Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
Buy book
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Role of Accounting in Society
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Explain the Importance of Accounting and Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    3. 1.2 Identify Users of Accounting Information and How They Apply Information
    4. 1.3 Describe Typical Accounting Activities and the Role Accountants Play in Identifying, Recording, and Reporting Financial Activities
    5. 1.4 Explain Why Accounting Is Important to Business Stakeholders
    6. 1.5 Describe the Varied Career Paths Open to Individuals with an Accounting Education
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
  3. 2 Introduction to Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Describe the Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, Balance Sheet, and Statement of Cash Flows, and How They Interrelate
    3. 2.2 Define, Explain, and Provide Examples of Current and Noncurrent Assets, Current and Noncurrent Liabilities, Equity, Revenues, and Expenses
    4. 2.3 Prepare an Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, and Balance Sheet
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Analyzing and Recording Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Describe Principles, Assumptions, and Concepts of Accounting and Their Relationship to Financial Statements
    3. 3.2 Define and Describe the Expanded Accounting Equation and Its Relationship to Analyzing Transactions
    4. 3.3 Define and Describe the Initial Steps in the Accounting Cycle
    5. 3.4 Analyze Business Transactions Using the Accounting Equation and Show the Impact of Business Transactions on Financial Statements
    6. 3.5 Use Journal Entries to Record Transactions and Post to T-Accounts
    7. 3.6 Prepare a Trial Balance
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 The Adjustment Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Explain the Concepts and Guidelines Affecting Adjusting Entries
    3. 4.2 Discuss the Adjustment Process and Illustrate Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    4. 4.3 Record and Post the Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    5. 4.4 Use the Ledger Balances to Prepare an Adjusted Trial Balance
    6. 4.5 Prepare Financial Statements Using the Adjusted Trial Balance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Completing the Accounting Cycle
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Describe and Prepare Closing Entries for a Business
    3. 5.2 Prepare a Post-Closing Trial Balance
    4. 5.3 Apply the Results from the Adjusted Trial Balance to Compute Current Ratio and Working Capital Balance, and Explain How These Measures Represent Liquidity
    5. 5.4 Appendix: Complete a Comprehensive Accounting Cycle for a Business
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Merchandising Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Compare and Contrast Merchandising versus Service Activities and Transactions
    3. 6.2 Compare and Contrast Perpetual versus Periodic Inventory Systems
    4. 6.3 Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    5. 6.4 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Sale of Merchandise Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    6. 6.5 Discuss and Record Transactions Applying the Two Commonly Used Freight-In Methods
    7. 6.6 Describe and Prepare Multi-Step and Simple Income Statements for Merchandising Companies
    8. 6.7 Appendix: Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases and Sales Using the Periodic Inventory System
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Accounting Information Systems
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Define and Describe the Components of an Accounting Information System
    3. 7.2 Describe and Explain the Purpose of Special Journals and Their Importance to Stakeholders
    4. 7.3 Analyze and Journalize Transactions Using Special Journals
    5. 7.4 Prepare a Subsidiary Ledger
    6. 7.5 Describe Career Paths Open to Individuals with a Joint Education in Accounting and Information Systems
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Fraud, Internal Controls, and Cash
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Analyze Fraud in the Accounting Workplace
    3. 8.2 Define and Explain Internal Controls and Their Purpose within an Organization
    4. 8.3 Describe Internal Controls within an Organization
    5. 8.4 Define the Purpose and Use of a Petty Cash Fund, and Prepare Petty Cash Journal Entries
    6. 8.5 Discuss Management Responsibilities for Maintaining Internal Controls within an Organization
    7. 8.6 Define the Purpose of a Bank Reconciliation, and Prepare a Bank Reconciliation and Its Associated Journal Entries
