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Physics

Extended Response

PhysicsExtended Response
  1. Preface
  2. 1 What is Physics?
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Physics: Definitions and Applications
    3. 1.2 The Scientific Methods
    4. 1.3 The Language of Physics: Physical Quantities and Units
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  3. 2 Motion in One Dimension
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Relative Motion, Distance, and Displacement
    3. 2.2 Speed and Velocity
    4. 2.3 Position vs. Time Graphs
    5. 2.4 Velocity vs. Time Graphs
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  4. 3 Acceleration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Acceleration
    3. 3.2 Representing Acceleration with Equations and Graphs
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  5. 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Force
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  6. 5 Motion in Two Dimensions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    3. 5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    4. 5.3 Projectile Motion
    5. 5.4 Inclined Planes
    6. 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  7. 6 Circular and Rotational Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Angle of Rotation and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
    4. 6.3 Rotational Motion
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  8. 7 Newton's Law of Gravitation
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 7.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  9. 8 Momentum
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum, Force, and Impulse
    3. 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
    4. 8.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  10. 9 Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem
    3. 9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy
    4. 9.3 Simple Machines
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  11. 10 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
    3. 10.2 Consequences of Special Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  12. 11 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Work
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
    3. 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer
    4. 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium
    3. 12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work
    4. 12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
    5. 12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  14. 13 Waves and Their Properties
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Types of Waves
    3. 13.2 Wave Properties: Speed, Amplitude, Frequency, and Period
    4. 13.3 Wave Interaction: Superposition and Interference
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  15. 14 Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    3. 14.2 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    4. 14.3 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    5. 14.4 Sound Interference and Resonance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  16. 15 Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. 15.2 The Behavior of Electromagnetic Radiation
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  17. 16 Mirrors and Lenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Reflection
    3. 16.2 Refraction
    4. 16.3 Lenses
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  18. 17 Diffraction and Interference
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Understanding Diffraction and Interference
    3. 17.2 Applications of Diffraction, Interference, and Coherence
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  19. 18 Static Electricity
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Electrical Charges, Conservation of Charge, and Transfer of Charge
    3. 18.2 Coulomb's law
    4. 18.3 Electric Field
    5. 18.4 Electric Potential
    6. 18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  20. 19 Electrical Circuits
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Ohm's law
    3. 19.2 Series Circuits
    4. 19.3 Parallel Circuits
    5. 19.4 Electric Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  21. 20 Magnetism
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Magnetic Fields, Field Lines, and Force
    3. 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
    4. 20.3 Electromagnetic Induction
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  22. 21 The Quantum Nature of Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Planck and Quantum Nature of Light
    3. 21.2 Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
    4. 21.3 The Dual Nature of Light
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  23. 22 The Atom
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
    3. 22.2 Nuclear Forces and Radioactivity
    4. 22.3 Half Life and Radiometric Dating
    5. 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
    6. 22.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity: Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  24. 23 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
    3. 23.2 Quarks
    4. 23.3 The Unification of Forces
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  25. A | Reference Tables
  26. Index

Extended Response

2.1 Relative Motion, Distance, and Displacement

53.

Find the distance traveled from the starting point for each path.

A line begins at 0 and extends to the right. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 are marked on the line, and it is titled displacement x (m). a green line A extends from 0 to the right. A red line c extends from two to the right, and makes an ess pattern at 10 where it goes back to 8, then reverses direction again and extends to infinity. An orange line D extends from 9 to the left, then reverses direction at 3. A purple line B extends from 12 to the left.

Which path has the maximum distance?

