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Organic Chemistry

29.4 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids

Organic Chemistry29.4 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids

Table of contents
  1. Dedication and Preface
  2. 1 Structure and Bonding
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 1.1 Atomic Structure: The Nucleus
    3. 1.2 Atomic Structure: Orbitals
    4. 1.3 Atomic Structure: Electron Configurations
    5. 1.4 Development of Chemical Bonding Theory
    6. 1.5 Describing Chemical Bonds: Valence Bond Theory
    7. 1.6 sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Methane
    8. 1.7 sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethane
    9. 1.8 sp2 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethylene
    10. 1.9 sp Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Acetylene
    11. 1.10 Hybridization of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
    12. 1.11 Describing Chemical Bonds: Molecular Orbital Theory
    13. 1.12 Drawing Chemical Structures
    14. Chemistry Matters—Organic Foods: Risk versus Benefit
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  3. 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 2.1 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity
    3. 2.2 Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments
    4. 2.3 Formal Charges
    5. 2.4 Resonance
    6. 2.5 Rules for Resonance Forms
    7. 2.6 Drawing Resonance Forms
    8. 2.7 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted–Lowry Definition
    9. 2.8 Acid and Base Strength
    10. 2.9 Predicting Acid–Base Reactions from pKa Values
    11. 2.10 Organic Acids and Organic Bases
    12. 2.11 Acids and Bases: The Lewis Definition
    13. 2.12 Noncovalent Interactions between Molecules
    14. Chemistry Matters—Alkaloids: From Cocaine to Dental Anesthetics
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  4. 3 Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 3.1 Functional Groups
    3. 3.2 Alkanes and Alkane Isomers
    4. 3.3 Alkyl Groups
    5. 3.4 Naming Alkanes
    6. 3.5 Properties of Alkanes
    7. 3.6 Conformations of Ethane
    8. 3.7 Conformations of Other Alkanes
    9. Chemistry Matters—Gasoline
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  5. 4 Organic Compounds: Cycloalkanes and Their Stereochemistry
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 4.1 Naming Cycloalkanes
    3. 4.2 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Cycloalkanes
    4. 4.3 Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain
    5. 4.4 Conformations of Cycloalkanes
    6. 4.5 Conformations of Cyclohexane
    7. 4.6 Axial and Equatorial Bonds in Cyclohexane
    8. 4.7 Conformations of Monosubstituted Cyclohexanes
    9. 4.8 Conformations of Disubstituted Cyclohexanes
    10. 4.9 Conformations of Polycyclic Molecules
    11. Chemistry Matters—Molecular Mechanics
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Additional Problems
  6. 5 Stereochemistry at Tetrahedral Centers
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 5.1 Enantiomers and the Tetrahedral Carbon
    3. 5.2 The Reason for Handedness in Molecules: Chirality
    4. 5.3 Optical Activity
    5. 5.4 Pasteur’s Discovery of Enantiomers
    6. 5.5 Sequence Rules for Specifying Configuration
    7. 5.6 Diastereomers
    8. 5.7 Meso Compounds
    9. 5.8 Racemic Mixtures and the Resolution of Enantiomers
    10. 5.9 A Review of Isomerism
    11. 5.10 Chirality at Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
    12. 5.11 Prochirality
    13. 5.12 Chirality in Nature and Chiral Environments
    14. Chemistry Matters—Chiral Drugs
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  7. 6 An Overview of Organic Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 6.1 Kinds of Organic Reactions
    3. 6.2 How Organic Reactions Occur: Mechanisms
    4. 6.3 Polar Reactions
    5. 6.4 An Example of a Polar Reaction: Addition of HBr to Ethylene
    6. 6.5 Using Curved Arrows in Polar Reaction Mechanisms
    7. 6.6 Radical Reactions
    8. 6.7 Describing a Reaction: Equilibria, Rates, and Energy Changes
    9. 6.8 Describing a Reaction: Bond Dissociation Energies
    10. 6.9 Describing a Reaction: Energy Diagrams and Transition States
    11. 6.10 Describing a Reaction: Intermediates
    12. 6.11 A Comparison Between Biological Reactions and Laboratory Reactions
    13. Chemistry Matters—Where Do Drugs Come From?
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Additional Problems
  8. 7 Alkenes: Structure and Reactivity