    8. 8.7 Describe Fraud in Financial Statements and Sarbanes-Oxley Act Requirements
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Accounting for Receivables
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Explain the Revenue Recognition Principle and How It Relates to Current and Future Sales and Purchase Transactions
    3. 9.2 Account for Uncollectible Accounts Using the Balance Sheet and Income Statement Approaches
    4. 9.3 Determine the Efficiency of Receivables Management Using Financial Ratios
    5. 9.4 Discuss the Role of Accounting for Receivables in Earnings Management
    6. 9.5 Apply Revenue Recognition Principles to Long-Term Projects
    7. 9.6 Explain How Notes Receivable and Accounts Receivable Differ
    8. 9.7 Appendix: Comprehensive Example of Bad Debt Estimation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Inventory
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Describe and Demonstrate the Basic Inventory Valuation Methods and Their Cost Flow Assumptions
    3. 10.2 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Periodic Method
    4. 10.3 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Perpetual Method
    5. 10.4 Explain and Demonstrate the Impact of Inventory Valuation Errors on the Income Statement and Balance Sheet
    6. 10.5 Examine the Efficiency of Inventory Management Using Financial Ratios
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Long-Term Assets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Distinguish between Tangible and Intangible Assets
    3. 11.2 Analyze and Classify Capitalized Costs versus Expenses
    4. 11.3 Explain and Apply Depreciation Methods to Allocate Capitalized Costs
    5. 11.4 Describe Accounting for Intangible Assets and Record Related Transactions
    6. 11.5 Describe Some Special Issues in Accounting for Long-Term Assets
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Current Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Identify and Describe Current Liabilities
    3. 12.2 Analyze, Journalize, and Report Current Liabilities
    4. 12.3 Define and Apply Accounting Treatment for Contingent Liabilities
    5. 12.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record Short-Term Notes Payable
    6. 12.5 Record Transactions Incurred in Preparing Payroll
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Long-Term Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Explain the Pricing of Long-Term Liabilities
    3. 13.2 Compute Amortization of Long-Term Liabilities Using the Effective-Interest Method
    4. 13.3 Prepare Journal Entries to Reflect the Life Cycle of Bonds
    5. 13.4 Appendix: Special Topics Related to Long-Term Liabilities
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  15. 14 Corporation Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Explain the Process of Securing Equity Financing through the Issuance of Stock
    3. 14.2 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Issuance and Repurchase of Stock
    4. 14.3 Record Transactions and the Effects on Financial Statements for Cash Dividends, Property Dividends, Stock Dividends, and Stock Splits
    5. 14.4 Compare and Contrast Owners’ Equity versus Retained Earnings
    6. 14.5 Discuss the Applicability of Earnings per Share as a Method to Measure Performance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  16. 15 Partnership Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Describe the Advantages and Disadvantages of Organizing as a Partnership
    3. 15.2 Describe How a Partnership Is Created, Including the Associated Journal Entries
    4. 15.3 Compute and Allocate Partners’ Share of Income and Loss
    5. 15.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record the Admission and Withdrawal of a Partner
    6. 15.5 Discuss and Record Entries for the Dissolution of a Partnership
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  17. 16 Statement of Cash Flows
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Explain the Purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows
    3. 16.2 Differentiate between Operating, Investing, and Financing Activities
    4. 16.3 Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    5. 16.4 Prepare the Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    6. 16.5 Use Information from the Statement of Cash Flows to Prepare Ratios to Assess Liquidity and Solvency
    7. 16.6 Appendix: Prepare a Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Direct Method
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  18. Financial Statement Analysis
  19. Time Value of Money
  20. Suggested Resources
  21. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  22. Index
PA1.

