Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
Buy book
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Role of Accounting in Society
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Explain the Importance of Accounting and Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    3. 1.2 Identify Users of Accounting Information and How They Apply Information
    4. 1.3 Describe Typical Accounting Activities and the Role Accountants Play in Identifying, Recording, and Reporting Financial Activities
    5. 1.4 Explain Why Accounting Is Important to Business Stakeholders
    6. 1.5 Describe the Varied Career Paths Open to Individuals with an Accounting Education
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
  3. 2 Introduction to Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Describe the Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, Balance Sheet, and Statement of Cash Flows, and How They Interrelate
    3. 2.2 Define, Explain, and Provide Examples of Current and Noncurrent Assets, Current and Noncurrent Liabilities, Equity, Revenues, and Expenses
    4. 2.3 Prepare an Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, and Balance Sheet
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Analyzing and Recording Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Describe Principles, Assumptions, and Concepts of Accounting and Their Relationship to Financial Statements
    3. 3.2 Define and Describe the Expanded Accounting Equation and Its Relationship to Analyzing Transactions
    4. 3.3 Define and Describe the Initial Steps in the Accounting Cycle
    5. 3.4 Analyze Business Transactions Using the Accounting Equation and Show the Impact of Business Transactions on Financial Statements
    6. 3.5 Use Journal Entries to Record Transactions and Post to T-Accounts
    7. 3.6 Prepare a Trial Balance
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 The Adjustment Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Explain the Concepts and Guidelines Affecting Adjusting Entries
    3. 4.2 Discuss the Adjustment Process and Illustrate Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    4. 4.3 Record and Post the Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    5. 4.4 Use the Ledger Balances to Prepare an Adjusted Trial Balance
    6. 4.5 Prepare Financial Statements Using the Adjusted Trial Balance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Completing the Accounting Cycle
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Describe and Prepare Closing Entries for a Business
    3. 5.2 Prepare a Post-Closing Trial Balance
    4. 5.3 Apply the Results from the Adjusted Trial Balance to Compute Current Ratio and Working Capital Balance, and Explain How These Measures Represent Liquidity
    5. 5.4 Appendix: Complete a Comprehensive Accounting Cycle for a Business
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Merchandising Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Compare and Contrast Merchandising versus Service Activities and Transactions
    3. 6.2 Compare and Contrast Perpetual versus Periodic Inventory Systems
    4. 6.3 Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    5. 6.4 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Sale of Merchandise Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    6. 6.5 Discuss and Record Transactions Applying the Two Commonly Used Freight-In Methods
    7. 6.6 Describe and Prepare Multi-Step and Simple Income Statements for Merchandising Companies
    8. 6.7 Appendix: Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases and Sales Using the Periodic Inventory System
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Accounting Information Systems
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Define and Describe the Components of an Accounting Information System
    3. 7.2 Describe and Explain the Purpose of Special Journals and Their Importance to Stakeholders
    4. 7.3 Analyze and Journalize Transactions Using Special Journals
    5. 7.4 Prepare a Subsidiary Ledger
    6. 7.5 Describe Career Paths Open to Individuals with a Joint Education in Accounting and Information Systems
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Fraud, Internal Controls, and Cash
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Analyze Fraud in the Accounting Workplace
    3. 8.2 Define and Explain Internal Controls and Their Purpose within an Organization
    4. 8.3 Describe Internal Controls within an Organization
    5. 8.4 Define the Purpose and Use of a Petty Cash Fund, and Prepare Petty Cash Journal Entries
    6. 8.5 Discuss Management Responsibilities for Maintaining Internal Controls within an Organization
    7. 8.6 Define the Purpose of a Bank Reconciliation, and Prepare a Bank Reconciliation and Its Associated Journal Entries
    8. 8.7 Describe Fraud in Financial Statements and Sarbanes-Oxley Act Requirements
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Accounting for Receivables
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Explain the Revenue Recognition Principle and How It Relates to Current and Future Sales and Purchase Transactions
    3. 9.2 Account for Uncollectible Accounts Using the Balance Sheet and Income Statement Approaches
    4. 9.3 Determine the Efficiency of Receivables Management Using Financial Ratios
    5. 9.4 Discuss the Role of Accounting for Receivables in Earnings Management
    6. 9.5 Apply Revenue Recognition Principles to Long-Term Projects
    7. 9.6 Explain How Notes Receivable and Accounts Receivable Differ
    8. 9.7 Appendix: Comprehensive Example of Bad Debt Estimation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Inventory
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Describe and Demonstrate the Basic Inventory Valuation Methods and Their Cost Flow Assumptions
    3. 10.2 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Periodic Method
    4. 10.3 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Perpetual Method
    5. 10.4 Explain and Demonstrate the Impact of Inventory Valuation Errors on the Income Statement and Balance Sheet
    6. 10.5 Examine the Efficiency of Inventory Management Using Financial Ratios
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Long-Term Assets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Distinguish between Tangible and Intangible Assets
    3. 11.2 Analyze and Classify Capitalized Costs versus Expenses
    4. 11.3 Explain and Apply Depreciation Methods to Allocate Capitalized Costs
    5. 11.4 Describe Accounting for Intangible Assets and Record Related Transactions
    6. 11.5 Describe Some Special Issues in Accounting for Long-Term Assets
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Current Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Identify and Describe Current Liabilities
    3. 12.2 Analyze, Journalize, and Report Current Liabilities
    4. 12.3 Define and Apply Accounting Treatment for Contingent Liabilities
    5. 12.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record Short-Term Notes Payable
    6. 12.5 Record Transactions Incurred in Preparing Payroll
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Long-Term Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Explain the Pricing of Long-Term Liabilities
    3. 13.2 Compute Amortization of Long-Term Liabilities Using the Effective-Interest Method
    4. 13.3 Prepare Journal Entries to Reflect the Life Cycle of Bonds
    5. 13.4 Appendix: Special Topics Related to Long-Term Liabilities
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  15. 14 Corporation Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Explain the Process of Securing Equity Financing through the Issuance of Stock
    3. 14.2 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Issuance and Repurchase of Stock
    4. 14.3 Record Transactions and the Effects on Financial Statements for Cash Dividends, Property Dividends, Stock Dividends, and Stock Splits
    5. 14.4 Compare and Contrast Owners’ Equity versus Retained Earnings
    6. 14.5 Discuss the Applicability of Earnings per Share as a Method to Measure Performance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  16. 15 Partnership Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Describe the Advantages and Disadvantages of Organizing as a Partnership
    3. 15.2 Describe How a Partnership Is Created, Including the Associated Journal Entries
    4. 15.3 Compute and Allocate Partners’ Share of Income and Loss
    5. 15.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record the Admission and Withdrawal of a Partner
    6. 15.5 Discuss and Record Entries for the Dissolution of a Partnership
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  17. 16 Statement of Cash Flows
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Explain the Purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows
    3. 16.2 Differentiate between Operating, Investing, and Financing Activities
    4. 16.3 Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    5. 16.4 Prepare the Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    6. 16.5 Use Information from the Statement of Cash Flows to Prepare Ratios to Assess Liquidity and Solvency
    7. 16.6 Appendix: Prepare a Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Direct Method
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  18. Financial Statement Analysis
  19. Time Value of Money
  20. Suggested Resources
  21. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  22. Index
1.

