive psychiatry. Basic Books.

CARE Staff. (2020, December 3). Difficulties of Living in a Refugee Camp Are Intensified for Those Who Live With Disabilities. https://www.care.org/news-and-stories/health/difficulties-of-living-in-a-refugee-camp-are-intensified-for-those-who-live-with-disabilities/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020a). Increase in fatal drug overdoses across the United States driven by synthetic opioids before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2020/han00438.asp.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020b). Infographic: 6 Guiding Principles To A Trauma-Informed Approach. https://www.cdc.gov/orr/infographics/6_principles_trauma_info.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020c). Screening for Viral Hepatitis During the Domestic Medical Examination of Newly Arrived Refugees. https://www.cdc.gov/immigrantrefugeehealth/guidelines/domestic/hepatitis-screening-guidelines.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). Drug overdose: Death rate maps and graphs. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/deaths/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Fast facts: Preventing adverse childhood experiences. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/aces/fastfact.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c). Opioid basics. https://www.cdc.gov/opioids/basics/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022d). Overdose prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/prevention/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022e). Substance abuse disorders. https://www.cdc.gov/dotw/substance-use-disorders/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022f). Understanding the opioid overdose epidemic. https://www.cdc.gov/opioids/basics/epidemic.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a). Adverse Childhood Experiences. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/aces/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b). Health disparities. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/disparities/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023c). Lifesaving naloxone. https://www.cdc.gov/stopoverdose/naloxone/index.html

Ciccarone, D. (2019). The triple wave epidemic: Supply and demand drivers of the US opioid overdose crisis. The International Journal on Drug Policy, 71, 183–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.01.010

Clubhouse International. (2023). The facts about mental illness. https://clubhouse-intl.org/our-impact/about-mental-illness/

Commodore-Mensah, Y., Shaw, B., & Ford, M. (2021). A nursing call to action to support the health of migrants and Refugees. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77(12). E41-e43. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14970

Congressional Research Service (CRS). (2022). The opioid crisis in the United States: A brief history. https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/IF/IF12260

Daynes, L. (2016). The health impacts of the refugee crisis: A medical charity perspective. Clinical Medicine, 16,(5),437-440.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297302/

Department of Homeland Security. (2022a, September 22). Blue Campaign. https://www.dhs.gov/blue-campaign/indicators-human-trafficking

Department of Homeland Security. (2022b, September 22). What is Forced Labor? https://www.dhs.gov/blue-campaign/forced-labor

Department of Homeland Security. (2022c, September 22). What is Human Trafficking? Blue Campaign. https://www.dhs.gov/blue-campaign/what-human-trafficking

Department of Homeland Security. (2023). What is forced labor? https://www.dhs.gov/blue-campaign/forced-labor

Desmyth, K., Eagar, S., Jones, M., Schmidt, L., & Williams, J. (2021). Refugee health nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77(10):e30-e32. doi: 10.1111/jan.14910

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United Nations. (2021, September 01). Climate and weather related disasters surge five-fold over 50 years, but early warnings save lives—WMO report. United Nations News. https://news.un.org/en/story/2021/09/1098662

Urban Footprint. (2023). What is community resilience and why does it matter? https://urbanfootprint.com/community-resilience-meaning/

USA Facts. (2023). What is considered a mass shooting? https://usafacts.org/articles/what-is-considered-a-mass-shooting/

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (HHS, 2012). Establishing procedures for the progressive stages of response and recovery. Public Health Emergency. https://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/planning/mscc/healthcarecoalition/chapter3/Pages/establishingprocedures.aspx

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2023). START Adult Triage Algorithm https://chemm.hhs.gov/startadult.htm

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (Homeland Security, 2015). National Preparedness Goal (2nd ed.). https://www.fema.gov/sites/default/files/2020-06/national_preparedness_goal_2nd_edition.pdf

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2023). Disasters and emergencies. https://www.ready.gov/be-informed

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (n.d.) MCMi history. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/about-mcmi/mcmi-history

Weir, K. (2021, April 1). A thaw in the freeze on federal funding for gun violence and injury prevention research. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/monitor/2021/04/news-funding-gun-research

