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Principles of Accounting, Volume 1: Financial Accounting

9.1 Explain the Revenue Recognition Principle and How It Relates to Current and Future Sales and Purchase Transactions

Principles of Accounting, Volume 1: Financial Accounting9.1 Explain the Revenue Recognition Principle and How It Relates to Current and Future Sales and Purchase Transactions
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Role of Accounting in Society
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Explain the Importance of Accounting and Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    3. 1.2 Identify Users of Accounting Information and How They Apply Information
    4. 1.3 Describe Typical Accounting Activities and the Role Accountants Play in Identifying, Recording, and Reporting Financial Activities
    5. 1.4 Explain Why Accounting Is Important to Business Stakeholders
    6. 1.5 Describe the Varied Career Paths Open to Individuals with an Accounting Education
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
  3. 2 Introduction to Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Describe the Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, Balance Sheet, and Statement of Cash Flows, and How They Interrelate
    3. 2.2 Define, Explain, and Provide Examples of Current and Noncurrent Assets, Current and Noncurrent Liabilities, Equity, Revenues, and Expenses
    4. 2.3 Prepare an Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, and Balance Sheet
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Analyzing and Recording Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Describe Principles, Assumptions, and Concepts of Accounting and Their Relationship to Financial Statements
    3. 3.2 Define and Describe the Expanded Accounting Equation and Its Relationship to Analyzing Transactions
    4. 3.3 Define and Describe the Initial Steps in the Accounting Cycle
    5. 3.4 Analyze Business Transactions Using the Accounting Equation and Show the Impact of Business Transactions on Financial Statements
    6. 3.5 Use Journal Entries to Record Transactions and Post to T-Accounts
    7. 3.6 Prepare a Trial Balance
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 The Adjustment Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Explain the Concepts and Guidelines Affecting Adjusting Entries
    3. 4.2 Discuss the Adjustment Process and Illustrate Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    4. 4.3 Record and Post the Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    5. 4.4 Use the Ledger Balances to Prepare an Adjusted Trial Balance
    6. 4.5 Prepare Financial Statements Using the Adjusted Trial Balance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Completing the Accounting Cycle
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Describe and Prepare Closing Entries for a Business
    3. 5.2 Prepare a Post-Closing Trial Balance
    4. 5.3 Apply the Results from the Adjusted Trial Balance to Compute Current Ratio and Working Capital Balance, and Explain How These Measures Represent Liquidity
    5. 5.4 Appendix: Complete a Comprehensive Accounting Cycle for a Business
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Merchandising Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Compare and Contrast Merchandising versus Service Activities and Transactions
    3. 6.2 Compare and Contrast Perpetual versus Periodic Inventory Systems
    4. 6.3 Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    5. 6.4 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Sale of Merchandise Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    6. 6.5 Discuss and Record Transactions Applying the Two Commonly Used Freight-In Methods
    7. 6.6 Describe and Prepare Multi-Step and Simple Income Statements for Merchandising Companies
    8. 6.7 Appendix: Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases and Sales Using the Periodic Inventory System
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Accounting Information Systems
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Define and Describe the Components of an Accounting Information System
    3. 7.2 Describe and Explain the Purpose of Special Journals and Their Importance to Stakeholders
    4. 7.3 Analyze and Journalize Transactions Using Special Journals
    5. 7.4 Prepare a Subsidiary Ledger
    6. 7.5 Describe Career Paths Open to Individuals with a Joint Education in Accounting and Information Systems
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Fraud, Internal Controls, and Cash
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Analyze Fraud in the Accounting Workplace
    3. 8.2 Define and Explain Internal Controls and Their Purpose within an Organization
    4. 8.3 Describe Internal Controls within an Organization
    5. 8.4 Define the Purpose and Use of a Petty Cash Fund, and Prepare Petty Cash Journal Entries
