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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 What Is Anthropology?
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 The Study of Humanity, or "Anthropology Is Vast"
    3. 1.2 The Four-Field Approach: Four Approaches within the Guiding Narrative
    4. 1.3 Overcoming Ethnocentrism
    5. 1.4 Western Bias in Our Assumptions about Humanity
    6. 1.5 Holism, Anthropology’s Distinctive Approach
    7. 1.6 Cross-Cultural Comparison and Cultural Relativism
    8. 1.7 Reaching for an Insider’s Point of View
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Bibliography
  3. 2 Methods: Cultural and Archaeological
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Archaeological Research Methods
    3. 2.2 Conservation and Naturalism
    4. 2.3 Ethnography and Ethnology
    5. 2.4 Participant Observation and Interviewing
    6. 2.5 Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis
    7. 2.6 Collections
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Bibliography
  4. 3 Culture Concept Theory: Theories of Cultural Change
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 The Homeyness of Culture
    3. 3.2 The Winkiness of Culture
    4. 3.3 The Elements of Culture
    5. 3.4 The Aggregates of Culture
    6. 3.5 Modes of Cultural Analysis
    7. 3.6 The Paradoxes of Culture
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Bibliography
  5. 4 Biological Evolution and Early Human Evidence
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 What Is Biological Anthropology?
    3. 4.2 What’s in a Name? The Science of Taxonomy
    4. 4.3 It’s All in the Genes! The Foundation of Evolution
    5. 4.4 Evolution in Action: Past and Present
    6. 4.5 What Is a Primate?
    7. 4.6 Origin of and Classification of Primates
    8. 4.7 Our Ancient Past: The Earliest Hominins
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Bibliography
  6. 5 The Genus Homo and the Emergence of Us
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Defining the Genus Homo
    3. 5.2 Tools and Brains: Homo habilis, Homo ergaster, and Homo erectus
    4. 5.3 The Emergence of Us: The Archaic Homo
    5. 5.4 Tracking Genomes: Our Human Story Unfolds
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. Bibliography
  7. 6 Language and Communication
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 The Emergence and Development of Language
    3. 6.2 Language and the Mind
    4. 6.3 Language, Community, and Culture
    5. 6.4 Performativity and Ritual
    6. 6.5 Language and Power
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Bibliography
  8. 7 Work, Life, and Value: Economic Anthropology
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Economies: Two Ways to Study Them
    3. 7.2 Modes of Subsistence
    4. 7.3 Gathering and Hunting
    5. 7.4 Pastoralism
    6. 7.5 Plant Cultivation: Horticulture and Agriculture
    7. 7.6 Exchange, Value, and Consumption
    8. 7.7 Industrialism and Postmodernity
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Bibliography
  9. 8 Authority, Decisions, and Power: Political Anthropology
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Colonialism and the Categorization of Political Systems
    3. 8.2 Acephalous Societies: Bands and Tribes
    4. 8.3 Centralized Societies: Chiefdoms and States
    5. 8.4 Modern Nation-States
    6. 8.5 Resistance, Revolution, and Social Movements
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Bibliography
  10. 9 Social Inequalities
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Theories of Inequity and Inequality
    3. 9.2 Systems of Inequality
    4. 9.3 Intersections of Inequality
    5. 9.4 Studying In: Addressing Inequities within Anthropology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Critical Thinking Questions
    8. Bibliography
  11. 10 The Global Impact of Human Migration
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Peopling of the World
    3. 10.2 Early Global Movements and Cultural Hybridity
    4. 10.3 Peasantry and Urbanization
    5. 10.4 Inequality along the Margins
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. Bibliography
  12. 11 Forming Family through Kinship
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 What Is Kinship?
    3. 11.2 Defining Family and Household
    4. 11.3 Reckoning Kinship across Cultures
    5. 11.4 Marriage and Families across Cultures
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. Bibliography
  13. 12 Gender and Sexuality
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Sex, Gender, and Sexuality in Anthropology
    3. 12.2 Performing Gender Categories
    4. 12.3 The Power of Gender: Patriarchy and Matriarchy
    5. 12.4 Sexuality and Queer Anthropology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. Bibliography
  14. 13 Religion and Culture
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 What Is Religion?