White House. (2022, September 01). The rising costs of extreme weather events. White House.gov. https://www.whitehouse.gov/cea/written-materials/2022/09/01/the-rising-costs-of-extreme-weather-events/

World Health Organization. (2023a). Biological weapons. https://www.who.int/health-topics/biological-weapons#tab=tab_1

World Health Organization. (2023b). Floods. https://www.who.int/health-topics/floods#tab=tab_1

World Nuclear Association. (2022, April). Chernobyl Accident 1986. https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/safety-of-plants/chernobyl-accident.aspx

Zauche, L. H., Pomeroy, M., Demeke, H. B., Mettee Zarecki, S. L., Williams, J. L., Newsome, K., Hill, L., & Dooyema, C. A. (2022). Answering the call: The response of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s federal public health nursing workforce to the COVID-19 pandemic. American Journal of Public Health, 112(S3), S226–S230. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306703

Chapter 33 Advocating for Population Health

Abbasinia M, Ahmadi F, & Kazemnejad, A. (2020). Patient advocacy in nursing: A concept analysis. Nursing Ethics, 27(1), 141–151. doi:10.1177/0969733019832950

American Academy of Nursing (AAN). (2023). Dr. Joyce Newman Giger, EdD, APRN, BC, FAAN. https://www.aannet.org/network/members/profile?UserKey=c69ac381-130f-4900-9673-83ca0a435a48

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN). (2023, May 5). Nursing workforce fact sheet. https://www.aacnnursing.org/news-data/fact-sheets/nursing-fact-sheet

American Nurses Association. (2022, June 24). ANA Advocacy Statement: U.S. Supreme Court’s decision to overturn Roe vs. Wade: Is a serious setback for reproductive health and human rights. https://www.nursingworld.org/news/news-releases/2022-news-releases/us-supreme-courts-decision-to-overturn-roe-vs.-wade----is-a-serious-setback-for-reproductive-health-and-human-rights/

American Nurses Association. (2023a, May 19). #NursesVote. https://nursesvote.org/nursesvote-social-media-corner/

American Nurses Association. (2023b, September 12). Americans continue to rank nurses most honest and ethical professionals. https://www.nursingworld.org/news/news-releases/2022-news-releases/americans-continue-to-rank-nurses-most-honest-and-ethical-professionals/

American Psychological Association. (2020). COVID-19. https://www.apa.org/topics/covid-19/domestic-violence-child-abuse

Anikwe, C., Umeononihu, O., Anikwe, I., Ikeoha, C., Eleje, G., Ewah, R., Okorochukwu, B., Nwokoye, B., Ogah, C., & Chigozie, O. (2021). Burden of intimate partner violence among nurses and nursing students in a tertiary hospital in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. SAGE Open Nursing, 7, 23779608211052356. https://doi.org/10.1177/23779608211052356

Buitron de la Vega, P., Losi, S., Sprague Martinez, L., Bovell-Ammon, A., Garg, A., James, T., Ewen, A., Stack, M., DeCarvalho, H., Sandel, M., Mishuris, R. G., Deych, S., Pelletier, P., & Kressin, N. R. (2019). Implementing an EHR-based screening and referral system to address social determinants of health in primary care. Medical Care, 57, S133–S139. https://doi.10.1097/MLR.0000000000001029

Campaign for Action. (2022, August 4). A Delaware school district program provides early exposure to nursing. https://campaignforaction.org/school-program-provides-early-exposure-to-nursing/

Campaign for Action. (2023, May 19). Building a healthier America, state by state. https://campaignforaction.org/our-network/state-action-coalitions/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Life expectancy in the U.S. dropped for the second year in a row in 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/nchs_press_releases/2022/20220831.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2023a, July 25). HPV vaccine schedule and dosing. https://www.cdc.gov/hpv/hcp/schedules-recommendations.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2023b, October 13). Sexually transmitted infections prevalence, incidence, and cost estimates in the United States. https://www.cdc.gov/std/statistics/prevalence-2020-at-a-glance.htm

Chappell, B. (2023, June 13). Tori Bowie, an elite Olympic athlete, died of complications from childbirth. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2023/06/13/1181971448/tori-bowie-an-elite-olympic-athlete-died-of-complications-from-childbirth

Connecticut Nurses Association (CTNurses). (2023, June 13). Nursing policy, practice & advocacy. https://ctnurses.org/policy-and-advocacy

Crowder, S. J., Tanner, A. L., Dawson, M. A., Felsman, I. C., Hassmiller, S. B., Miller, L. C., Reinhard, S. C., & Toney, D. A. (2022). Better together: Coalitions committed to advancing health equity. Nursing Outlook, 70(6 Suppl 1), S48–S58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2022.02.013

Davoodvand, S., Abbaszadeh, A., & Ahmadi, F. (2016). Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses’ viewpoint: A qualitative study. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 9.