LO 9.1Which of the following is not a criterion to recognize revenue under GAAP?

  1. The earnings process must be completed.
  2. A product or service must be provided.
  3. Cash must be collected.
  4. GAAP requires that the accrual basis accounting principle be used in the revenue recognition process.
2.

LO 9.1Which of the following best represents the matching principle criteria?

  1. Expenses are reported in the period in which they were incurred.
  2. Expenses may be reported in a different period than the matching revenues.
  3. Revenue and expenses are matched based on when expenses are paid.
  4. Revenue is recognized when an order occurs and not when the actual sale is initiated.
3.

LO 9.1If a customer pays with a credit card and the service has been provided, which of the following accounts will be used to record the sales entry for this transaction?

  1. Cost of Goods Sold, Merchandise Inventory, Sales Revenue
  2. Sales Revenue, Credit Card Expense, Accounts Receivable
  3. Accounts Receivable, Merchandise Inventory, Credit Card Expense
  4. Cost of Goods Sold, Credit Card Expense, Sales Revenue
4.

LO 9.1A car dealership sells a car to a customer for $35,000. The customer makes a 10% down payment, and the dealership finances the remaining 90% in-house. How much will the car dealership record in Accounts Receivable for this customer?

  1. $31,500
  2. $19,250
  3. $8,750
  4. $7,000
5.

LO 9.2Tines Commerce computes bad debt based on the allowance method. They determine their current year’s balance estimation to be a credit of $45,000. The previous period had a credit balance in Allowance for Doubtful Accounts of $12,000. What should be the reported figure in the adjusting entry for the current period?

  1. $12,000
  2. $45,000
  3. $33,000
  4. $57,000
6.

LO 9.2Doer Company reports year-end credit sales in the amount of $390,000 and accounts receivable of $85,500. Doer uses the income statement method to report bad debt estimation. The estimation percentage is 3.5%. What is the estimated balance uncollectible using the income statement method?

  1. $13,650
  2. $2,992.50
  3. $136,500
  4. $29,925
7.

LO 9.2Balloons Plus computes bad debt based on the allowance method. They determine their current year’s balance estimation to be a credit of $84,000. The previous period had a credit balance in Allowance for Doubtful Accounts of $26,000. What should be the reported figure in the adjusting entry for the current period?

  1. $84,000
  2. $58,000
  3. $26,000
  4. $110,000
8.

LO 9.2Conner Pride reports year-end credit sales in the amount of $567,000 and accounts receivable of $134,000. Conner uses the balance sheet method to report bad debt estimation. The estimation percentage is 4.6%. What is the estimated balance uncollectible using the balance sheet method?