    3. 13.2 Symbolic and Sacred Space
    4. 13.3 Myth and Religious Doctrine
    5. 13.4 Rituals of Transition and Conformity
    6. 13.5 Other Forms of Religious Practice
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Bibliography
  15. 14 Anthropology of Food
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Food as a Material Artifact
    3. 14.2 A Biocultural Approach to Food
    4. 14.3 Food and Cultural Identity
    5. 14.4 The Globalization of Food
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. Bibliography
  16. 15 Anthropology of Media
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Putting the Mass into Media
    3. 15.2 Putting Culture into Media Studies
    4. 15.3 Visual Anthropology and Ethnographic Film
    5. 15.4 Photography, Representation, and Memory
    6. 15.5 News Media, the Public Sphere, and Nationalism
    7. 15.6 Community, Development, and Broadcast Media
    8. 15.7 Broadcasting Modernity and National Identity
    9. 15.8 Digital Media, New Socialities
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. Bibliography
  17. 16 Art, Music, and Sport
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Anthropology of the Arts
    3. 16.2 Anthropology of Music
    4. 16.3 An Anthropological View of Sport throughout Time
    5. 16.4 Anthropology, Representation, and Performance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. Bibliography
  18. 17 Medical Anthropology
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 What Is Medical Anthropology?
    3. 17.2 Ethnomedicine
    4. 17.3 Theories and Methods
    5. 17.4 Applied Medical Anthropology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. Bibliography
  19. 18 Human-Animal Relationship
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Humans and Animals
    3. 18.2 Animals and Subsistence
    4. 18.3 Symbolism and Meaning of Animals
    5. 18.4 Pet-Keeping
    6. 18.5 Animal Industries and the Animal Trade
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Bibliography
  20. 19 Indigenous Anthropology
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
    3. 19.2 Colonization and Anthropology
    4. 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
    5. 19.4 Applied and Public Anthropology and Indigenous Peoples
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. Bibliography
  21. 20 Anthropology on the Ground
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Our Challenging World Today
    3. 20.2 Why Anthropology Matters
    4. 20.3 What Anthropologists Can Do
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Critical Thinking Questions
    8. Bibliography
  22. Index
A
absolute dating methods 2.1 Archaeological Research Methods
afterlife of slavery 9.2 Systems of Inequality
alternative modernity 7.7 Industrialism and Postmodernity
American Association of Biological Anthropologists 4.1 What Is Biological Anthropology?
American Association of Physical Anthropologists 4.1 What Is Biological Anthropology?
American Indian Movement 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
ancestor spirits 13.1 What Is Religion?
Ancestral characteristics 4.4 Evolution in Action: Past and Present
angiosperm theory 4.5 What Is a Primate?
animal domestication 7.4 Pastoralism
anthropocentrism 18.1 Humans and Animals
arboreal theory 4.5 What Is a Primate?
archaeological context 2.1 Archaeological Research Methods
archaeological excavation 2.1 Archaeological Research Methods
archaeological stratification 2.1 Archaeological Research Methods
Archival collections 2.6 Collections
Argonauts of the Western Pacific 11.1 What Is Kinship?
armchair anthropology 2.3 Ethnography and Ethnology
Asinskâwôiniwak 18.2 Animals and Subsistence
Association of Black Anthropologists (ABA) 9.4 Studying In: Addressing Inequities within Anthropology
austerity practices 9.3 Intersections of Inequality
Australopithecus afarensis 4.7 Our Ancient Past: The Earliest Hominins
Australopithecus africanus 4.7 Our Ancient Past: The Earliest Hominins
authoritative knowledge 17.4 Applied Medical Anthropology
B
Barasana 18.4 Pet-Keeping
Bering Strait theory 10.1 Peopling of the World
Bifurcate merging kinship 11.3 Reckoning Kinship across Cultures
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 20.1 Our Challenging World Today
Biological anthropologists 3.1 The Homeyness of Culture
biological species definition 4.2 What’s in a Name? The Science of Taxonomy
Biomedicine 17.2 Ethnomedicine
Black in Bioanthropology Collective (BiBA) 9.4 Studying In: Addressing Inequities within Anthropology
blood quantum 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
boarding schools 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
British Museum 2.6 Collections
Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) 2.2 Conservation and Naturalism
C
Cactus Hill Site 10.1 Peopling of the World
California textbook controversy 10.2 Early Global Movements and Cultural Hybridity
Carnival in Brazil 3.3 The Elements of Culture
causal attributions 17.3 Theories and Methods
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 9.3 Intersections of Inequality
Cercopithecinae 4.5 What Is a Primate?
