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Principles of Accounting, Volume 1: Financial Accounting

6.6 Describe and Prepare Multi-Step and Simple Income Statements for Merchandising Companies

Principles of Accounting, Volume 1: Financial Accounting6.6 Describe and Prepare Multi-Step and Simple Income Statements for Merchandising Companies
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Role of Accounting in Society
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Explain the Importance of Accounting and Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    3. 1.2 Identify Users of Accounting Information and How They Apply Information
    4. 1.3 Describe Typical Accounting Activities and the Role Accountants Play in Identifying, Recording, and Reporting Financial Activities
    5. 1.4 Explain Why Accounting Is Important to Business Stakeholders
    6. 1.5 Describe the Varied Career Paths Open to Individuals with an Accounting Education
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
  3. 2 Introduction to Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Describe the Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, Balance Sheet, and Statement of Cash Flows, and How They Interrelate
    3. 2.2 Define, Explain, and Provide Examples of Current and Noncurrent Assets, Current and Noncurrent Liabilities, Equity, Revenues, and Expenses
    4. 2.3 Prepare an Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, and Balance Sheet
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Analyzing and Recording Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Describe Principles, Assumptions, and Concepts of Accounting and Their Relationship to Financial Statements
    3. 3.2 Define and Describe the Expanded Accounting Equation and Its Relationship to Analyzing Transactions
    4. 3.3 Define and Describe the Initial Steps in the Accounting Cycle
    5. 3.4 Analyze Business Transactions Using the Accounting Equation and Show the Impact of Business Transactions on Financial Statements
    6. 3.5 Use Journal Entries to Record Transactions and Post to T-Accounts
    7. 3.6 Prepare a Trial Balance
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 The Adjustment Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Explain the Concepts and Guidelines Affecting Adjusting Entries
    3. 4.2 Discuss the Adjustment Process and Illustrate Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    4. 4.3 Record and Post the Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    5. 4.4 Use the Ledger Balances to Prepare an Adjusted Trial Balance
    6. 4.5 Prepare Financial Statements Using the Adjusted Trial Balance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Completing the Accounting Cycle
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Describe and Prepare Closing Entries for a Business
    3. 5.2 Prepare a Post-Closing Trial Balance
    4. 5.3 Apply the Results from the Adjusted Trial Balance to Compute Current Ratio and Working Capital Balance, and Explain How These Measures Represent Liquidity
    5. 5.4 Appendix: Complete a Comprehensive Accounting Cycle for a Business
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Merchandising Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Compare and Contrast Merchandising versus Service Activities and Transactions
    3. 6.2 Compare and Contrast Perpetual versus Periodic Inventory Systems
    4. 6.3 Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    5. 6.4 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Sale of Merchandise Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    6. 6.5 Discuss and Record Transactions Applying the Two Commonly Used Freight-In Methods
    7. 6.6 Describe and Prepare Multi-Step and Simple Income Statements for Merchandising Companies
    8. 6.7 Appendix: Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases and Sales Using the Periodic Inventory System
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Accounting Information Systems
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Define and Describe the Components of an Accounting Information System
    3. 7.2 Describe and Explain the Purpose of Special Journals and Their Importance to Stakeholders
    4. 7.3 Analyze and Journalize Transactions Using Special Journals
    5. 7.4 Prepare a Subsidiary Ledger
    6. 7.5 Describe Career Paths Open to Individuals with a Joint Education in Accounting and Information Systems
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Fraud, Internal Controls, and Cash
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Analyze Fraud in the Accounting Workplace
    3. 8.2 Define and Explain Internal Controls and Their Purpose within an Organization
    4. 8.3 Describe Internal Controls within an Organization
    5. 8.4 Define the Purpose and Use of a Petty Cash Fund, and Prepare Petty Cash Journal Entries
    6. 8.5 Discuss Management Responsibilities for Maintaining Internal Controls within an Organization
    7. 8.6 Define the Purpose of a Bank Reconciliation, and Prepare a Bank Reconciliation and Its Associated Journal Entries
    8. 8.7 Describe Fraud in Financial Statements and Sarbanes-Oxley Act Requirements
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Accounting for Receivables
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Explain the Revenue Recognition Principle and How It Relates to Current and Future Sales and Purchase Transactions
    3. 9.2 Account for Uncollectible Accounts Using the Balance Sheet and Income Statement Approaches
    4. 9.3 Determine the Efficiency of Receivables Management Using Financial Ratios
    5. 9.4 Discuss the Role of Accounting for Receivables in Earnings Management
    6. 9.5 Apply Revenue Recognition Principles to Long-Term Projects
    7. 9.6 Explain How Notes Receivable and Accounts Receivable Differ
    8. 9.7 Appendix: Comprehensive Example of Bad Debt Estimation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Inventory
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Describe and Demonstrate the Basic Inventory Valuation Methods and Their Cost Flow Assumptions
    3. 10.2 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Periodic Method
    4. 10.3 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Perpetual Method
    5. 10.4 Explain and Demonstrate the Impact of Inventory Valuation Errors on the Income Statement and Balance Sheet
    6. 10.5 Examine the Efficiency of Inventory Management Using Financial Ratios
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Long-Term Assets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Distinguish between Tangible and Intangible Assets
    3. 11.2 Analyze and Classify Capitalized Costs versus Expenses
    4. 11.3 Explain and Apply Depreciation Methods to Allocate Capitalized Costs
    5. 11.4 Describe Accounting for Intangible Assets and Record Related Transactions
    6. 11.5 Describe Some Special Issues in Accounting for Long-Term Assets
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Current Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Identify and Describe Current Liabilities
    3. 12.2 Analyze, Journalize, and Report Current Liabilities
    4. 12.3 Define and Apply Accounting Treatment for Contingent Liabilities
    5. 12.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record Short-Term Notes Payable
    6. 12.5 Record Transactions Incurred in Preparing Payroll
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Long-Term Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Explain the Pricing of Long-Term Liabilities
    3. 13.2 Compute Amortization of Long-Term Liabilities Using the Effective-Interest Method
    4. 13.3 Prepare Journal Entries to Reflect the Life Cycle of Bonds
    5. 13.4 Appendix: Special Topics Related to Long-Term Liabilities
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  15. 14 Corporation Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Explain the Process of Securing Equity Financing through the Issuance of Stock
    3. 14.2 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Issuance and Repurchase of Stock
    4. 14.3 Record Transactions and the Effects on Financial Statements for Cash Dividends, Property Dividends, Stock Dividends, and Stock Splits
    5. 14.4 Compare and Contrast Owners’ Equity versus Retained Earnings
    6. 14.5 Discuss the Applicability of Earnings per Share as a Method to Measure Performance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  16. 15 Partnership Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Describe the Advantages and Disadvantages of Organizing as a Partnership
    3. 15.2 Describe How a Partnership Is Created, Including the Associated Journal Entries
    4. 15.3 Compute and Allocate Partners’ Share of Income and Loss
    5. 15.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record the Admission and Withdrawal of a Partner
    6. 15.5 Discuss and Record Entries for the Dissolution of a Partnership
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  17. 16 Statement of Cash Flows
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Explain the Purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows
    3. 16.2 Differentiate between Operating, Investing, and Financing Activities
    4. 16.3 Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    5. 16.4 Prepare the Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    6. 16.5 Use Information from the Statement of Cash Flows to Prepare Ratios to Assess Liquidity and Solvency
    7. 16.6 Appendix: Prepare a Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Direct Method
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  18. Financial Statement Analysis
  19. Time Value of Money
  20. Suggested Resources
  21. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  22. Index

