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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Role of Accounting in Society
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Explain the Importance of Accounting and Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    3. 1.2 Identify Users of Accounting Information and How They Apply Information
    4. 1.3 Describe Typical Accounting Activities and the Role Accountants Play in Identifying, Recording, and Reporting Financial Activities
    5. 1.4 Explain Why Accounting Is Important to Business Stakeholders
    6. 1.5 Describe the Varied Career Paths Open to Individuals with an Accounting Education
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
  3. 2 Introduction to Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Describe the Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, Balance Sheet, and Statement of Cash Flows, and How They Interrelate
    3. 2.2 Define, Explain, and Provide Examples of Current and Noncurrent Assets, Current and Noncurrent Liabilities, Equity, Revenues, and Expenses
    4. 2.3 Prepare an Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, and Balance Sheet
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Analyzing and Recording Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Describe Principles, Assumptions, and Concepts of Accounting and Their Relationship to Financial Statements
    3. 3.2 Define and Describe the Expanded Accounting Equation and Its Relationship to Analyzing Transactions
    4. 3.3 Define and Describe the Initial Steps in the Accounting Cycle
    5. 3.4 Analyze Business Transactions Using the Accounting Equation and Show the Impact of Business Transactions on Financial Statements
    6. 3.5 Use Journal Entries to Record Transactions and Post to T-Accounts
    7. 3.6 Prepare a Trial Balance
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 The Adjustment Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Explain the Concepts and Guidelines Affecting Adjusting Entries
    3. 4.2 Discuss the Adjustment Process and Illustrate Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    4. 4.3 Record and Post the Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    5. 4.4 Use the Ledger Balances to Prepare an Adjusted Trial Balance
    6. 4.5 Prepare Financial Statements Using the Adjusted Trial Balance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Completing the Accounting Cycle
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Describe and Prepare Closing Entries for a Business
    3. 5.2 Prepare a Post-Closing Trial Balance
    4. 5.3 Apply the Results from the Adjusted Trial Balance to Compute Current Ratio and Working Capital Balance, and Explain How These Measures Represent Liquidity
    5. 5.4 Appendix: Complete a Comprehensive Accounting Cycle for a Business
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Merchandising Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Compare and Contrast Merchandising versus Service Activities and Transactions
    3. 6.2 Compare and Contrast Perpetual versus Periodic Inventory Systems
    4. 6.3 Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    5. 6.4 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Sale of Merchandise Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    6. 6.5 Discuss and Record Transactions Applying the Two Commonly Used Freight-In Methods
    7. 6.6 Describe and Prepare Multi-Step and Simple Income Statements for Merchandising Companies
    8. 6.7 Appendix: Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases and Sales Using the Periodic Inventory System
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Accounting Information Systems
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Define and Describe the Components of an Accounting Information System
    3. 7.2 Describe and Explain the Purpose of Special Journals and Their Importance to Stakeholders
    4. 7.3 Analyze and Journalize Transactions Using Special Journals
    5. 7.4 Prepare a Subsidiary Ledger
    6. 7.5 Describe Career Paths Open to Individuals with a Joint Education in Accounting and Information Systems
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Fraud, Internal Controls, and Cash
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Analyze Fraud in the Accounting Workplace
    3. 8.2 Define and Explain Internal Controls and Their Purpose within an Organization
    4. 8.3 Describe Internal Controls within an Organization
    5. 8.4 Define the Purpose and Use of a Petty Cash Fund, and Prepare Petty Cash Journal Entries
    6. 8.5 Discuss Management Responsibilities for Maintaining Internal Controls within an Organization
    7. 8.6 Define the Purpose of a Bank Reconciliation, and Prepare a Bank Reconciliation and Its Associated Journal Entries