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 7.1 Industrial Preparation and Use of Alkenes
    3. 7.2 Calculating the Degree of Unsaturation
    4. 7.3 Naming Alkenes
    5. 7.4 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Alkenes
    6. 7.5 Alkene Stereochemistry and the E,Z Designation
    7. 7.6 Stability of Alkenes
    8. 7.7 Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Alkenes
    9. 7.8 Orientation of Electrophilic Additions: Markovnikov’s Rule
    10. 7.9 Carbocation Structure and Stability
    11. 7.10 The Hammond Postulate
    12. 7.11 Evidence for the Mechanism of Electrophilic Additions: Carbocation Rearrangements
    13. Chemistry Matters—Bioprospecting: Hunting for Natural Products
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Additional Problems
  9. 8 Alkenes: Reactions and Synthesis
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 8.1 Preparing Alkenes: A Preview of Elimination Reactions
    3. 8.2 Halogenation of Alkenes: Addition of X2
    4. 8.3 Halohydrins from Alkenes: Addition of HO-X
    5. 8.4 Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of H2O by Oxymercuration
    6. 8.5 Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of H2O by Hydroboration
    7. 8.6 Reduction of Alkenes: Hydrogenation
    8. 8.7 Oxidation of Alkenes: Epoxidation and Hydroxylation
    9. 8.8 Oxidation of Alkenes: Cleavage to Carbonyl Compounds
    10. 8.9 Addition of Carbenes to Alkenes: Cyclopropane Synthesis
    11. 8.10 Radical Additions to Alkenes: Chain-Growth Polymers
    12. 8.11 Biological Additions of Radicals to Alkenes
    13. 8.12 Reaction Stereochemistry: Addition of H2O to an Achiral Alkene
    14. 8.13 Reaction Stereochemistry: Addition of H2O to a Chiral Alkene
    15. Chemistry Matters—Terpenes: Naturally Occurring Alkenes
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Summary of Reactions
    19. Additional Problems
  10. 9 Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 9.1 Naming Alkynes
    3. 9.2 Preparation of Alkynes: Elimination Reactions of Dihalides
    4. 9.3 Reactions of Alkynes: Addition of HX and X2
    5. 9.4 Hydration of Alkynes
    6. 9.5 Reduction of Alkynes
    7. 9.6 Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes
    8. 9.7 Alkyne Acidity: Formation of Acetylide Anions
    9. 9.8 Alkylation of Acetylide Anions
    10. 9.9 An Introduction to Organic Synthesis
    11. Chemistry Matters—The Art of Organic Synthesis
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Summary of Reactions
    15. Additional Problems
  11. 10 Organohalides
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 10.1 Names and Structures of Alkyl Halides
    3. 10.2 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alkanes: Radical Halogenation
    4. 10.3 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alkenes: Allylic Bromination
    5. 10.4 Stability of the Allyl Radical: Resonance Revisited
    6. 10.5 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alcohols
    7. 10.6 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Grignard Reagents
    8. 10.7 Organometallic Coupling Reactions
    9. 10.8 Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry
    10. Chemistry Matters—Naturally Occurring Organohalides
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
  12. 11 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Nucleophilic Substitutions and Eliminations
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 11.1 The Discovery of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
    3. 11.2 The SN2 Reaction
    4. 11.3 Characteristics of the SN2 Reaction
    5. 11.4 The SN1 Reaction
    6. 11.5 Characteristics of the SN1 Reaction
    7. 11.6 Biological Substitution Reactions
    8. 11.7 Elimination Reactions: Zaitsev’s Rule
    9. 11.8 The E2 Reaction and the Deuterium Isotope Effect
    10. 11.9 The E2 Reaction and Cyclohexane Conformation
    11. 11.10 The E1 and E1cB Reactions
    12. 11.11 Biological Elimination Reactions
    13. 11.12 A Summary of Reactivity: SN1, SN2, E1, E1cB, and E2
    14. Chemistry Matters—Green Chemistry
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Summary of Reactions
    18. Additional Problems
  13. 12 Structure Determination: Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 12.1 Mass Spectrometry of Small Molecules: Magnetic-Sector Instruments
    3. 12.2 Interpreting Mass Spectra
    4. 12.3 Mass Spectrometry of Some Common Functional Groups
    5. 12.4 Mass Spectrometry in Biological Chemistry: Time-of-Flight (TOF) Instruments
    6. 12.5 Spectroscopy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    7. 12.6 Infrared Spectroscopy