LO 6.1Record journal entries for the following transactions of Furniture Warehouse.

  1. Aug. 3: Sold 15 couches at $500 each to a customer, credit terms 2/15, n/30, invoice date August 3; the couches cost Furniture Warehouse $150 each.
  2. Aug. 8: Customer returned 2 couches for a full refund. The merchandise was in sellable condition at the original cost.
  3. Aug. 15: Customer found 4 defective couches but kept the merchandise for an allowance of $1,000.
  4. Aug. 18: Customer paid their account in full with cash.
PA2.

LO 6.1Record journal entries for the following transactions of Barrera Suppliers.

  1. May 12: Sold 32 deluxe hammers at $195 each to a customer, credit terms 10/10, n/45, invoice date May 12; the deluxe hammers cost Barrera Suppliers $88 each.
  2. May 15: Customer returned 6 hammers for a full refund. The merchandise was in sellable condition at the original cost.
  3. May 20: Customer found 2 defective hammers but kept the merchandise for an allowance of $200.
  4. May 22: Customer paid their account in full with cash.
PA3.

LO 6.2Costume Warehouse sells costumes and accessories. Review the following transactions and prepare the journal entry or entries if Costume Warehouse uses:

  1. the perpetual inventory system
  2. the periodic inventory system
May 3 A customer purchases 45 costumes at a sales price of $35 per costume. The cost to Costume Warehouse per costume is $15. The terms of the sale are 3/15, n/60, with an invoice date of May 3.
May 10 The customer who made the May 3 purchase returns 5 of the costumes to the store for a full refund, claiming they were the wrong size. The costumes were returned to Costume Warehouse’s inventory at $15 per costume.
May 16 The customer pays in full for the remaining costumes, less the return.
PA4.

LO 6.2Pharmaceutical Supplies sells medical supplies to customers. Review the following transactions and prepare the journal entry or entries if Pharmaceutical Supplies uses:

  1. the perpetual inventory system
  2. the periodic inventory system
Jul. 9 A customer purchases 50 pairs of crutches at a sales price of $20 per pair. The cost to Pharmaceutical Supplies per pair is $8.00. The terms of the sale are 5/10, n/30, with an invoice date of July 9.
Jul. 12 The customer who made the July 9 purchase returns 9 of the pairs to the store for a full refund, claiming they were the wrong size. The crutch pairs were returned to the store’s inventory at $8.00 per pair.
Jul. 18 The customer pays in full for the remaining crutches, less the return.
PA5.

LO 6.3Review the following transactions for Birdy Birdhouses and record any required journal entries.

Sep. 6 Birdy Birdhouses purchases 55 birdhouses at $40 each with cash.
Sep. 8 Birdy Birdhouses purchases 80 birdhouses at $45 each on credit. Terms of the purchase are 2/10, n/30, invoice date September 8.
Sep. 10 Birdy discovers 10 of the birdhouses are damaged from the Sept 6 purchase and returns them to the supplier for a full refund. Birdy also discovers that 10 of the birdhouses from the Sept 8 purchase are painted the wrong color but keeps them since the supplier granted an allowance of $20 per birdhouse.
Sep. 18 Birdy pays their account in full from the September 8 purchase, less any returns, allowances, and/or discounts.
PA6.

LO 6.3Review the following transactions for Dish Mart and record any required journal entries. Note that all purchase transactions are with the same supplier.

Nov. 5 Dish Mart purchases 26 sets of dishes for $460 per set with cash.
Nov. 9 Dish Mart purchases 30 sets of dishes for $430 per set on credit. Terms of the purchase are 10/15, n/60, invoice date November 9.
Nov. 13 Dish Mart discovers 5 of the dish sets are damaged from the November 9 purchase and returns them to the supplier for a full refund.
Nov. 14 Dish Mart purchases 10 sets of dishes for $450 per set, on credit. Terms of the purchase are 10/10, n/60, invoice date November 14.
Nov. 15 Dish Mart discovers that 2 of the dish sets from the November 14 purchase and 4 of the dish sets from the November 5 purchase are missing a few dishes but keeps them since the supplier granted an allowance of $50 per set for the November 14 dish sets and $75 per set for the November 5 dish sets. Dish Mart and the supplier have agreed to reduce the amount Dish Mart has outstanding debt, instead of sending a separate check for the November 5 allowance in cash.
Nov. 24 Dish Mart pays their account in full for all outstanding purchases, less any returns, allowances, and/or discounts.
PA7.