  1. $26,082
  2. $6,164
  3. $260,820
  4. $61,640
9.

LO 9.2Which method delays recognition of bad debt until the specific customer accounts receivable is identified?

  1. income statement method
  2. balance sheet method
  3. direct write-off method
  4. allowance method
10.

LO 9.2Which of the following estimation methods considers the amount of time past due when computing bad debt?

  1. balance sheet method
  2. direct write-off method
  3. income statement method
  4. balance sheet aging of receivables method
11.

LO 9.3Which of the following best represents a positive product of a lower number of days’ sales in receivables ratio?

  1. collection of receivables is quick, and cash can be used for other business expenditures
  2. collection of receivables is slow, keeping cash secured to receivables
  3. credit extension is lenient
  4. the lender only lends to the top 10% of potential creditors
12.

LO 9.3South Rims has an accounts receivable balance at the end of 2018 of $357,470. The net credit sales for the year are $769,346. The balance at the end of 2017 was $325,300. What is the accounts receivable turnover rate for 2018 (rounded to two decimal places)?

  1. 2.02 times
  2. 2.25 times
  3. 2.15 times
  4. 1.13 times
13.

LO 9.3What information can best be elicited from a receivable ratio?

  1. company performance with current debt collection
  2. credit extension effect on cash sales
  3. likelihood of future customer bankruptcy filings
  4. an increase in future credit sales to current customers
14.

LO 9.3Ancient Grains Unlimited has an accounts receivable turnover ratio of 3.34 times. The net credit sales for the year are $567,920. What is the days’ sales in receivables ratio for 2018 (rounded to the nearest whole number)?

  1. 190 days
  2. 109 days
  3. 110 days
  4. 101 days
15.

LO 9.4Which of the following is not a way to manage earnings?

  1. Change the method for bad debt estimation.
  2. Change the figure for the uncollectible percentage.
  3. Under the balance sheet aging method, change the past-due categories.
  4. Change the dates of common stock issuance.
16.

LO 9.4Which of the following is true about earnings management?

  1. It works within the constraints of GAAP.
  2. It works outside the constraints of GAAP.
  3. It tries to improve stakeholder’s views of the company’s financial position.
  4. Both B and C
  5. Both A and C
17.

LO 9.4Which statement is most directly affected by a change to net income?

  1. balance sheet
  2. income statement
  3. statement of retained earnings
  4. statement of cash flows
18.

LO 9.4Michelle Company reports $345,000 in credit sales and $267,500 in accounts receivable at the end of 2019. Michelle currently uses the income statement method to record bad debt estimation at 4%. To manage earnings more efficiently, Michelle changes bed debt estimation to the balance sheet method at 4%. How much is the difference in net income between the income statement and balance sheet methods?

  1. $3,100
  2. $13,800
  3. $10,700
  4. $77,500
19.

LO 9.6Which of the following is true of a maturity date?

  1. It must be calculated in days, not in months or years.
  2. It is the date when principal and interest on a note are to be repaid to the lender.
  3. It is the date of establishment of note terms between a lender and customer.
  4. It is not a characteristic of a note receivable.
20.

LO 9.6Mark Industries issues a note in the amount of $45,000 on August 1, 2018 in exchange for the sale of merchandise. Which of the following is the correct journal entry for this sale?

  1. Debit Cash 45,000, credit Sales Revenue 45,000.
  2. Debit Cash 45,000, credit Notes Receivable: Mark 45,000.
  3. Debit Accounts Receivable: Mark 45,000, credit Sales Revenue 45,000.
  4. Debit Notes Receivable: Mark 45,000, credit Sales Revenue 45,000.
21.

LO 9.6A customer takes out a loan of $130,000 on January 1, with a maturity date of 36 months, and an annual interest rate of 11%. If 6 months have passed since note establishment, what would be the recorded interest figure at that time?

  1. $7,150
  2. $65,000
  3. $14,300
  4. $2,383
22.

LO 9.6A company collects an honored note with a maturity date of 24 months from establishment, a 10% interest rate, and an initial loan amount of $30,000. Which accounts are used to record collection of the honored note at maturity date?

  1. Interest Revenue, Interest Expense, Cash
  2. Interest Receivable, Cash, Notes Receivable
  3. Interest Revenue, Interest Receivable, Cash, Notes Receivable
  4. Notes Receivable, Interest Revenue, Cash, Interest Expense
23.

LO 9.6Orion Rentals is unable to collect on a note worth $25,000 and has accumulated interest of $250. It convert this note and interest to accounts receivable. After some time, Orion is still unable to collect the debt and it decides to sell the converted note to a collection agency. The collection agency will pay only 20% of the value of accounts receivable to Orion. What is the amount of cash paid to Orion from the collection agency?

  1. $5,000
  2. $5,050
  3. $20,000
  4. $19,950
Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-financial-accounting/pages/1-why-it-matters
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-financial-accounting/pages/1-why-it-matters
Citation information

© Apr 11, 2019 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.