Dierkes, A., Do, D., Morin, H., Rochman, M., Sloane, D., & McHugh, M. (2022).The impact of California’s staffing mandate and the economic recession on registered nurse staffing levels: A longitudinal analysis. Nursing Outlook,70(2), 219–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2021.09.007

Hardeman, R. R., Karbeah, J., Almanza, J., & Kozhimannil, K. B. (2020). Roots Community Birth Center: A culturally-centered care model for improving value and equity in childbirth. Healthcare (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 8(1), 100367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hjdsi.2019.100367

Huecker, M. R., King, K. C., Jordan, G. A., & Smock, W. (2023). Domestic violence. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499891/

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on the Future of Nursing, at the Institute of Medicine. (2011). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. National Academies Press.

Iriarte-Roteta, A., Lopez-Dicastillo, O., Mujika, A., Ruiz-Zaldibar, C., Hernantes, N., Bermejo-Martins, E., & Pumar-Méndez, M. J. (2020). Nurses’ role in health promotion and prevention: A critical interpretive synthesis. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29, 3937–3949. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15441

Kalaitzidis, E., & Jewell, P. (2020). The concept of advocacy in nursing: A critical analysis. The Health Care Manager, 39(2), 77–84.

Lasater, K. B., Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D., French, R., Martin, B., Alexander, M., & McHugh, M. D. (2021). Patient outcomes and cost savings associated with hospital safe nurse staffing legislation: An observational study. BMJ Open, 11(12), e052899. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052899

MacDorman, M. F., Thoma, M., Declerq, E., & Howell, E. A. (2021). Racial and ethnic disparities in maternal mortality in the United States using enhanced vital records, 2016–2017. American Journal of Public Health, 9(111), 1673–81.

Medina-Martínez, J., Saus-Ortega, C., Sánchez-Lorente, M. M., Sosa-Palanca, E. M., García-Martínez, P., & Mármol-López, M. I. (2021). Health Inequities in LGBT people and nursing interventions to reduce them: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(22), 11801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211801

National Academy of Medicine. (2023a, May 22). About the National Academy of Medicine. https://nam.edu/about-the-nam/

National Academy of Medicine. (2023b, May 22). The future of nursing 2020–2030: Charting a path to achieve health equity. https://nam.edu/publications/the-future-of- nursing-2020-2030/

National Health Care for the Homeless Council. (2023, May 21). Federal policy priorities: 2023–2025. https://nhchc.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/03/NHCHC-Policy-Priorities-2023-2025.pdf

Nelson, A., Allen, J., Cho, H., Yun, S., Choi, Y., & Choi, G. (2023). Intimate partner violence and openness to online counseling among college students. Journal of Family Violence, 38, 611–621. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-022-00396-4

New York State Nurses Association (NYSNA). (2023, October 13). Universal 1:2 nurse-to-patient ratio in effect for critical care patients. https://www.nysna.org/blog/2023/08/29/universal-12-nurse-patient-ratio-effect-critical-care-patients

Nurses on Boards Coalition (NOBC). (2021). Message from NOBC board chair and executive director. https://www.nursesonboardscoalition.org/about/message-from-our-executive-director/

Penn Nursing. (n.d.). Regina S. Cunningham, PhD, RN, AOCN, FAAN. https://www.nursing.upenn.edu/details/profiles.php?id=141

Phillips, J., Richard, A., Mayer, K. M., Shilkaitis, M., Fogg, L. F., & Vondracek, H. (2020). Integrating the social determinants of health into nursing practice: Nurses’ perspectives. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 52, 497–505. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12584

Reisner, S., Vetters, R., Leclerc, M., Zaslow, S., Wolfrum, S., Shumer, D., & Mimiaga, M. (2015). Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: A matched retrospective cohort study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(3), 274–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.10.264

Seon, J., Cho, H., Choi, G. Y., Son, E., Allen, J., Nelson, A., & Kwon, I. (2022). Adverse childhood experiences, intimate partner violence victimization, and self-perceived health and depression among college students. Journal of Family Violence, 37(4), 691–706.

