Check Your Understanding
(a) Taking the derivative with respect to time of the position function, we have (b) Since the velocity function is nonlinear, we suspect the average velocity is not equal to the instantaneous velocity. We check this and find
which is different from
The acceleration vector is constant and doesn’t change with time. If a, b, and c are not zero, then the velocity function must be linear in time. We have since taking the derivative of the velocity function produces If any of the components of the acceleration are zero, then that component of the velocity would be a constant.
(a) Choose the top of the cliff where the rock is thrown from the origin of the coordinate system. Although it is arbitrary, we typically choose time t = 0 to correspond to the origin. (b) The equation that describes the horizontal motion is With this equation becomes (c) Equation 4.16 through Equation 4.18 and Equation 4.19 describe the vertical motion, but since these equations simplify greatly to become and (d) We use the kinematic equations to find the x and y components of the velocity at the point of impact. Using and noting the point of impact is −100.0 m, we find the y component of the velocity at impact is We are given the x component, so we can calculate the total velocity at impact: v = 46.8 m/s and below the horizontal.
The golf shot at
Labeling subscripts for the vector equation, we have B = boat, R = river, and E = Earth. The vector equation becomes We have right triangle geometry shown in Figure 04_05_BoatRiv_img. Solving for , we have
The slope must be zero because the velocity vector is tangent to the graph of the position function.
No, motions in perpendicular directions are independent.
a. no; b. minimum at apex of trajectory and maximum at launch and impact; c. no, velocity is a vector; d. yes, where it lands
They both hit the ground at the same time.
If he is going to pass the ball to another player, he needs to keep his eyes on the reference frame in which the other players on the team are located.
a. , b.
a. , b.
a. , b. They aim high.
a. , b.
So the golfer’s shot lands 13.3 m short of the green.
It takes the wide receiver 1.1 s to cover the last 10 m of his run.
Venus is 108.2 million km from the Sun and has an orbital period of 0.6152 y.
c. , d. The accelerations are the same.
a. A = air, S = seagull, G = ground
velocity of seagull with respect to still air
Take the positive direction to be the same direction that the river is flowing, which is east. S = shore/Earth, W = water, and B = boat.
c. west of north
e. but only the component of the velocity straight across the river is used to get the time
Downstream = 0.3 km
The angle between and is so the direction of the wind is north of east.
The radius of the circle of revolution at latitude is The velocity of the body is for
with respect to the tangent to the circle of revolution directed inward.