    8. 8.7 Describe Fraud in Financial Statements and Sarbanes-Oxley Act Requirements
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Accounting for Receivables
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Explain the Revenue Recognition Principle and How It Relates to Current and Future Sales and Purchase Transactions
    3. 9.2 Account for Uncollectible Accounts Using the Balance Sheet and Income Statement Approaches
    4. 9.3 Determine the Efficiency of Receivables Management Using Financial Ratios
    5. 9.4 Discuss the Role of Accounting for Receivables in Earnings Management
    6. 9.5 Apply Revenue Recognition Principles to Long-Term Projects
    7. 9.6 Explain How Notes Receivable and Accounts Receivable Differ
    8. 9.7 Appendix: Comprehensive Example of Bad Debt Estimation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Inventory
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Describe and Demonstrate the Basic Inventory Valuation Methods and Their Cost Flow Assumptions
    3. 10.2 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Periodic Method
    4. 10.3 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Perpetual Method
    5. 10.4 Explain and Demonstrate the Impact of Inventory Valuation Errors on the Income Statement and Balance Sheet
    6. 10.5 Examine the Efficiency of Inventory Management Using Financial Ratios
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Long-Term Assets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Distinguish between Tangible and Intangible Assets
    3. 11.2 Analyze and Classify Capitalized Costs versus Expenses
    4. 11.3 Explain and Apply Depreciation Methods to Allocate Capitalized Costs
    5. 11.4 Describe Accounting for Intangible Assets and Record Related Transactions
    6. 11.5 Describe Some Special Issues in Accounting for Long-Term Assets
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Current Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Identify and Describe Current Liabilities
    3. 12.2 Analyze, Journalize, and Report Current Liabilities
    4. 12.3 Define and Apply Accounting Treatment for Contingent Liabilities
    5. 12.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record Short-Term Notes Payable
    6. 12.5 Record Transactions Incurred in Preparing Payroll
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Long-Term Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Explain the Pricing of Long-Term Liabilities
    3. 13.2 Compute Amortization of Long-Term Liabilities Using the Effective-Interest Method
    4. 13.3 Prepare Journal Entries to Reflect the Life Cycle of Bonds
    5. 13.4 Appendix: Special Topics Related to Long-Term Liabilities
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  15. 14 Corporation Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Explain the Process of Securing Equity Financing through the Issuance of Stock
    3. 14.2 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Issuance and Repurchase of Stock
    4. 14.3 Record Transactions and the Effects on Financial Statements for Cash Dividends, Property Dividends, Stock Dividends, and Stock Splits
    5. 14.4 Compare and Contrast Owners’ Equity versus Retained Earnings
    6. 14.5 Discuss the Applicability of Earnings per Share as a Method to Measure Performance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  16. 15 Partnership Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Describe the Advantages and Disadvantages of Organizing as a Partnership
    3. 15.2 Describe How a Partnership Is Created, Including the Associated Journal Entries
    4. 15.3 Compute and Allocate Partners’ Share of Income and Loss
    5. 15.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record the Admission and Withdrawal of a Partner
    6. 15.5 Discuss and Record Entries for the Dissolution of a Partnership
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  17. 16 Statement of Cash Flows
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Explain the Purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows
    3. 16.2 Differentiate between Operating, Investing, and Financing Activities
    4. 16.3 Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    5. 16.4 Prepare the Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    6. 16.5 Use Information from the Statement of Cash Flows to Prepare Ratios to Assess Liquidity and Solvency
    7. 16.6 Appendix: Prepare a Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Direct Method
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  18. Financial Statement Analysis
  19. Time Value of Money
  20. Suggested Resources
  21. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  22. Index