  1. The distance for Path A is 6 m, Path B is 4 m, Path C is 12 m and for Path D is 7 m. The net displacement for Path A is 7 m, Path B is –4m, Path C is 8 m and for Path D is –5m. Path C has maximum distance and it is equal to 12 meters.
  2. The distance for Path A is 6 m, Path B is 4 m, Path C is 8 m and for Path D is 7 m. The net displacement for Path A is 6 m, Path B is –4m, Path C is 12 m and for Path D is –5 m. Path A has maximum distance and it is equal to 6 meters.
  3. The distance for Path A is 6 m, Path B is 4 m, Path C is 12 m and for Path D is 7 m. The net displacement for Path A is 6 m, Path B is –4 m, Path C is 8 m and for Path D is –5 m. Path C has maximum distance and it is equal to 12 meters.
  4. The distance for Path A is 6 m, Path B is –4 m, Path C is 12 m and for Path D is –5 m. The net displacement for Path A is 7 m, Path B is 4 m, Path C is 8 m and for Path D is 7 m. Path A has maximum distance and it is equal to 6 m.
54.
Alan starts from his home and walks 1.3 km east to the library. He walks an additional 0.68 km east to a music store. From there, he walks 1.1 km north to a friend’s house and an additional 0.42 km north to a grocery store before he finally returns home along the same path. What is his final displacement and total distance traveled?
  1. Displacement is 0 km and distance is 7 km.
  2. Displacement is 0 km and distance is 3.5 km.
  3. Displacement is 7 km towards west and distance is 7 km.
  4. Displacement is 3.5 km towards east and distance is 3.5 km.

2.2 Speed and Velocity

55.
Two runners start at the same point and jog at a constant speed along a straight path. Runner A starts at time t = 0 s, and Runner B starts at time t = 2.5 s. The runners both reach a distance 64 m from the starting point at time t = 25 s. If the runners continue at the same speeds, how far from the starting point will each be at time t = 45 s?
  1. Runner A will be 72 × 10 3 m away and Runner B will be 59.5 × 10 3 m away from the starting point.
  2. Runner A will be 1.2 × 10 2 m away and runner B will be 1.1 × 10 2 m away from the starting point.
  3. Runner A will be 1.2 × 10 2 m away and Runner B will be 1.3 × 10 2 m away from the starting point.
  4. Runner A will be 7.2 × 10 2 m away and Runner B will be 1.3 × 10 2 m away from the starting point.
56.

A father and his daughter go to the bus stop that is located 75 m from their front door. The father walks in a straight line while his daughter runs along a varied path. Despite the different paths, they both end up at the bus stop at the same time. The father’s average speed is 2.2 m/s, and his daughter’s average speed is 3.5 m/s. (a) How long does it take the father and daughter to reach the bus stop? (b) What was the daughter’s total distance traveled? (c) If the daughter maintained her same average speed and traveled in a straight line like her father, how far beyond the bus stop would she have traveled?

  1. (a) 21.43 s (b) 75 m (c) 0 m
  2. (a) 21.43 s (b) 119 m (c) 44 m
  3. (a) 34 s (b) 75 m (c) 0 m
  4. (a) 34 s (b) 119 m (c) 44 m

2.3 Position vs. Time Graphs

57.

What kind of motion would create a position graph like the one shown?

no alt text
  1. uniform motion
  2. any motion that accelerates
  3. motion that stops and then starts
  4. motion that has constant velocity
58.

What is the average velocity for the whole time period shown in the graph?

no alt text
  1. 1 3 m/s 1 3 m/s
  2. 3 4 m/s 3 4 m/s
  3. 1 3 m/s 1 3 m/s
  4. 3 4 m/s 3 4 m/s

2.4 Velocity vs. Time Graphs

59.

Consider the motion of the object whose velocity is charted in the graph.

A graph plots time t on the x axis and velocity v on the y axis. The line extends from the origin upward and to the right and plots points a, b, c, and d. At point d, the line begins to slope downward to point e. At point e, the line then begins to slope gradually upward through points f, g, and h, then drops off sharply through points I, j, k, and land on point l on the x axis again.

During which points is the object slowing down and speeding up?

  1. It is slowing down between d and e. It is speeding up between a and d and e and h
  2. It is slowing down between a and d and e and h. It is speeding up between d and e and then after i.
  3. It is slowing down between d and e and then after h. It is speeding up between a and d and e and h.
  4. It is slowing down between a and d and e and h. It is speeding up between d and e and then after i.
60.

Divide the graph into approximate sections, and use those sections to graph the velocity vs. time of the object.

no alt text

Then calculate the acceleration during each section, and calculate the approximate average velocity.

  1. Acceleration is zero and average velocity is 1.25 m/s.
  2. Acceleration is constant with some positive value and average velocity is 1.25 m/s.
  3. Acceleration is zero and average velocity is 0.25 m/s.
  4. Acceleration is constant with some positive value and average velocity is 0.25 m/s.
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