    8. 12.7 Interpreting Infrared Spectra
    9. 12.8 Infrared Spectra of Some Common Functional Groups
    10. Chemistry Matters—X-Ray Crystallography
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Problems
  14. 13 Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 13.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    3. 13.2 The Nature of NMR Absorptions
    4. 13.3 Chemical Shifts
    5. 13.4 Chemical Shifts in 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    6. 13.5 Integration of 1H NMR Absorptions: Proton Counting
    7. 13.6 Spin–Spin Splitting in 1H NMR Spectra
    8. 13.7 1H NMR Spectroscopy and Proton Equivalence
    9. 13.8 More Complex Spin–Spin Splitting Patterns
    10. 13.9 Uses of 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    11. 13.10 13C NMR Spectroscopy: Signal Averaging and FT–NMR
    12. 13.11 Characteristics of 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    13. 13.12 DEPT 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    14. 13.13 Uses of 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    15. Chemistry Matters—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Additional Problems
  15. 14 Conjugated Compounds and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 14.1 Stability of Conjugated Dienes: Molecular Orbital Theory
    3. 14.2 Electrophilic Additions to Conjugated Dienes: Allylic Carbocations
    4. 14.3 Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control of Reactions
    5. 14.4 The Diels–Alder Cycloaddition Reaction
    6. 14.5 Characteristics of the Diels–Alder Reaction
    7. 14.6 Diene Polymers: Natural and Synthetic Rubbers
    8. 14.7 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
    9. 14.8 Interpreting Ultraviolet Spectra: The Effect of Conjugation
    10. 14.9 Conjugation, Color, and the Chemistry of Vision
    11. Chemistry Matters—Photolithography
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Summary of Reactions
    15. Additional Problems
  16. 15 Benzene and Aromaticity
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 15.1 Naming Aromatic Compounds
    3. 15.2 Structure and Stability of Benzene
    4. 15.3 Aromaticity and the Hückel 4n + 2 Rule
    5. 15.4 Aromatic Ions
    6. 15.5 Aromatic Heterocycles: Pyridine and Pyrrole
    7. 15.6 Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
    8. 15.7 Spectroscopy of Aromatic Compounds
    9. Chemistry Matters—Aspirin, NSAIDs, and COX-2 Inhibitors
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  17. 16 Chemistry of Benzene: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 16.1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions: Bromination
    3. 16.2 Other Aromatic Substitutions
    4. 16.3 Alkylation and Acylation of Aromatic Rings: The Friedel–Crafts Reaction
    5. 16.4 Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Substitutions
    6. 16.5 Trisubstituted Benzenes: Additivity of Effects
    7. 16.6 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution
    8. 16.7 Benzyne
    9. 16.8 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds
    10. 16.9 Reduction of Aromatic Compounds
    11. 16.10 Synthesis of Polysubstituted Benzenes
    12. Chemistry Matters—Combinatorial Chemistry
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  18. 17 Alcohols and Phenols
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 17.1 Naming Alcohols and Phenols
    3. 17.2 Properties of Alcohols and Phenols
    4. 17.3 Preparation of Alcohols: A Review
    5. 17.4 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Reduction
    6. 17.5 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Grignard Reaction
    7. 17.6 Reactions of Alcohols
    8. 17.7 Oxidation of Alcohols
    9. 17.8 Protection of Alcohols
    10. 17.9 Phenols and Their Uses
    11. 17.10 Reactions of Phenols
    12. 17.11 Spectroscopy of Alcohols and Phenols
    13. Chemistry Matters—Ethanol: Chemical, Drug, and Poison
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Summary of Reactions
    17. Additional Problems
  19. 18 Ethers and Epoxides; Thiols and Sulfides
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 18.1 Names and Properties of Ethers
    3. 18.2 Preparing Ethers
    4. 18.3 Reactions of Ethers: Acidic Cleavage
    5. 18.4 Cyclic Ethers: Epoxides
    6. 18.5 Reactions of Epoxides: Ring-Opening
    7. 18.6 Crown Ethers
    8. 18.7 Thiols and Sulfides
    9. 18.8 Spectroscopy of Ethers
    10. Chemistry Matters—Epoxy Resins and Adhesives
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