LO 6.4Review the following sales transactions for Birdy Birdhouses and record any required journal entries.

Aug. 10 Birdy Birdhouses sells 20 birdhouses to customer Julia Brand at a price of $70 each in exchange for cash. The cost to Birdy is $46 per birdhouse.
Aug. 12 Birdy Birdhouses sells 30 birdhouses to customer Julia Brand at a price of $68 each on credit. The cost of sale for Birdy is $44 per birdhouse. Terms of the sale are 2/10, n/30, invoice date August 12.
Aug. 14 Julia discovers 6 of the birdhouses are slightly damaged from the August 10 purchase and returns them to Birdy for a full refund. Julia also discovers that 10 of the birdhouses from the August 12 purchase are painted the wrong color but keeps them since Birdy granted an allowance of $24 per birdhouse.
Aug. 20 Julia pays her account in full from the August 12 purchase, less any returns, allowances, and/or discounts.
PA8.

LO 6.4Review the following sales transactions for Dish Mart and record any required journal entries. Note that all sales transactions are with the same customer, Emma Purcell.

Mar. 5 Dish Mart made a cash sale of 13 sets of dishes at a price of $700 per set to customer Emma Purcell. The cost per set is $460 to Dish Mart.
Mar. 9 Dish Mart sold 23 sets of dishes to Emma for $650 per set on credit, at a cost to Dish Mart of $435 per set. Terms of the sale are 5/15, n/60, invoice date March 9.
Mar. 13 Emma returns eight of the dish sets from the March 9 sale to Dish Mart for a full refund. Dish Mart returns the dish sets to inventory at their original cost of $435 per set.
Mar. 14 Dish Mart sells 6 sets of dishes to Emma for $670 per set on credit, at a cost to Dish Mart of $450 per set. Terms of the sale are 5/10, n/60, invoice date March 14.
Mar. 15 Emma discovers that 3 of the dish sets from the March 14 purchase, and 7 of the dish sets from the March 5 sale are missing a few dishes, but keeps them since Dish Mart granted an allowance of $2,670 for all 10 dish sets. Dish Mart and Emma have agreed to reduce the amount Dish Mart has outstanding instead of sending a separate check for the March 5 allowance in cash.
Mar. 24 Emma Purcell pays her account in full for all outstanding purchases, less any returns, allowances, and/or discounts.
PA9.

LO 6.5Record the following purchase transactions of Money Office Supplies.

Aug. 3 Purchased 45 chairs on credit, at a cost of $55 per chair. Shipping charges are an extra $3 cash per chair and are not subject to discount. Terms of the purchase are 4/10, n/60, FOB Shipping Point, invoice dated August 3.
Aug. 7 Purchased 30 chairs with cash, at a cost of $50 per chair. Shipping charges are an extra $4.50 cash per chair and are not subject to discount. Terms of the purchase are FOB Destination.
Aug. 12 Money Office Supplies pays in full for their purchase on August 3.
PA10.

LO 6.6The following is the adjusted trial balance data for Nino’s Pizzeria as of December 31, 2019.

Nino’s Pizzeria Adjusted Trial Balance for December 31, 2019. Debits or Credits, showing Cash: $775,984 credit; Accounts Receivable: $45,688 debit; Buildings: $200,460 debit; Merchandise Inventory: $135,624 debit; Accounts Payable: $437,880 credit; Common Stock: $410,542 credit; Sales: $555,696 credit; Interest Revenue: $84,652 credit; Rent Revenue: $86,900 credit; Sales Salaries Expense: $24,500 debit; Office Supplies Expense: $6,270 debit; Sales Discounts: $102,890 debit; Interest Expense: $4,577 debit; Sales Returns and Allowances: $105,854 debit; Cost of Goods Sold: $122,853; Rent Expense: $20,000; Depreciation Expense: Office Equipment: $10,555 debit; Insurance Expense: $2,780 debit; and Advertising Expense: $17,635 debit, for a debit total of $1,575,670 and a credit total of $1,575,670.
  1. Use the data provided to compute net sales for 2019.
  2. Compute the gross margin for 2019.
  3. Compute the gross profit margin ratio (rounded to nearest hundredth).
  4. Prepare a simple income statement for the year ended December 31, 2019.
  5. Prepare a multi-step income statement for the year ended December 31, 2019.
PA11.