Sigma. (2023, May 22). Join the nursing now challenge. https://www.sigmanursing.org/connect-engage/our-global-impact/nightingale-challenge

Tariq, R. A., George, J. S., Ampat, G., Toney-Butler, T. J. (2023). Back safety. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519066/

Tiase, V., Crookston, C., Schoenbaum, A., & Valu, M. (2022). Nurses’ role in addressing social determinants of health. Nursing 52(4), 32–37. https:// doi.10.1097/01.NURSE.0000823284.16666.96

Tikkanen, R., & Abrams, M. (2020). U.S. health care from a global perspective, 2019: Higher spending, worse outcomes? Commonwealth Fund. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2020/jan/us-health-care-global-perspective-2019

Title VIII Nursing Workforce Reauthorization Act of 2019, H.R. 728. (2019).

Tordoff, D. M., Wanta, J, W., Collin, A., Stepney, C., Inwards-Breland, D. J., & Ahrens, K. (2022). Mental health outcomes in transgender and nonbinary youths receiving gender-affirming care. JAMA Network Open, 5(2), e220978. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.0978

Tsui, J., Shin, M., Sloan, K., Martinez, B., Palinkas, L., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., Cantor, J., Hudson, S., & Crabtree, B. (2023). Understanding clinic and community member experiences with implementation of evidence-based strategies for HPV vaccination in safety-net primary care settings. Prevention Science, 27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-023-01568-4

United States Department of Health & Human Services. (2020). Education access and quality. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/education-access-and-quality

Chapter 34 Engagement in the Policy Development Process

Abu, V. K. (2020). Let us be unequivocal about social justice in nursing. Nurse Education in Practice, 47, 102849. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2020.102849

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2023). Nursing workforce fact sheet. https://www.aacnnursing.org/news-data/fact-sheets/nursing-fact-sheet

American Nurses Association. (2023). Health system transformation. https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/health-policy/health-system-reform/

Benefits.gov. (2021). Learn the difference between SNAP and WIC programs. https://www.benefits.gov/news/article/439

Bitler, M., & Figinski, T. (2019). Long-run effects of food assistance: Evidence from the food stamp program. UC Davis. https://arefiles.ucdavis.edu/uploads/pub/2021/02/09/bitler-figinski-fsp-2019-8-29-full-paper.pdf

Brokaw, J. (2016). The nursing profession’s potential impact on policy and politics. American Nurse Journal. 11(9), 43–46.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020a). The CDC policy process. https://www.cdc.gov/policy/polaris/policyprocess/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020b). Health disparities. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/disparities/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020c). Health in All Policies. https://www.cdc.gov/policy/hiap/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020d). Policy, performance, and evaluation at CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/policy/index.html

Children’s Defense Fund. (2023). The state of America’s children 2023. https://www.childrensdefense.org/the-state-of-americas-children/soac-2023-child-poverty/

Columbia University. (2023). Public health policy: Definition, examples, and more. https://www.publichealth.columbia.edu/news/public-health-policy-definition-examples-more#

Concannon, T., Grant, S., Welch, V., Petkovic, J., Selby, J., Crowe, S., Synnot, A., Greer-Smith, R., Mayo-Wilson, E., Tambor, E., & Tugwell, P. (2018, December). Practical guidance for involving stakeholders in Health Research. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 34(3), 458–463. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30565151/

Coughlin, C. G., Bovell-Ammon, A., & Sandel, M. (2022). Extending the child tax credit to break the cycle of poverty. JAMA Pediatrics, 176(3), 225–227. https://doi-org.ezp.twu.edu/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.4603

de la Sablonnière, R. (2017). Toward a psychology of social change: A typology of social change. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article 397.