9.1 Explain the Revenue Recognition Principle and How It Relates to Current and Future Sales and Purchase Transactions

  • According to the revenue recognition principle, a company will recognize revenue when a product or service is provided to a client. The revenue must be reported in the period when the earnings process completes.
  • According to the matching principle, expenses must be matched with revenues in the period in which they are incurred. A mismatch in revenues and expenses can lead to financial statement misreporting.
  • When a customer pays for a product or service on a line of credit, the Accounts Receivable account is used. Accounts receivable must satisfy the following criteria: the customer owes money and has yet to pay, the amount is due in less than a company’s operating cycle, and the account usually does not incur interest.
  • When a customer purchases a product or service on credit, using an in-house account, Accounts Receivable increases and Sales Revenue increases. When the customer pays the amount due, Accounts Receivable decreases and Cash increases.
  • When a customer purchases a product or service with a third-party credit card, such as Visa, Accounts Receivable increases, Credit Card Expense increases, and Sales Revenue increases. When the credit card company pays the amount due, Accounts Receivable decreases and Cash increases for the original sales price less the credit card usage fee.

9.2 Account for Uncollectible Accounts Using the Balance Sheet and Income Statement Approaches

  • Bad debt is a result of unpaid and uncollectible customer accounts. Companies are required to record bad debt on financial statements as expenses.
  • The direct write-off method records bad debt only when the due date has passed for a known amount. Bad Debt Expense increases (debit) and Accounts Receivable decreases (credit) for the amount uncollectible.
  • The allowance method estimates uncollectible bad debt and matches the expense in the current period to revenues generated. There are three ways to calculate this estimation: the income statement method, balance sheet method/percentage of receivables, and balance sheet aging of receivables method.
  • The income statement method estimates bad debt based on a percentage of credit sales. Bad Debt Expense increases (debit) and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts increases (credit) for the amount estimated as uncollectible.
  • The balance sheet method estimates bad debt based on a percentage of outstanding accounts receivable. Bad Debt Expense increases (debit) and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts increases (credit) for the amount estimated as uncollectible.
  • The balance sheet aging of receivables method estimates bad debt based on outstanding accounts receivable, but it considers the time period that an account is past due. Bad Debt Expense increases (debit) and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts increases (credit) for the amount estimated as uncollectible.

9.3 Determine the Efficiency of Receivables Management Using Financial Ratios

  • Receivable ratios are best used to determine quick debt collection and lending practices. An investor, lender, or management may use these ratios—in conjunction with financial statement review, past performance, industry standards, and trends—to make an informed financial decision.
  • The accounts receivable turnover ratio shows how many times receivables are collected during a period and converted to cash. The ratio is found by taking net credit sales and dividing by average accounts receivable for the period.
  • The number of days’ sales in receivables ratio shows the expected number of days it will take to convert accounts receivable into cash. The ratio is found by taking 365 days and dividing by the accounts receivable turnover ratio.

9.4 Discuss the Role of Accounting for Receivables in Earnings Management

  • Companies may look to report earnings differently to improve stakeholder’s views of financial position. Earnings management works within GAAP to accomplish this, while earnings manipulation ignores GAAP.
  • Companies may choose to manage earnings to improve income level, increase borrowing opportunities, decrease tax liabilities, and improve company valuation for sales transactions. Accounts receivable is often prey to earnings manipulations.
  • Earnings management can occur in several ways, including changes to bad debt estimation methods, percentage uncollectible figures, and category distribution within the balance sheet aging method.
  • To understand company performance and unveil any management or manipulation to earnings, ratio analysis is paramount. Number of days’ sales in receivables ratio, and trend analysis, are most commonly used.

9.5 Apply Revenue Recognition Principles to Long-Term Projects

  • Long-term construction projects may recognize revenue under the percentage of completion method or the completed contract method. The percentage of completion method distributes cost and revenues based on the amount of estimated contract completion during the period.
  • Real estate installment sales require periodic payment from buyers. The installment method takes into account risk and distributes revenue based on a percentage of gross profit realized each period.
  • With multi-year magazine subscriptions, customers pay in advance for subscription services, and the amount reported for revenue each period is reasonably estimated, until any disruption to the contract occurs. At that time, a new estimation will be distributed over the life of the subscription.
  • In a combined equipment purchase with accompanying service contract, the customer pays for the contract up front, but there is no guarantee that service will be provided. Thus, a company may distribute estimated service revenues over the life of the contract or defer recognition and associated expenses until the contract period is complete.

9.6 Explain How Notes Receivable and Accounts Receivable Differ

  • Accounts receivable is an informal agreement between customer and company, with collection occurring in less than a year, and no interest requirement. In contrast, notes receivable is a legal contract, with collection occurring typically over a year, and interest requirements.
  • The terms of a note contract establish the principal collection amount, maturity date, and annual interest rate.
  • Interest is computed as the principal amount multiplied by the part of the year, multiplied by the annual interest rate. The entry to record accumulated interest increases interest receivable and interest revenue.
  • An honored note means collection occurred on time and in full. Recording an honored note includes an increase to cash and interest revenue, and a decrease to interest receivable and notes receivable.
  • A dishonored note means collection did not occur on time or in full. In this case, a note and the accumulated interest would be converted to accounts receivable.
  • When a company cannot collect on account, the company may consider selling the receivable to a collection agency. They will sell the receivable at a fraction of the value in order to apply resources elsewhere.
  • If a customer cannot pay its accounts receivable on time, it may renegotiate terms that include a note and interest, thereby converting the accounts receivable to notes receivable. in this case, accounts receivable decreases, and notes receivable and cash increase.
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