LO 6.6The following is the adjusted trial balance data for Emma’s Alterations as of December 31, 2019.

Emma’s Alterations Adjusted Trial Balance for December 31, 2019. Debits or Credits, showing Cash: $600,538 credit; Accounts Receivable: $50,689 debit; Equipment: $199,430 debit; Merchandise Inventory: $169,744 debit; Accounts Payable: $234,893 credit; Common Stock: $502,200 credit; Sales: $393,426 credit; Interest Revenue: $100,976 credit; Rent Revenue: $65,500 credit; Sales Salaries Expense: $26,750 debit; Office Supplies Expense: $4,903 debit; Sales Discounts: $61,347 debit; Interest Expense: $3,570 debit; Sales Returns and Allowances: $55,432 debit; Cost of Goods Sold: $90,333; Rent Expense: $10,400; Depreciation Expense: Office Equipment: $8,560 debit; Insurance Expense: $3,421 debit; and Advertising Expense: $11,878 debit, for a debit total of $1,296,995 and a credit total of $1,296,995.
  1. Use the data provided to compute net sales for 2019.
  2. Compute the gross margin for 2019.
  3. Compute the gross profit margin ratio (rounded to nearest hundredth).
  4. Prepare a simple income statement for the year ended December 31, 2019.
  5. Prepare a multi-step income statement for the year ended December 31, 2019.
PA12.

LO 6.7Review the following transactions for Birdy Birdhouses and record any required journal entries.

Sep. 6 Birdy Birdhouses purchases 57 birdhouses at $46 each with cash.
Sep. 8 Birdy Birdhouses purchases 94 birdhouses at $44 each on credit. Terms of the purchase are 2/10, n/30, invoice date September 8.
Sep. 10 Birdy discovers 12 of the birdhouses are damaged from the Sept 6 purchase and returns them to the supplier for a full refund. Birdy also discovers that 11 of the birdhouses from the Sept 8 purchase are painted the wrong color but keeps them since the supplier granted an allowance of $136.
Sep. 18 Birdy pays their account in full from the September 8 purchase, less any returns, allowances, and/or discounts.
PA13.

LO 6.7Review the following sales transactions for Dish Mart and record any required journal entries. Note that all sales transactions are with the same customer, Emma Purcell.

Mar. 5 Dish Mart made a cash sale of 13 sets of dishes at a price of $700 per set to customer Emma Purcell. The cost per set is $460 to Dish Mart.
Mar. 9 Dish Mart sold 23 sets of dishes to Emma for $650 per set on credit, at a cost to Dish Mart of $435 per set. Terms of the sale are 10/15, n/60, invoice date March 9.
Mar. 13 Emma discovers 8 of the dish sets are damaged from the March 9 sale and returns them to Dish Mart for a full refund.
Mar. 14 Dish Mart sells 6 sets of dishes to Emma for $670 per set on credit, at a cost to Dish Mart of $450 per set. Terms of the sale are 10/10, n/60, invoice date March 14.
Mar. 15 Emma discovers that 3 of the dish sets from the March 14 purchase and 7 of the dish sets from the March 5 sale are missing a few dishes but keeps them since Dish Mart granted an allowance of $200 per set for all 10 dish sets. Dish Mart and Emma have agreed to reduce the amount Dish Mart has outstanding instead of sending a separate check for the March 5 allowance in cash.
Mar. 24 Emma Purcell pays her account in full for all outstanding purchases, less any returns, allowances, and/or discounts.
Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-financial-accounting/pages/1-why-it-matters
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-financial-accounting/pages/1-why-it-matters
Citation information

© Apr 11, 2019 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.