    15. Preview of Carbonyl Chemistry
  20. 19 Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 19.1 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
    3. 19.2 Preparing Aldehydes and Ketones
    4. 19.3 Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    5. 19.4 Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
    6. 19.5 Nucleophilic Addition of H2O: Hydration
    7. 19.6 Nucleophilic Addition of HCN: Cyanohydrin Formation
    8. 19.7 Nucleophilic Addition of Hydride and Grignard Reagents: Alcohol Formation
    9. 19.8 Nucleophilic Addition of Amines: Imine and Enamine Formation
    10. 19.9 Nucleophilic Addition of Hydrazine: The Wolff–Kishner Reaction
    11. 19.10 Nucleophilic Addition of Alcohols: Acetal Formation
    12. 19.11 Nucleophilic Addition of Phosphorus Ylides: The Wittig Reaction
    13. 19.12 Biological Reductions
    14. 19.13 Conjugate Nucleophilic Addition to α,β‑Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones
    15. 19.14 Spectroscopy of Aldehydes and Ketones
    16. Chemistry Matters—Enantioselective Synthesis
    17. Key Terms
    18. Summary
    19. Summary of Reactions
    20. Additional Problems
  21. 20 Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 20.1 Naming Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    3. 20.2 Structure and Properties of Carboxylic Acids
    4. 20.3 Biological Acids and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    5. 20.4 Substituent Effects on Acidity
    6. 20.5 Preparing Carboxylic Acids
    7. 20.6 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids: An Overview
    8. 20.7 Chemistry of Nitriles
    9. 20.8 Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    10. Chemistry Matters—Vitamin C
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
  22. 21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 21.1 Naming Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    3. 21.2 Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions
    4. 21.3 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids
    5. 21.4 Chemistry of Acid Halides
    6. 21.5 Chemistry of Acid Anhydrides
    7. 21.6 Chemistry of Esters
    8. 21.7 Chemistry of Amides
    9. 21.8 Chemistry of Thioesters and Acyl Phosphates: Biological Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    10. 21.9 Polyamides and Polyesters: Step-Growth Polymers
    11. 21.10 Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    12. Chemistry Matters—β-Lactam Antibiotics
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  23. 22 Carbonyl Alpha-Substitution Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 22.1 Keto–Enol Tautomerism
    3. 22.2 Reactivity of Enols: α-Substitution Reactions
    4. 22.3 Alpha Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    5. 22.4 Alpha Bromination of Carboxylic Acids
    6. 22.5 Acidity of Alpha Hydrogen Atoms: Enolate Ion Formation
    7. 22.6 Reactivity of Enolate Ions
    8. 22.7 Alkylation of Enolate Ions
    9. Chemistry Matters—Barbiturates
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Summary of Reactions
    13. Additional Problems
  24. 23 Carbonyl Condensation Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 23.1 Carbonyl Condensations: The Aldol Reaction
    3. 23.2 Carbonyl Condensations versus Alpha Substitutions
    4. 23.3 Dehydration of Aldol Products: Synthesis of Enones
    5. 23.4 Using Aldol Reactions in Synthesis
    6. 23.5 Mixed Aldol Reactions
    7. 23.6 Intramolecular Aldol Reactions
    8. 23.7 The Claisen Condensation Reaction
    9. 23.8 Mixed Claisen Condensations
    10. 23.9 Intramolecular Claisen Condensations: The Dieckmann Cyclization
    11. 23.10 Conjugate Carbonyl Additions: The Michael Reaction
    12. 23.11 Carbonyl Condensations with Enamines: The Stork Enamine Reaction
    13. 23.12 The Robinson Annulation Reaction
    14. 23.13 Some Biological Carbonyl Condensation Reactions
    15. Chemistry Matters—A Prologue to Metabolism
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Summary of Reactions
    19. Additional Problems
  25. 24 Amines and Heterocycles
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 24.1 Naming Amines
    3. 24.2 Structure and Properties of Amines
    4. 24.3 Basicity of Amines
    5. 24.4 Basicity of Arylamines
    6. 24.5 Biological Amines and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    7. 24.6 Synthesis of Amines
    8. 24.7 Reactions of Amines
    9. 24.8 Reactions of Arylamines
    10. 24.9 Heterocyclic Amines
    11. 24.10 Spectroscopy of Amines
    12. Chemistry Matters—Green Chemistry II: Ionic Liquids