Cercopithecoidea 4.5 What Is a Primate?
Cherokee Trail of Tears 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
Chinuk Wawa: Kakwa nsayka ulman-tilixam laska munk-kemteks nsayka / As Our Elders Teach Us to Speak It 2.4 Participant Observation and Interviewing
Chronometric dating methods 2.1 Archaeological Research Methods
class societies 9.2 Systems of Inequality
Cleveland Museum of Natural History 3.3 The Elements of Culture
clinical observations 17.3 Theories and Methods
closed corporate communities 10.3 Peasantry and Urbanization
Coast Chumash tribe 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
collections 2.6 Collections
colonial government 8.4 Modern Nation-States
colonial states 8.4 Modern Nation-States
Coming of Age in Samoa 2.3 Ethnography and Ethnology
Council for the Preservation of Anthropological Records 20.2 Why Anthropology Matters
cranial capacity 5.1 Defining the Genus Homo
critical medical anthropology (CMA) 17.3 Theories and Methods
critical race theorist 9.3 Intersections of Inequality
Critical race theory (CRT) 9.1 Theories of Inequity and Inequality
Critical theories of health 17.3 Theories and Methods
cross-cutting relationship 2.1 Archaeological Research Methods
Cultural capital 9.2 Systems of Inequality
cultural concepts of distress 17.4 Applied Medical Anthropology
cultural evolutionism 3.5 Modes of Cultural Analysis
cultural frames 3.3 The Elements of Culture
cultural identities 14.3 Food and Cultural Identity
cultural materialism 3.5 Modes of Cultural Analysis
cultural practices 3.3 The Elements of Culture
cultural systems model 17.3 Theories and Methods
Cultural values 3.3 The Elements of Culture
D
Debra L. Friedkin Site 10.1 Peopling of the World
decolonize anthropology 19.2 Colonization and Anthropology
domestic dependent nations 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
domestication 18.1 Humans and Animals
downward social mobility 9.2 Systems of Inequality
Dragon Boat Festival 14.3 Food and Cultural Identity
E
Eastern Band of Cherokee 14.1 Food as a Material Artifact
ecological species definition 4.2 What’s in a Name? The Science of Taxonomy
Economic capital 9.2 Systems of Inequality
Encephalization 5.1 Defining the Genus Homo
encephalization quotient (EQ) 5.1 Defining the Genus Homo
endocranial cast 5.1 Defining the Genus Homo
Environmental migration 10.4 Inequality along the Margins
ethnoentomology 18.1 Humans and Animals
Ethnomedicine 17.2 Ethnomedicine
Euro-American settlers 3.6 The Paradoxes of Culture
evolutionary anthropology 4.1 What Is Biological Anthropology?
evolutionary medicine 17.4 Applied Medical Anthropology
F
family of orientation 11.2 Defining Family and Household
family of procreation 11.2 Defining Family and Household
federal Indian reservations 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
Feminist anthropology 2.3 Ethnography and Ethnology
finding aid 2.6 Collections
fishing and hunting rights 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
folk taxonomies 6.2 Language and the Mind
food prescriptions 14.3 Food and Cultural Identity
food proscriptions 14.3 Food and Cultural Identity
food traditions Introduction
foragers 7.4 Pastoralism
fragile state 8.4 Modern Nation-States
G
gathering-hunting 7.3 Gathering and Hunting
gender relations 9.2 Systems of Inequality
genealogical method 11.1 What Is Kinship?