    6. 8.5 Discuss Management Responsibilities for Maintaining Internal Controls within an Organization
    7. 8.6 Define the Purpose of a Bank Reconciliation, and Prepare a Bank Reconciliation and Its Associated Journal Entries
    8. 8.7 Describe Fraud in Financial Statements and Sarbanes-Oxley Act Requirements
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Accounting for Receivables
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Explain the Revenue Recognition Principle and How It Relates to Current and Future Sales and Purchase Transactions
    3. 9.2 Account for Uncollectible Accounts Using the Balance Sheet and Income Statement Approaches
    4. 9.3 Determine the Efficiency of Receivables Management Using Financial Ratios
    5. 9.4 Discuss the Role of Accounting for Receivables in Earnings Management
    6. 9.5 Apply Revenue Recognition Principles to Long-Term Projects
    7. 9.6 Explain How Notes Receivable and Accounts Receivable Differ
    8. 9.7 Appendix: Comprehensive Example of Bad Debt Estimation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Inventory
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Describe and Demonstrate the Basic Inventory Valuation Methods and Their Cost Flow Assumptions
    3. 10.2 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Periodic Method
    4. 10.3 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Perpetual Method
    5. 10.4 Explain and Demonstrate the Impact of Inventory Valuation Errors on the Income Statement and Balance Sheet
    6. 10.5 Examine the Efficiency of Inventory Management Using Financial Ratios
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Long-Term Assets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Distinguish between Tangible and Intangible Assets
    3. 11.2 Analyze and Classify Capitalized Costs versus Expenses
    4. 11.3 Explain and Apply Depreciation Methods to Allocate Capitalized Costs
    5. 11.4 Describe Accounting for Intangible Assets and Record Related Transactions
    6. 11.5 Describe Some Special Issues in Accounting for Long-Term Assets
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Current Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Identify and Describe Current Liabilities
    3. 12.2 Analyze, Journalize, and Report Current Liabilities
    4. 12.3 Define and Apply Accounting Treatment for Contingent Liabilities
    5. 12.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record Short-Term Notes Payable
    6. 12.5 Record Transactions Incurred in Preparing Payroll
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Long-Term Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Explain the Pricing of Long-Term Liabilities
    3. 13.2 Compute Amortization of Long-Term Liabilities Using the Effective-Interest Method
    4. 13.3 Prepare Journal Entries to Reflect the Life Cycle of Bonds
    5. 13.4 Appendix: Special Topics Related to Long-Term Liabilities
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  15. 14 Corporation Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Explain the Process of Securing Equity Financing through the Issuance of Stock
    3. 14.2 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Issuance and Repurchase of Stock
    4. 14.3 Record Transactions and the Effects on Financial Statements for Cash Dividends, Property Dividends, Stock Dividends, and Stock Splits
    5. 14.4 Compare and Contrast Owners’ Equity versus Retained Earnings
    6. 14.5 Discuss the Applicability of Earnings per Share as a Method to Measure Performance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  16. 15 Partnership Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Describe the Advantages and Disadvantages of Organizing as a Partnership
    3. 15.2 Describe How a Partnership Is Created, Including the Associated Journal Entries
    4. 15.3 Compute and Allocate Partners’ Share of Income and Loss
    5. 15.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record the Admission and Withdrawal of a Partner
    6. 15.5 Discuss and Record Entries for the Dissolution of a Partnership
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  17. 16 Statement of Cash Flows
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Explain the Purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows
    3. 16.2 Differentiate between Operating, Investing, and Financing Activities
    4. 16.3 Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    5. 16.4 Prepare the Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    6. 16.5 Use Information from the Statement of Cash Flows to Prepare Ratios to Assess Liquidity and Solvency
    7. 16.6 Appendix: Prepare a Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Direct Method
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  18. Financial Statement Analysis
  19. Time Value of Money
  20. Suggested Resources
  21. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  22. Index