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  26. 25 Biomolecules: Carbohydrates
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 25.1 Classification of Carbohydrates
    3. 25.2 Representing Carbohydrate Stereochemistry: Fischer Projections
    4. 25.3 D,L Sugars
    5. 25.4 Configurations of the Aldoses
    6. 25.5 Cyclic Structures of Monosaccharides: Anomers
    7. 25.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides
    8. 25.7 The Eight Essential Monosaccharides
    9. 25.8 Disaccharides
    10. 25.9 Polysaccharides and Their Synthesis
    11. 25.10 Some Other Important Carbohydrates
    12. Chemistry Matters—Sweetness
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  27. 26 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 26.1 Structures of Amino Acids
    3. 26.2 Amino Acids and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation: Isoelectric Points
    4. 26.3 Synthesis of Amino Acids
    5. 26.4 Peptides and Proteins
    6. 26.5 Amino Acid Analysis of Peptides
    7. 26.6 Peptide Sequencing: The Edman Degradation
    8. 26.7 Peptide Synthesis
    9. 26.8 Automated Peptide Synthesis: The Merrifield Solid-Phase Method
    10. 26.9 Protein Structure
    11. 26.10 Enzymes and Coenzymes
    12. 26.11 How Do Enzymes Work? Citrate Synthase
    13. Chemistry Matters—The Protein Data Bank
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Summary of Reactions
    17. Additional Problems
  28. 27 Biomolecules: Lipids
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 27.1 Waxes, Fats, and Oils
    3. 27.2 Soap
    4. 27.3 Phospholipids
    5. 27.4 Prostaglandins and Other Eicosanoids
    6. 27.5 Terpenoids
    7. 27.6 Steroids
    8. 27.7 Biosynthesis of Steroids
    9. Chemistry Matters—Saturated Fats, Cholesterol, and Heart Disease
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  29. 28 Biomolecules: Nucleic Acids
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 28.1 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
    3. 28.2 Base Pairing in DNA
    4. 28.3 Replication of DNA
    5. 28.4 Transcription of DNA
    6. 28.5 Translation of RNA: Protein Biosynthesis
    7. 28.6 DNA Sequencing
    8. 28.7 DNA Synthesis
    9. 28.8 The Polymerase Chain Reaction
    10. Chemistry Matters—DNA Fingerprinting
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Problems
  30. 29 The Organic Chemistry of Metabolic Pathways
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 29.1 An Overview of Metabolism and Biochemical Energy
    3. 29.2 Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: The Fate of Glycerol
    4. 29.3 Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: β-Oxidation
    5. 29.4 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids
    6. 29.5 Catabolism of Carbohydrates: Glycolysis
    7. 29.6 Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
    8. 29.7 The Citric Acid Cycle
    9. 29.8 Carbohydrate Biosynthesis: Gluconeogenesis
    10. 29.9 Catabolism of Proteins: Deamination
    11. 29.10 Some Conclusions about Biological Chemistry
    12. Chemistry Matters—Statin Drugs
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Additional Problems
  31. 30 Orbitals and Organic Chemistry: Pericyclic Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 30.1 Molecular Orbitals of Conjugated Pi Systems
    3. 30.2 Electrocyclic Reactions
    4. 30.3 Stereochemistry of Thermal Electrocyclic Reactions
    5. 30.4 Photochemical Electrocyclic Reactions
    6. 30.5 Cycloaddition Reactions
    7. 30.6 Stereochemistry of Cycloadditions
    8. 30.7 Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    9. 30.8 Some Examples of Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    10. 30.9 A Summary of Rules for Pericyclic Reactions
    11. Chemistry Matters—Vitamin D, the Sunshine Vitamin
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Additional Problems
  32. 31 Synthetic Polymers
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 31.1 Chain-Growth Polymers
    3. 31.2 Stereochemistry of Polymerization: Ziegler–Natta Catalysts
    4. 31.3 Copolymers
    5. 31.4 Step-Growth Polymers
    6. 31.5 Olefin Metathesis Polymerization
    7. 31.6 Intramolecular Olefin Metathesis
    8. 31.7 Polymer Structure and Physical Properties
    9. Chemistry Matters—Degradable Polymers
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  33. A | Nomenclature of Polyfunctional Organic Compounds
  34. B | Acidity Constants for Some Organic Compounds
  35. C | Glossary
  36. D | Periodic Table
  37. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
  38. Index