general-purpose money 7.6 Exchange, Value, and Consumption
Generalized reciprocity 7.6 Exchange, Value, and Consumption
genetically modified plants 14.2 A Biocultural Approach to Food
Great Smoky Mountains National Park 14.1 Food as a Material Artifact
grinder Introduction
grindstone Introduction
Guaraní 18.4 Pet-Keeping
H
Harlem Birthright Project 9.3 Intersections of Inequality
health decision-making analysis 17.3 Theories and Methods
Hicks-Bartlett 9.2 Systems of Inequality
historical particularism 3.5 Modes of Cultural Analysis
I
Iconographic study 16.1 Anthropology of the Arts
ideological state apparatuses 9.1 Theories of Inequity and Inequality
idioms of distress 17.3 Theories and Methods
Illness narrative interviews 17.3 Theories and Methods
imagined communities 8.4 Modern Nation-States
immigrants Introduction
Indian Claims Commission 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
Indigenous anthropology 2.3 Ethnography and Ethnology
Indigenous languages 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
Indigenous perspectives 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
Indigenous philosophy 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
infant cranial boarding 4.1 What Is Biological Anthropology?
inheritance of acquired characteristics 4.4 Evolution in Action: Past and Present
Institutional inequalities 9.1 Theories of Inequity and Inequality
intellectual property 3.6 The Paradoxes of Culture
intergenerational wealth 9.3 Intersections of Inequality
internal migration 10.3 Peasantry and Urbanization
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 9.3 Intersections of Inequality
international repatriation 2.6 Collections
Interpersonal inequalities 9.1 Theories of Inequity and Inequality
Inuit people 13.1 What Is Religion?
Istanbul Grand Bazaar 3.3 The Elements of Culture
K
Kalapalo 18.4 Pet-Keeping
Kalapuya languages 2.2 Conservation and Naturalism
kelp highway hypothesis 10.1 Peopling of the World
kennel clubs 18.4 Pet-Keeping
Klamath tribe 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
L
Language Introduction
language immersion program 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
language revitalization 6.5 Language and Power
language socialization 6.3 Language, Community, and Culture
law of contagion 13.1 What Is Religion?
law of similarity 13.1 What Is Religion?
League of the Ho-dé-no-sau-nee, or Iroquois 2.3 Ethnography and Ethnology
Linguistic anthropologists 3.1 The Homeyness of Culture
linguistic relativity 6.2 Language and the Mind
linguistic universals 6.2 Language and the Mind
Long-term research projects 2.4 Participant Observation and Interviewing
M
Marshall court trilogy 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
mate recognition species definition 4.2 What’s in a Name? The Science of Taxonomy
matrilineal (or uterine) descent 11.3 Reckoning Kinship across Cultures
medical ecology 17.3 Theories and Methods
Medical pluralism 17.2 Ethnomedicine
medical racism 9.2 Systems of Inequality
medical statistics 17.3 Theories and Methods
Mendel’s first law of inheritance 4.3 It’s All in the Genes! The Foundation of Evolution
Mendel’s second law of inheritance 4.3 It’s All in the Genes! The Foundation of Evolution
Merino people 13.1 What Is Religion?
Mexico Introduction
microaggressions 9.2 Systems of Inequality
Migrants Introduction
Migration Introduction
Mitochondrial Eve or mtMRCA 5.4 Tracking Genomes: Our Human Story Unfolds
mode of subsistence 7.2 Modes of Subsistence
Monotheistic religions 13.1 What Is Religion?
Monte Verde Site 10.1 Peopling of the World
multi-sited ethnographic research 10.4 Inequality along the Margins
multispecies ethnography 18.1 Humans and Animals
music artifacts 16.2 Anthropology of Music
N
Naming ceremonies 6.4 Performativity and Ritual
nation-states 8.4 Modern Nation-States
National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) 2.6 Collections
Native American 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
Native American Graves and Repatriation Act 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
Native perspectives 2.2 Conservation and Naturalism
Native studies 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
Native studies programs 19.2 Colonization and Anthropology
natural history museums 2.2 Conservation and Naturalism
net-positive houses 20.2 Why Anthropology Matters
Nomadic pastoralism 18.2 Animals and Subsistence
nomadism 7.4 Pastoralism
North American Traditional Indigenous Food Systems (NATIFS) 1.4 Western Bias in Our Assumptions about Humanity
Nunamiut Ethnoarchaeology 2.3 Ethnography and Ethnology
O
Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT) 9.1 Theories of Inequity and Inequality
Okie migration 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
Ontological anthropology 3.5 Modes of Cultural Analysis
oral tradition 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
Oregon “Trails of Tears 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
P
pastoral societies 18.2 Animals and Subsistence
Pastoralism 7.4 Pastoralism
pastoralists 7.4 Pastoralism
patrilineal (or agnatic) descent 11.3 Reckoning Kinship across Cultures
period of retention 2.6 Collections
personal leavings 13.1 What Is Religion?