You own a small clothing store and offer your customers cash, credit card, or in-house credit payment options. Many of your customers choose to pay with a credit card or charge the purchase to their in-house credit accounts. This means that your store is owed money in the future from either the customer or the credit card company, depending on payment method. Regardless of credit payment method, your company must decide when to recognize revenue. Do you recognize revenue when the sale occurs or when cash payment is received? When do you recognize the expenses associated with the sale? How are these transactions recognized?

Accounting Principles and Assumptions Regulating Revenue Recognition

Revenue and expense recognition timing is critical to transparent financial presentation. GAAP governs recognition for publicly traded companies. Even though GAAP is required only for public companies, to display their financial position most accurately, private companies should manage their financial accounting using its rules. Two principles governed by GAAP are the revenue recognition principle and the matching principle. Both the revenue recognition principle and the matching principle give specific direction on revenue and expense reporting.

The revenue recognition principle, which states that companies must recognize revenue in the period in which it is earned, instructs companies to recognize revenue when a four-step process is completed. This may not necessarily be when cash is collected. Revenue can be recognized when all of the following criteria have been met:

  • There is credible evidence that an arrangement exists.
  • Goods have been delivered or services have been performed.
  • The selling price or fee to the buyer is fixed or can be reasonably determined.
  • There is reasonable assurance that the amount owed to the seller is collectible.

The accrual accounting method aligns with this principle, and it records transactions related to revenue earnings as they occur, not when cash is collected. The revenue recognition principle may be updated periodically to reflect more current rules for reporting.

For example, a landscaping company signs a $600 contract with a customer to provide landscaping services for the next six months (assume the landscaping workload is distributed evenly throughout the six months). The customer sets up an in-house credit line with the company, to be paid in full at the end of the six months. The landscaping company records revenue earnings each month and provides service as planned. To align with the revenue recognition principle, the landscaping company will record one month of revenue ($100) each month as earned; they provided service for that month, even though the customer has not yet paid cash for the service.

Let’s say that the landscaping company also sells gardening equipment. It sells a package of gardening equipment to a customer who pays on credit. The landscaping company will recognize revenue immediately, given that they provided the customer with the gardening equipment (product), even though the customer has not yet paid cash for the product.

Accrual accounting also incorporates the matching principle (otherwise known as the expense recognition principle), which instructs companies to record expenses related to revenue generation in the period in which they are incurred. The principle also requires that any expense not directly related to revenues be reported in an appropriate manner. For example, assume that a company paid $6,000 in annual real estate taxes. The principle has determined that costs cannot effectively be allocated based on an individual month’s sales; instead, it treats the expense as a period cost. In this case, it is going to record 1/12 of the annual expense as a monthly period cost. Overall, the “matching” of expenses to revenues projects a more accurate representation of company financials. When this matching is not possible, then the expenses will be treated as period costs.

For example, when the landscaping company sells the gardening equipment, there are costs associated with that sale, such as the costs of materials purchased or shipping charges. The cost is reported in the same period as revenue associated with the sale. There cannot be a mismatch in reporting expenses and revenues; otherwise, financial statements are presented unfairly to stakeholders. Misreporting has a significant impact on company stakeholders. If the company delayed reporting revenues until a future period, net income would be understated in the current period. If expenses were delayed until a future period, net income would be overstated.

Let’s turn to the basic elements of accounts receivable, as well as the corresponding transaction journal entries.

Ethical Considerations

Ethics in Revenue Recognition

Because each industry typically has a different method for recognizing income, revenue recognition is one of the most difficult tasks for accountants, as it involves a number of ethical dilemmas related to income reporting. To provide an industry-wide approach, Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09 and other related updates were implemented to clarify revenue recognition rules. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) announced that these updates would replace U.S. GAAP’s current industry-specific revenue recognition practices with a principle-based approach, potentially affecting both day-to-day business accounting and the execution of business contracts with customers.1 The AICPA and the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) require professional accountants to act with due care and to remain abreast of new accounting rules and methods of accounting for different transactions, including revenue recognition.

The IFAC emphasizes the role of professional accountants working within a business in ensuring the quality of financial reporting: “Management is responsible for the financial information produced by the company. As such, professional accountants in businesses therefore have the task of defending the quality of financial reporting right at the source where the numbers and figures are produced!”2 In accordance with proper revenue recognition, accountants do not recognize revenue before it is earned.

Concepts In Practice

Gift Card Revenue Recognition

Gift cards have become an essential part of revenue generation and growth for many businesses. Although they are practical for consumers and low cost to businesses, navigating revenue recognition guidelines can be difficult. Gift cards with expiration dates require that revenue recognition be delayed until customer use or expiration. However, most gift cards now have no expiration date. So, when do you recognize revenue?

Companies may need to provide an estimation of projected gift card revenue and usage during a period based on past experience or industry standards. There are a few rules governing reporting. If the company determines that a portion of all of the issued gift cards will never be used, they may write this off to income. In some states, if a gift card remains unused, in part or in full, the unused portion of the card is transferred to the state government. It is considered unclaimed property for the customer, meaning that the company cannot keep these funds as revenue because, in this case, they have reverted to the state government.

Short-Term Revenue Recognition Examples

As mentioned, the revenue recognition principle requires that, in some instances, revenue is recognized before receiving a cash payment. In these situations, the customer still owes the company money. This money owed to the company is a type of receivable for the company and a payable for the company’s customer.