Deschaine, J. E., & Schaffer, M. A. (2003). Strengthening the Role of Public Health Nurse Leaders in Policy Development. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice. https://doi.org/10.11771527154403258308

Dickey, M. S., Mosley, E. A., Clark, E. A., Cordes, S., Lathrop, E., & Haddad, L. B. (2022). “They’re forcing people to have children that they can’t afford”: A qualitative study of social support and capital among individuals receiving an abortion in Georgia. Social Science & Medicine, 315. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.115547

Health Resources and Services Administration. (2023a). Bright futures. https://mchb.hrsa.gov/programs-impact/bright-futures

Health Resources and Services Administration. (2023b). NHSC rural community loan repayment program. https://nhsc.hrsa.gov/loan-repayment/nhsc-rural-community-loan-repayment-program

Jakab, Z., Selbie, D., Squires, N., Mustafa, S., & Saikat, S. (2021). Building the evidence base for global health policy: The need to strengthen institutional networks, geographical representation, and global collaboration. BMJ Global Health, 6, e006852.

Kovner, C. (2023). Together we can influence policy changes. Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice 24(1). https://doi-org.ezp.twu.edu/10.1177/15271544221147446

Leal, M. (2022). Public health and economic development: The case of Medicaid . . . Does “economic growth” result in better “population health”? Journal of Public Health, 44(4), 727.

Maryville University. (2022). How to break the cycle of poverty: Impact on global growth. https://online.maryville.edu/blog/how-to-break-the-cycle-of-poverty/

Mills, J. (2023). More than a half-century with haloperidol: Glories, disparities, and use today. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 44(1), 83–87. doi:10.1080/01612840.2022.2158683

Muetzel, L., Dye, M., O’Brien, C., Milburn, S., & Rosselet, R. (2022). Nursing government affairs advocacy fellow: Introducing nurses to policy. Nursing, 52(10), 47–49. doi:10.1097/01.NURSE.0000872404.14935.31

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Communities in action: Pathways to health equity. The National Academies Press.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academy of Medicine, & Committee on the Future of Nursing 2020–2030. (2021). The role of nurses in improving health equity. In J. L. Flaubert, S. Le Menestrel, D. R. Williams, et al. (Eds.), The future of nursing 2020–2030: Charting a path to achieve health equity. National Academies Press. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK573898/

National Institutes of Health. (2023). Evidence-based practices, programs, and resources. https://prevention.nih.gov/research-priorities/dissemination-implementation/evidence-based-practices-programs

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020a). Browse evidence-based resources. Healthy People 2023. https://health.gov/healthypeople/tools-action/browse-evidence-based-resources

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020b). Health policy. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/health-policy/evidence-based-resources

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020c). Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople

Pollack-Porter, K. M., Rutkow, L., & McGinty, E. E. (2018). The importance of policy change for addressing public health problems. Public Health Reports, 133(1_suppl), 9S–14S. doi:10.1177/0033354918788880

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2023). Why build a culture of health? https://www.rwjf.org/en/building-a-culture-of-health/why-health-equity.html

Sharfstein, J. M., & Thornton, R. L. J. (2021). US Healthcare Policy and Child Poverty. Academic pediatrics21(8S), S88–S89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2021.07.013

Smith, J. (2020). Healthcare policy and decision-making. Health Publications.

Timmons, T. (2021). Social justice, ethics, and the nursing profession. Wolters Kluwer. https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/expert-insights/social-justice-ethics-nursing-profession

Trisi, D. & Saenz, M. (2020, February 27). Policy brief: Deep poverty among children rose in TANF’s first decade, then fell as other programs strengthened. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/2-27-20pov2.pdf

Tucker, C. (2014). Health-in-all-policies guide can help communities plan for better health. (Public Health Institute’s “Health in all policies: A guide for state and local governments”). The Nation’s Health, 43(10), 12. https://search-proquest-com.ezp.twu.edu/docview/1477195703

Turale, S., & Kunaviktikul, W. (2019). The contribution of nurses to health policy and advocacy requires leaders to provide training and mentorship. International Nursing Review, 66(3), 302–304. doi:10.1111/inr.12550

United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2023). Head Start services. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/ohs/about/head-start

United States Preventive Services Task Force. (2023). Recommendation topics. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation-topics

