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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Check Your Understanding

14.1

4.77×10−2V4.77×10−2V

14.2

a. decreasing; b. increasing; Since the current flows in the opposite direction of the diagram, in order to get a positive emf on the left-hand side of diagram (a), we need to decrease the current to the left, which creates a reinforced emf where the positive end is on the left-hand side. To get a positive emf on the right-hand side of diagram (b), we need to increase the current to the left, which creates a reinforced emf where the positive end is on the right-hand side.

14.3

40 A/s

14.4

a. 4.5×10−5H4.5×10−5H; b. 4.5×10−3V4.5×10−3V

14.5

a. 2.4×10−7Wb2.4×10−7Wb; b. 6.4×10−5m26.4×10−5m2

14.6

0.50 J

14.8

a. 2.2 s; b. 43 H; c. 1.0 s

14.10

a. 2.5μF2.5μF; b. π/2rad or3π/2radπ/2rad or3π/2rad; c. 1.4×103rad/s1.4×103rad/s

14.11

a. overdamped; b. 0.75 J

Conceptual Questions

1.

WbA=T·m2A=V·sA=VA/sWbA=T·m2A=V·sA=VA/s

3.

The induced current from the 12-V battery goes through an inductor, generating a large voltage.

5.

Self-inductance is proportional to the magnetic flux and inversely proportional to the current. However, since the magnetic flux depends on the current I, these effects cancel out. This means that the self-inductance does not depend on the current. If the emf is induced across an element, it does depend on how the current changes with time.

7.

Consider the ends of a wire a part of an RL circuit and determine the self-inductance from this circuit.

9.

The magnetic field will flare out at the end of the solenoid so there is less flux through the last turn than through the middle of the solenoid.

11.

As current flows through the inductor, there is a back current by Lenz’s law that is created to keep the net current at zero amps, the initial current.

13.

no

15.

At t=0t=0, or when the switch is first thrown.

17.

1/4

19.

Initially, IR1=εR1IR1=εR1 and IR2=0IR2=0, and after a long time has passed, IR1=εR1IR1=εR1 and IR2=εR2IR2=εR2.

21.

yes

23.

The amplitude of energy oscillations depend on the initial energy of the system. The frequency in a LC circuit depends on the values of inductance and capacitance.

25.

This creates an RLC circuit that dissipates energy, causing oscillations to decrease in amplitude slowly or quickly depending on the value of resistance.

27.

You would have to pick out a resistance that is small enough so that only one station at a time is picked up, but big enough so that the tuner doesn’t have to be set at exactly the correct frequency. The inductance or capacitance would have to be varied to tune into the station however practically speaking, variable capacitors are a lot easier to build in a circuit.

Problems

29.

M=3.6×10−3HM=3.6×10−3H

31.

a. 3.8×10−4H3.8×10−4H; b. 3.8×10−4H3.8×10−4H

33.

M21=2.3×10−5HM21=2.3×10−5H

35.

0.24 H

37.

0.4 A/s

39.

ε=480πsin(120πtπ/2)Vε=480πsin(120πtπ/2)V

41.

0.15 V. This is the same polarity as the emf driving the current.

43.

a. 0.089 H/m; b. 0.44 V/m

45.

Ll=4.16×10−7H/mLl=4.16×10−7H/m

47.

0.01 A

49.

6.0 g

51.

Um=7.0×10−7JUm=7.0×10−7J

53.

a. 4.0 A; b. 2.4 A; c. on R: V=12VV=12V; on L: V=7.9VV=7.9V

55.

0.69τ0.69τ

57.

a. 2.52 ms; b. 99.2Ω99.2Ω

59.

a. I1=I2=1.7AI1=I2=1.7A; b. I1=2.73A,I2=1.36AI1=2.73A,I2=1.36A; c. I1=0,I2=0.54AI1=0,I2=0.54A; d. I1=I2=0I1=I2=0

61.

proof

63.

ω=3.2×107rad/sω=3.2×107rad/s

65.

a. 1.57×10−6s1.57×10−6s; b. 3.93×10−7s3.93×10−7s

67.

q=qm2,I=qm2LCq=qm2,I=qm2LC

69.

C=14π2f2Lf1=540Hz;C1=3.5×10−11Ff2=1600Hz;C2=4.0×10−12FC=14π2f2Lf1=540Hz;C1=3.5×10−11Ff2=1600Hz;C2=4.0×10−12F

71.

6.9 ms

Additional Problems

73.

Let a equal the radius of the long, thin wire, r the location where the magnetic field is measured, and R the upper limit of the problem where we will take R as it approaches infinity.
proof Outside,B=μ0I2πrInside,B=μ0Ir2πa2 U=μ0I2l4π(14+lnRa) So,2UI2=μ0l2π(14+lnRa)andL= Outside,B=μ0I2πrInside,B=μ0Ir2πa2 U=μ0I2l4π(14+lnRa) So,2UI2=μ0l2π(14+lnRa)andL=

75.

M=μ0lπlnd+adM=μ0lπlnd+ad

77.

a. 100 T; b. 2 A; c. 0.50 H

79.

a. 0 A; b. 2.4 A

81.

a. 2.50×106V2.50×106V; (b) The voltage is so extremely high that arcing would occur and the current would not be reduced so rapidly. (c) It is not reasonable to shut off such a large current in such a large inductor in such an extremely short time.

Challenge Problems

83.

proof

85.

a. dBdt=6×10−6T/s;dBdt=6×10−6T/s; b. Φ=μ0aI2πln(a+bb)Φ=μ0aI2πln(a+bb); c. 4.4 nA

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