pet keeping 18.4 Pet-Keeping
phylogenetic relationships 4.4 Evolution in Action: Past and Present
phylogenetic species definition 4.2 What’s in a Name? The Science of Taxonomy
physical anthropology 4.1 What Is Biological Anthropology?
placebo effect 17.3 Theories and Methods
political anthropology Introduction
political economic medical anthropology (PEMA) 17.3 Theories and Methods
polytheistic religions 13.1 What Is Religion?
postcolonial studies 8.4 Modern Nation-States
postcranial features 5.1 Defining the Genus Homo
postmarital residence rules 11.4 Marriage and Families across Cultures
pre-Clovis culture 10.1 Peopling of the World
proselytization 13.1 What Is Religion?
provenance 2.6 Collections
psychobiological dynamic of health 17.4 Applied Medical Anthropology
R
racial capitalism 9.2 Systems of Inequality
racial disparities 9.2 Systems of Inequality
racial inequalities 9.2 Systems of Inequality
racial refusal 9.2 Systems of Inequality
Repatriation 2.6 Collections
Repressive state apparatuses 9.1 Theories of Inequity and Inequality
Reyes-Garcia 17.2 Ethnomedicine
S
salvage anthropology 2.2 Conservation and Naturalism
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis 6.2 Language and the Mind
school-to-prison pipeline 9.2 Systems of Inequality
Section 106 2.6 Collections
Seventh Day Adventists 14.2 A Biocultural Approach to Food
sexual division of labor 7.3 Gathering and Hunting
Siletz Reservation 2.2 Conservation and Naturalism
skeletal wear patterns 14.1 Food as a Material Artifact
Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian 3.3 The Elements of Culture
social capital 9.2 Systems of Inequality
social mobility 9.2 Systems of Inequality
Society of Black Archaeologists (SBA) 9.4 Studying In: Addressing Inequities within Anthropology
sociocultural constructions 11.1 What Is Kinship?
socioecological system 4.1 What Is Biological Anthropology?
Sojourner syndrome 9.3 Intersections of Inequality
Southwest Oregon Research Project 2.6 Collections, 19.2 Colonization and Anthropology
Special-purpose money 7.6 Exchange, Value, and Consumption
species reintroduction 20.1 Our Challenging World Today
spirituality 13.1 What Is Religion?
state historic preservation officer (SHPO) or tribal historic preservation officer (THPO) 2.6 Collections
state religion 13.1 What Is Religion?
stratigraphic superposition 2.1 Archaeological Research Methods
Strepsirrhini 4.5 What Is a Primate?
structural functionalism 3.5 Modes of Cultural Analysis
Structural functionalists 3.5 Modes of Cultural Analysis
Structural inequalities 9.1 Theories of Inequity and Inequality
Summers Collection 2.6 Collections
symbolic approach 17.3 Theories and Methods
symbolic interaction approach 17.3 Theories and Methods
Symbolic violence 9.2 Systems of Inequality
systemic racism 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family 11.1 What Is Kinship?
T
terms of address 11.1 What Is Kinship?
terms of reference 11.1 What Is Kinship?
Three-dimensional collections 2.6 Collections
time-space compression 7.7 Industrialism and Postmodernity
Trade and Intercourse Acts 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
traditional ecological knowledge 17.2 Ethnomedicine
transhumance 7.4 Pastoralism
Transhumant pastoralists 18.2 Animals and Subsistence
tribal liquidation/termination 19.1 Indigenous Peoples
Trobriand Islands 11.1 What Is Kinship?
typological sequences 2.1 Archaeological Research Methods
W
Washington Redskins’ 19.3 Indigenous Agency and Rights
Wasson Jr. 2.6 Collections
West-Eastern Divan Orchestra 9.1 Theories of Inequity and Inequality
White privilege 9.2 Systems of Inequality
Whiteness studies 9.2 Systems of Inequality
Wodaabe 7.4 Pastoralism
World Health Organization 14.2 A Biocultural Approach to Food
X
Xoloitzcuintli 18.1 Humans and Animals
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