A receivable is an outstanding amount owed from a customer. One specific receivable type is called accounts receivable. Accounts receivable is an outstanding customer debt on a credit sale. The company expects to receive payment on accounts receivable within the company’s operating period (less than a year). Accounts receivable is considered an asset, and it typically does not include an interest payment from the customer. Some view this account as extending a line of credit to a customer. The customer would then be sent an invoice with credit payment terms. If the company has provided the product or service at the time of credit extension, revenue would also be recognized.

For example, Billie’s Watercraft Warehouse (BWW) sells various watercraft vehicles. They extend a credit line to customers purchasing vehicles in bulk. A customer bought 10 Jet Skis on credit at a sales price of $100,000. The cost of the sale to BWW is $70,000. The following journal entries occur.

Journal entries: Debit Accounts Receivable 100,000, Credit Sales Revenue 100,000. Explanation: “To record the sale of 10 jet skis.” Debit Cost of Goods Sold 70,000, credit Merchandise Inventory 70,000. Explanation: “To record the cost of sale.”

Accounts Receivable increases (debit) and Sales Revenue increases (credit) for $100,000. Accounts Receivable recognizes the amount owed from the customer, but not yet paid. Revenue recognition occurs because BWW provided the Jet Skis and completed the earnings process. Cost of Goods Sold increases (debit) and Merchandise Inventory decreases (credit) for $70,000, the expense associated with the sale. By recording both a sale and its related cost entry, the matching principle requirement is met.

When the customer pays the amount owed, the following journal entry occurs.

Journal entry: Debit Cash 100,000, credit Accounts Receivable 100,000. Explanation: “To record payment in full.”

Cash increases (debit) and Accounts Receivable decreases (credit) for the full amount owed. If the customer made only a partial payment, the entry would reflect the amount of the payment. For example, if the customer paid only $75,000 of the $100,000 owed, the following entry would occur. The remaining $25,000 owed would remain outstanding, reflected in Accounts Receivable.

Journal entry: Debit Cash 75,000, credit Accounts Receivable 75,000. Explanation: “To record partial payment.”

Another credit transaction that requires recognition is when a customer pays with a credit card (Visa and MasterCard, for example). This is different from credit extended directly to the customer from the company. In this case, the third-party credit card company accepts the payment responsibility. This reduces the risk of nonpayment, increases opportunities for sales, and expedites payment on accounts receivable. The tradeoff for the company receiving these benefits from the credit card company is that a fee is charged to use this service. The fee can be a flat figure per transaction, or it can be a percentage of the sales price. Using BWW as the example, let’s say one of its customers purchased a canoe for $300, using his or her Visa credit card. The cost to BWW for the canoe is $150. Visa charges BWW a service fee equal to 5% of the sales price. At the time of sale, the following journal entries are recorded.

Journal entry: Debit Accounts Receivable: VISA 285, debit Credit Card Expense 15, credit Sales Revenue 300. Explanation: “To record the sale of one canoe, VISA credit fee 5 percent.” Debit Cost of Goods Sold 150, credit Merchandise Inventory 150. Explanation: “To record the cost of sale.”

Accounts Receivable: Visa increases (debit) for the sale amount ($300) less the credit card fee ($15), for a $285 Accounts Receivable balance due from Visa. BWW’s Credit Card Expense increases (debit) for the amount of the credit card fee ($15; 300 × 5%), and Sales Revenue increases (credit) for the original sales amount ($300). BWW recognizes revenue as earned for this transaction because it provided the canoe and completed the earnings process. Cost of Goods Sold increases (debit) and Merchandise Inventory decreases (credit) for $150, the expense associated with the sale. As with the previous example, by recording both a sale and cost entry, the matching principle requirement is met. When Visa pays the amount owed to BWW, the following entry occurs in BWW’s records.

Journal entry: Debit Cash 285, credit Accounts Receivable: VISA 285. Explanation: “To record payment in full, less credit card fee.”

Cash increases (debit) and Accounts Receivable: Visa decreases (credit) for the full amount owed, less the credit card fee. Once BWW receives the cash payment from Visa, it may use those funds in other business activities.