29.4 • Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids

One of the most striking features of the common fatty acids is that they have an even number of carbon atoms (Table 27.1). This occurs because all fatty acids are derived biosynthetically from acetyl CoA by sequential addition of two-carbon units to a growing chain. The acetyl CoA, in turn, arises primarily from the metabolic breakdown of carbohydrates in the glycolysis pathway, which we’ll see in Section 29.5. Thus, dietary carbohydrates consumed in excess of immediate energy needs are turned into fats for storage.

As a general rule in biological chemistry, the anabolic pathway by which a substance is made is not the reverse of the catabolic pathway by which the same substance is degraded. The two paths must differ in some respects for both to be energetically favorable. Thus, the β-oxidation pathway for converting fatty acids into acetyl CoA and the biosynthesis of fatty acids from acetyl CoA are related but are not exact opposites. Differences include the identity of the acyl-group carrier, the stereochemistry of the β-hydroxyacyl reaction intermediate, and the identity of the redox coenzyme. FAD is used to introduce a double bond in β-oxidation, while NADPH is used to reduce the double bond in fatty-acid biosynthesis.

In bacteria, each step in fatty-acid synthesis is catalyzed by a separate enzyme. In vertebrates, however, fatty-acid synthesis is catalyzed by an immense, multienzyme complex called a synthase that contains two identical subunits of 2505 amino acids each and catalyzes all steps in the pathway. In fact, for an 18-carbon fatty acid, the synthase catalyzes 42 separate steps! An overview of fatty-acid biosynthesis is shown in Figure 29.6.

Steps 12 of Figure 29.6: Acyl Transfers

The starting material for fatty-acid biosynthesis is the thioester acetyl CoA, the final product of carbohydrate breakdown, as we’ll see in Section 29.6. The pathway begins with several priming reactions, which transport acetyl CoA and convert it into more reactive species. The first priming reaction is a nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction that converts acetyl CoA into acetyl ACP (acyl carrier protein).

Notice that the mechanism of the nucleophilic acyl substitution in step 1 can be given in an abbreviated form that saves space by not explicitly showing the tetrahedral reaction intermediate. Instead, electron movement is shown as a heart-shaped path around the carbonyl oxygen to imply the two steps of the full mechanism. Biochemists commonly use this kind of abbreviated format, and we’ll also use it on occasion through the rest of this chapter.

Figure 29.6 MECHANISM
The pathway for fatty-acid biosynthesis from the two-carbon precursor, acetyl CoA. Individual steps are explained in the text.
Fatty acid biosynthesis of butyryl A C P from acetyl-coenzyme A involves a series of trans-esterifications, Claisain-like condensations, ketone reduction, dehydration, and double bond reduction.
Acetyl-coenzyme A reacts with base and H S A C P to form tetrahedral intermediate that further forms acetyl S A C P. The abbreviated mechanism is indicated in parentheses.

In bacteria, ACP is a small protein of 77 residues that transports an acyl group from one enzyme to another. In vertebrates, however, ACP appears to be a long arm on a multienzyme synthase complex, whose apparent function is to shepherd an acyl group from site to site within the complex. As in acetyl CoA, the acyl group in acetyl ACP is linked by a thioester bond to the sulfur atom of phosphopantetheine. The phosphopantetheine is in turn linked to ACP through the side-chain  –OH group of a serine residue in the enzyme.

The structure of acetyl A C P comprises a C H 3 C O linked to phosphopantetheine and an O connected to methylene linked to serine and A C P.

Step 2, another priming reaction, involves a further exchange of thioester linkages by another nucleophilic acyl substitution and results in covalent bonding of the acetyl group to a cysteine residue in the synthase complex that catalyzes the upcoming condensation step.

Steps 34 of Figure 29.6: Carboxylation and Acyl Transfer

Step 3 is a loading reaction in which acetyl CoA is carboxylated by reaction with HCO3 and ATP to yield malonyl CoA plus ADP. This step requires the coenzyme biotin, which is bonded to the lysine residue of acetyl CoA carboxylase and acts as a carrier of CO2. Biotin first reacts with bicarbonate ion to give N-carboxybiotin, which then reacts with the enolate ion of acetyl CoA and transfers the CO2 group. Thus, biotin acts as a carrier of CO2, binding it in one step and releasing it in another.

