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Physics

Short Answer

PhysicsShort Answer
  1. Preface
  2. 1 What is Physics?
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Physics: Definitions and Applications
    3. 1.2 The Scientific Methods
    4. 1.3 The Language of Physics: Physical Quantities and Units
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  3. 2 Motion in One Dimension
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Relative Motion, Distance, and Displacement
    3. 2.2 Speed and Velocity
    4. 2.3 Position vs. Time Graphs
    5. 2.4 Velocity vs. Time Graphs
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  4. 3 Acceleration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Acceleration
    3. 3.2 Representing Acceleration with Equations and Graphs
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  5. 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Force
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  6. 5 Motion in Two Dimensions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    3. 5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    4. 5.3 Projectile Motion
    5. 5.4 Inclined Planes
    6. 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  7. 6 Circular and Rotational Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Angle of Rotation and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
    4. 6.3 Rotational Motion
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  8. 7 Newton's Law of Gravitation
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 7.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  9. 8 Momentum
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum, Force, and Impulse
    3. 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
    4. 8.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  10. 9 Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem
    3. 9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy
    4. 9.3 Simple Machines
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  11. 10 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
    3. 10.2 Consequences of Special Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  12. 11 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Work
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
    3. 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer
    4. 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium
    3. 12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work
    4. 12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
    5. 12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  14. 13 Waves and Their Properties
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Types of Waves
    3. 13.2 Wave Properties: Speed, Amplitude, Frequency, and Period
    4. 13.3 Wave Interaction: Superposition and Interference
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  15. 14 Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    3. 14.2 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    4. 14.3 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    5. 14.4 Sound Interference and Resonance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  16. 15 Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. 15.2 The Behavior of Electromagnetic Radiation
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  17. 16 Mirrors and Lenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Reflection
    3. 16.2 Refraction
    4. 16.3 Lenses
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  18. 17 Diffraction and Interference
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Understanding Diffraction and Interference
    3. 17.2 Applications of Diffraction, Interference, and Coherence
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  19. 18 Static Electricity
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Electrical Charges, Conservation of Charge, and Transfer of Charge
    3. 18.2 Coulomb's law
    4. 18.3 Electric Field
    5. 18.4 Electric Potential
    6. 18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  20. 19 Electrical Circuits
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Ohm's law
    3. 19.2 Series Circuits
    4. 19.3 Parallel Circuits
    5. 19.4 Electric Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  21. 20 Magnetism
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Magnetic Fields, Field Lines, and Force
    3. 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
    4. 20.3 Electromagnetic Induction
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  22. 21 The Quantum Nature of Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Planck and Quantum Nature of Light
    3. 21.2 Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
    4. 21.3 The Dual Nature of Light
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  23. 22 The Atom
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
    3. 22.2 Nuclear Forces and Radioactivity
    4. 22.3 Half Life and Radiometric Dating
    5. 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
    6. 22.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity: Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  24. 23 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
    3. 23.2 Quarks
    4. 23.3 The Unification of Forces
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  25. A | Reference Tables
  26. Index

Short Answer

18.1 Electrical Charges, Conservation of Charge, and Transfer of Charge

54.

Compare the mass of the electron with the mass of the proton.

  1. The mass of the electron is about 1,000 times that of the proton.
  2. The mass of the proton is about 1,000 times that of the electron.
  3. The mass of the electron is about 1,836 times that of the proton.
  4. The mass of the proton is about 1,836 times that of the electron.
55.

The positive terminal of a battery is connected to one connection of a lightbulb, and the other connection of the lightbulb is connected to the negative terminal of the battery. The battery pushes charge through the circuit but does not become charged itself. Does this violate the law of conservation of charge? Explain.

  1. No, because this is a closed circuit.
  2. No, because this is an open circuit.
  3. Yes, because this is a closed circuit.
  4. Yes, because this is an open circuit.
56.
Two flat pieces of aluminum foil lay one on top of the other. What happens if you add charge to the top piece of aluminum foil?
  1. The charge will distribute over the top of the top piece.
  2. The charge will distribute to the bottom of the bottom piece.
  3. The inner surfaces will have excess charge of the opposite sign.
  4. The inner surfaces will have excess charge of the same sign.
57.

The students in your class count off consecutively so each student has a number. The odd-numbered students are told to act as negative charge, and the even-numbered students are told to act as positive charge. How would you organize them to represent a polarized material?

  1. The even-numbered and odd-numbered students will be arranged one after the other.
  2. Two even-numbered will be followed by two odd-numbered, and so on.
  3. Even-numbered students will be asked to come to the front, whereas odd-numbered students will be asked to go to the back of the class.
  4. Half even-numbered and odd-numbered will come to the front, whereas half even-numbered and odd-numbered will go to the back.
58.

An ion of iron contains 56 protons. How many electrons must it contain if its net charge is +5e?

  1. five electrons
  2. 51 electrons
  3. 56 electrons
  4. 61 electrons
59.
An insulating rod carries + 2.0 nC of charge. After rubbing it with a material, you find it carries 3 nC of charge. How much charge was transferred to it?
  1. 5 nC
  2. 3 nC
  3. 1 nC
  4. + 2.0 nC
60.

A solid cube carries a charge of +8e. You measure the charge on each face of the cube and find that each face carries +0.5e of charge. Is the cube made of conducting or insulating material? Explain.