An alternative to the journal entries shown is that the credit card company, in this case Visa, gives the merchant immediate credit in its cash account for the $285 due the merchant, without creating an account receivable. If that policy were in effect for this transaction, the following single journal entry would replace the prior two journal entry transactions. In the immediate cash payment method, an account receivable would not need to be recorded and then collected. The separate journal entry—to record the costs of goods sold and to reduce the canoe inventory that reflects the $150 cost of the sale—would still be the same.

Journal entry: Debit Cash 285, debit Credit Card Expense 15, credit Sales Revenue 300. Explanation: “To record the sale of one canoe and VISA credit card fee of 5 percent.”

Here’s a final credit transaction to consider. A company allows a sales discount on a purchase if a customer charges a purchase but makes the payment within a stated period of time, such as 10 or 15 days from the point of sale. In such a situation, a customer would see credit terms in the following form: 2/10, n/30. This particular example shows that a customer who pays his or her account within 10 days will receive a 2% discount. Otherwise, the customer will have 30 days from the date of the purchase to pay in full, but will not receive a discount. Both sales discounts and purchase discounts were addressed in detail in Merchandising Transactions.

Your Turn

Maine Lobster Market

Maine Lobster Market (MLM) provides fresh seafood products to customers. It allows customers to pay with cash, an in-house credit account, or a credit card. The credit card company charges Maine Lobster Market a 4% fee, based on credit sales using its card. From the following transactions, prepare journal entries for Maine Lobster Market.

Aug. 5 Pat paid $800 cash for lobster. The cost to MLM was $480.
Aug. 10 Pat purchased 30 pounds of shrimp at a sales price per pound of $25. The cost to MLM was $18.50 per pound and is charged to Pat’s in-store account.
Aug. 19 Pat purchased $1,200 of fish with a credit card. The cost to MLM is $865.

Solution

Journal entries: August 5 debit Cash 800, credit Sales Revenue 800. Explanation: To record cash sale. August 5 debit COGS 480, credit Merchandise Inventory: Lobster 480. Explanation: to record cost of sale. August 10 debit Accounts Receivable 750, credit Sales Revenue 750. Explanation: To record credit sale, 30 times $25. August 10 debit COGS 555, credit Merchandise Inventory: Shrimp 555. Explanation: to record cost of sale; 30 times $18.50. August 10 debit Accounts Receivable 1,152, debit Credit Card Expense 48, credit Sales Revenue 1,200. Explanation: To record credit card sale, 4 percent fee, 1200 times 4 percent. August 19 debit COGS 865, credit Merchandise Inventory: Fish 865. Explanation: To record cost of sale.

Your Turn

Jamal’s Music Supply

Jamal’s Music Supply allows customers to pay with cash or a credit card. The credit card company charges Jamal’s Music Supply a 3% fee, based on credit sales using its card. From the following transactions, prepare journal entries for Jamal’s Music Supply.

May 10 Kerry paid $1,790 for music supplies with a credit card. The cost to Jamal’s Music Supply was $1,100.
May 19 Kerry purchased 80 drumstick pairs at a sales price per pair of $14 with a credit card. The cost to Jamal’s Music Supply was $7.30 per pair.
May 28 Kerry purchased $345 of music supplies with cash. The cost to Jamal’s Music Supply was $122.

Solution

Journal entries: May 10: debit Accounts Receivable 1,736.30, debit Credit Card Expense 53.70, credit Sales Revenue 1790. Explanation: To record credit card sale, 3 percent fee. 1790 times 3 percent. May 10: debit COGS 1,100, credit Merchandise Inventory 1,100. Explanation: to record cost of sale. May 19: debit Accounts Receivable 1086.40, debit Credit Card Expense 33.60, credit Sales Revenue 1,120. Explanation: To record credit card sale, 3 percent fee, (80 times $14) times 3 percent. May 19: debit COGS 584, credit Merchandise Inventory 584. Explanation: to record cost of sale; 80 times $7.30. May 28: debit Cash 345, credit Sales Revenue 345. Explanation: To record cash sale. May 28: debit COGS 122, credit Merchandise Inventory 122. Explanation: To record cost of sale.

Footnotes

  • 1 American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). “Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” Revenue Recognition. n.d. https://www.aicpa.org/interestareas/frc/accountingfinancialreporting/revenuerecognition.html
  • 2 International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). “Roles and Importance of Professional Accountants in Business.” n.d. https://www.ifac.org/news-events/2013-10/roles-and-importance-professional-accountants-business
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