The mechanism of the CO2 transfer reaction with acetyl CoA to give malonyl CoA is thought to involve CO2 as the reactive species. One proposal is that the loss of CO2 is favored by hydrogen-bond formation between the N-carboxybiotin carbonyl group and a nearby acidic site in the enzyme. Simultaneous deprotonation of acetyl CoA by a basic site in the enzyme gives a thioester enolate ion that can react with CO2 as it forms (Figure 29.7).

Figure 29.7 MECHANISM
Mechanism of step 3 in Figure 29.6, the biotin-dependent carboxylation of acetyl CoA to yield malonyl CoA.
The enzyme deprotonates acetyl-coenzyme A to form an enolate and N-carboxybiotin undergoes decarboxylation to carbon dioxide and biotin. The enolate reacts with carbon dioxide to form malonyl-coenzyme A.

Following the formation of malonyl CoA, another nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction occurs in step 4 to form the more reactive malonyl ACP, thereby binding the malonyl group to an ACP arm of the multienzyme synthase. At this point, both acetyl and malonyl groups are bound to the enzyme, and the stage is set for their condensation.

Step 5 of Figure 29.6: Condensation

The key carbon–carbon bond-forming reaction that builds the fatty-acid chain occurs in step 5. This step is simply a Claisen condensation between acetyl synthase as the electrophilic acceptor and malonyl ACP as the nucleophilic donor. The mechanism of the condensation is thought to involve decarboxylation of malonyl ACP to give an enolate ion, followed by immediate nucleophilic addition of the enolate ion to the carbonyl group of acetyl synthase. Breakdown of the tetrahedral intermediate then gives the four-carbon condensation product acetoacetyl ACP and frees the synthase binding site for attachment of the chain-elongated acyl group at the end of the sequence.

Acetyl synthase reacts with malonyl A C P to form an tetrahedral intermediate and carbon dioxide. This leads to acetoacetyl A C P and synthase connected to a sulfur anion.

Steps 68 of Figure 29.6: Reduction and Dehydration

The ketone carbonyl group in acetoacetyl ACP is next reduced to the alcohol β-hydroxybutyryl ACP by β-keto thioester reductase and NADPH, a reducing coenzyme closely related to NADH. R stereochemistry results at the newly formed chirality center in the β-hydroxy thioester product. (Note that the systematic name of a butyryl group is butanoyl.)

Acetoacetyl A C P reacts with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydride to form beta-hydroxybutyrate A C P and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate cation.

Subsequent dehydration of β-hydroxybutyryl ACP by an E1cB reaction in step 7 yields trans-crotonyl ACP, and the carbon–carbon double bond of crotonyl ACP is reduced by NADPH in step 8 to yield butyryl ACP. The double-bond reduction occurs by conjugate nucleophilic addition of a hydride ion from NADPH to the β carbon of trans-crotonyl ACP. In vertebrates, this reduction occurs by an overall syn addition, but other organisms carry out similar chemistry with different stereochemistry.

Crotonyl A C P reacts with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydride to form an enolate that is protonated  to butyryl A C P.

The net effect of the eight steps in the fatty-acid biosynthesis pathway is to take two 2-carbon acetyl groups and combine them into a 4-carbon butyryl group. Further condensation of the butyryl group with another malonyl ACP yields a 6-carbon unit, and still further repetitions add two carbon atoms at a time until the 16-carbon palmitoyl ACP is produced.

A thiol butyryl ester undergoes condensation with HS-Synthase to form butyryl synthase. It forms a six-carbon chain linked to S A C P that further forms sixteen-carbon chain named palmitoyl A C P.

Further chain elongation of palmitic acid occurs by reactions similar to those just described, but CoA rather than ACP acts as the carrier group, and separate enzymes are needed for each step rather than a multienzyme synthase complex.

Problem 29-4
Write a mechanism for the dehydration reaction of β-hydroxybutyryl ACP to yield crotonyl ACP in step 7 of fatty-acid synthesis.
Problem 29-5
Evidence for the role of acetate in fatty-acid biosynthesis comes from isotope-labeling experiments. If acetate labeled with 13C in the methyl group (13CH3CO2H) were incorporated into fatty acids, at what positions in the fatty-acid chain would you expect the 13C label to appear?
Problem 29-6

Does the reduction of acetoacetyl ACP in step 6 occur on the Re face or the Si face of the molecule?

Acetoacetyl A C P reacts nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydride to form beta-hydroxybutyryl A C P and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate cation.
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