  1. The cube is made of insulating material, because all the charges are on the surface of the cube.
  2. The cube is made of conducting material, because some of the charges are inside the cube.
  3. The cube is made of insulating material, because all the charges are on the surface of the cube.
  4. The cube is made of insulating material, because some of the charges are inside the cube.
61.

You have four neutral conducting spheres and a charging device that allows you to place charge q on any neutral object. You want to charge one sphere with a charge q/2 and the other three with a charge q6 . How do you proceed?

  1. Charge one sphere with charge q. Touch it simultaneously to the three remaining neutral spheres.
  2. Charge one sphere with charge q. Touch it to one other sphere to produce two spheres with charge q 2 q 2 . Touch one of these spheres to one other neutral sphere.
  3. Charge one sphere with charge q. Touch it to one other sphere to produce two spheres with charge q 2 q 2 . Touch one of these spheres simultaneously to the two remaining neutral spheres.
  4. Charge one sphere with charge q. Touch it simultaneously to two other neutral spheres to produce three spheres with charge q/3. Touch one of these spheres to one other neutral sphere.

18.2 Coulomb's law

62.
Why does dust stick to the computer screen?
  1. The dust is neutral.
  2. The dust is polarized.
  3. The dust is positively charged.
  4. The dust is negatively charged.
63.

The force between two charges is 4 × 10–9 N . If the magnitude of one charge is reduced by a factor of two and the distance between the charges is reduced by a factor of two, what is the new force between the charges?

  1. 2 × 10–9 N
  2. 4 × 10–9 N
  3. 6 × 10–9 N
  4. 8 × 10–9 N
64.

True or false—Coulomb’s constant is k = 8.99 × 109 N·m2/C2. Newton’s gravitational constant is G = 6.67 × 10−11 m3/kg⋅s2. This tells you about the relative strength of the electrostatic force versus that of gravity.

  1. true
  2. false
65.

An atomic nucleus contains 56 protons, for iron. Which force would this nucleus apply on an electron at a distance of 10×10–12 m?

  1. 0.65 × 10–4 N
  2. 0.02 × 10–4 N
  3. 1.3 × 10–4 N
  4. 72.8 × 10–4 N

18.3 Electric Field

66.

The electric field a distance of 10 km from a storm cloud is 1,000 N/C . What is the approximate charge in the cloud?

  1. 0.0011 C
  2. 11 C
  3. 110 C
  4. 1,100 C
67.

Which electric field would produce a 10 N force in the +x- direction on a charge of – 10 nC ?

  1. − 1.0 × 109 N/C
  2. 1.0 × 109 N/C
  3. 1.0 × 1010 N/C
  4. 1.0 × 1011 N/C
68.

A positive charge is located at x = 0 . When a negative charge is placed at x = 10 cm, what happens to the electric field lines between the charges?

  1. The electric field lines become denser between the charges.
  2. The electric field lines become denser between the charges.
  3. The electric field lines remains same between the charges.
  4. The electric field lines will be zero between the charges.

18.4 Electric Potential

69.

The energy required to bring a charge q = − 8.8 nC from far away to 5.5 cm from a point charge Q is 13 mJ. What is the potential at the final position of q?

  1. −112 MV
  2. −1.5 MV
  3. −0.66 MV
  4. +1.5 MV
70.

How is electric potential related to electric potential energy?

  1. Electric potential is the electric potential energy per unit mass at a given position in space.
  2. Electric potential is the electric potential energy per unit length at a given position in space. This relation is not dimensionally correct.
  3. Electric potential is the electric potential energy per unit area in space.
  4. Electric potential is the electric potential energy per unit charge at a given position in space.
71.

If it takes 10 mJ to move a charge q from xi = 25 cm to xf = − 25 cm in an electric field of (–20 N/C) x ^ , (–20 N/C) x ^ , what is the charge q?

  1. −1.0 mC
  2. +0.25 mC
  3. + 1.0 mC
  4. +400 mC
72.
Given the potential difference between two points and the distance between the points, explain how to obtain the electric field between the points.
  1. Add the electric potential to the distance to obtain the electric field.
  2. Divide the electric potential by the distance to obtain the electric field.
  3. Multiply the electric potential and the distance to obtain the electric field.
  4. Subtract the electric potential from the distance to obtain the electric field.

18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics

73.
If you double the voltage across the plates of a capacitor, how is the stored energy affected?
  1. Stored energy will decrease two times.
  2. Stored energy will decrease four times.
  3. Stored energy will increase two times.
  4. Stored energy will increase four times.
74.

A capacitor with neoprene rubber as the dielectric stores 0.185 mJ of energy with a voltage of 50 V across the plates. If the area of the plates is 500 cm2, what is the plate separation?

  1. 20 µm
  2. 20 m
  3. 80 µm
  4. 80 m
75.

Explain why a storm cloud before a lightning strike is like a giant capacitor.

  1. The storm cloud acts as a giant charged capacitor, as it can store a large amount of charge.
  2. The storm cloud acts as a giant charged capacitor, as it contains a high amount of excess charges.
  3. The storm cloud acts as a giant charged capacitor, as it splits in two capacitor plates with equal and opposite charge.
  4. The storm cloud acts as a giant charged capacitor, as it splits in two capacitor plates with unequal and opposite charges.
76.

A storm cloud is 2 km above the surface of Earth. The lower surface of the cloud is approximately 2 km2 in area. What is the approximate capacitance of this storm cloud-Earth system?

  1. 9 × 10–15 F
  2. 9 × 10-9 F
  3. 17.7 × 10-15 F
  4. 17.7 × 10-9 F
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