Yohanna, D. (2013). Deinstitutionalization of people with mental illness: Causes and consequences. AMA Journal of Ethics. https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/deinstitutionalization-people-mental-illness-causes-and-consequences/2013-10

Chapter 35 Leading the Way to Improving Population Health

Abernethy, A., Adams, L., Barrett, M., Bechtel, C., Brennan, P., Butte, A., Faulkner, J., Fontaine, E., Friedhoff, S., Halamka, J., Howell, M., Johnson, K., Long, P., McGraw, D., Miller, R., Lee, P., Perlin, J., Rucker, D., Sandy, L., … Valdes, K. (2022). The promise of digital health: Then, now, and the future. NAM Perspectives. Discussion Paper. National Academy of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.31478/202206e

Adapa, K., Jain, S., Kanwar, R., Zaman, T., Taneja, T., Walker, J., & Mazur, L. (2020). Augmented reality in patient education and health literacy: A scoping review protocol. BMJ Open, 10(9), e038416. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038416

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2020, April). AHRQ activities using community-based participatory research to address health care disparities. https://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/factsheets/minority/cbprbrief/index.html

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2021a). The essentials: Core competencies for professional nursing education. https://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/0/PDFs/Publications/Essentials-2021.pdf

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2021b). Nursing faculty shortage. https://www.aacnnursing.org/News-Information/Fact-Sheets/Nursing-Faculty-Shortage

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2022, October). Fact sheet: Nursing shortage. https://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/0/PDFs/Fact-Sheets/Nursing-Shortage-Factsheet.pdf

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2023, April). Enhancing diversity in the nursing workforce. https://www.aacnnursing.org/news-data/fact-sheets/enhancing-diversity-in-the-nursing-workforce

American Hospital Association. (2016). Task Force on Ensuring Access in Vulnerable Communities. https://www.aha.org/system/files/content/16/ensuring-access-taskforce-exec-summary.pdf

American Nurses Association. (n.d.). Leadership in nursing: Qualities & why it matters. https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/nursing-excellence/leadership-in-nursing/

Antonisse, L., Garfield, R., Rudowitz, R., & Artiga, S. (2022). Key issues in understanding the role of Medicaid in long-term services and supports. Kaiser Family Foundation.

Association of American Medical Colleges. (2021, June 11). AAMC report reinforces mounting physician shortage. https://www.aamc.org/news/press-releases/aamc-report-reinforces-mounting-physician-shortage

Azar, K. M. J. (2021). The evolving role of nurse leadership in the fight for health equity. Nurse Leader, 19(6), 571–575. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mnl.2021.08.006

Babu, R., & Jayashree, K. (2015). A survey on the role of IoT and cloud in health care. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research, 4(12), 2217–2219.

Booth, R. G., Strudwick, G., McBride, S., O’Connor, S., & Solano López, A. L. (2021). How the nursing profession should adapt for a digital future. BMJ, 373, n1190. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1190

Bowe, A. K., Lightbody, G., Staines, A., & Murray, D. M. (2023). Big data, machine learning, and population health: Predicting cognitive outcomes in childhood. Pediatric Research, 93(2), 300-307. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-022-02137-1

Buxbaum, J. D., Chernew, M. E., Fendrick, A. M., & Cutler, D. M. (2020). Contributions of public health, pharmaceuticals, and other medical care to us life expectancy changes, 1990–2015. Health Affairs, 39(9), 1546–1556. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00284

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016a, June 9). Health in all policies. Office of Policy, Performance, and Evaluation. https://www.cdc.gov/policy/hiap/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016b, September 19.) Health impact assessment. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/hia.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, March 8). 2014–2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa. https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/2014-2016-outbreak/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Paving the road to health equity. https://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealth/publications/health_equity/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). HPV vaccine safety and effectiveness data. https://www.cdc.gov/hpv/hcp/vaccine-safety-data.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Community health worker resources. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/center/community-health-worker-resources.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023, April 20). Fast facts on global immunization. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/immunization/data/fast-facts.html

Chaiton, M., Diemert, L., Cohen, J. E., Bondy, S. J., Selby, P., Philipneri, A., & Schwartz, R. (2016). Estimating the number of quit attempts it takes to quit smoking successfully in a longitudinal cohort of smokers. BMJ open, 6(6), e011045. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011045

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