Merchandising companies prepare financial statements at the end of a period that include the income statement, balance sheet, statement of cash flows, and statement of retained earnings. The presentation format for many of these statements is left up to the business. For the income statement, this means a company could prepare the statement using a multi-step format or a simple format (also known as a single-step format). Companies must decide the format that best fits their needs.

Balance scale showing multi-step balancing simple.
Figure 6.15 Multi-Step versus Single-Step Formats. (credit: modification of “Balance Swing Equality” by “Mediamodifier”/Pixabay, CC0)

Similarities and Differences between the Multi-Step and Simple Income Statement Format

A multi-step income statement is more detailed than a simple income statement. Because of the additional detail, it is the option selected by many companies whose operations are more complex. Each revenue and expense account is listed individually under the appropriate category on the statement. The multi-step statement separates cost of goods sold from operating expenses and deducts cost of goods sold from net sales to obtain a gross margin.

Operating expenses are daily operational costs not associated with the direct selling of products or services. Operating expenses are broken down into selling expenses (such as advertising and marketing expenses) and general and administrative expenses (such as office supplies expense, and depreciation of office equipment). Deducting the operating expenses from gross margin produces income from operations.

Following income from operations are other revenue and expenses not obtained from selling goods or services or other daily operations. Other revenue and expenses examples include interest revenue, gains or losses on sales of assets (buildings, equipment, and machinery), and interest expense. Other revenue and expenses added to (or deducted from) income from operations produces net income (loss).

A simple income statement is less detailed than the multi-step format. A simple income statement combines all revenues into one category, followed by all expenses, to produce net income. There are very few individual accounts and the statement does not consider cost of sales separate from operating expenses.

Demonstration of the Multi-Step Income Statement Format

To demonstrate the use of the multi-step income statement format, let’s continue to discuss California Business Solutions (CBS). The following is select account data from the adjusted trial balance for the year ended, December 31, 2018. We will use this information to create a multi-step income statement. Note that the statements prepared are using a perpetual inventory system.

A Trial Balance for California Business Solutions for the year ended December 31, 2018. Accounts, with either Debits or Credits, showing Sales: $300,000 credit; Sales Discounts: $2,000 debit; Sales Returns and Allowances: $4,500 debit; Interest Revenue: $5,650 credit; Cost of Goods Sold: $180,000 debit; Interest Expense: $8,400 debit; Advertising Expense: $6,250 debit; Sales Salaries Expense: $40,000 debit; Depreciation Expense-Office Equipment: $4,700 debit; Office Supplies Expense: $1,200 debit; and Insurance Expense: $6,900 debit.

The following is the multi-step income statement for CBS.

A Multi-Step Income Statement for California Business Solutions for the year ended December 31, 2018. Sales of $300,000 less Sales Discounts of $2,000 and Sales Returns and Allowance of $4,500 equals Net sales of $293,500 minus Cost of Goods Sold equals Gross Margin of $113,500 minus Operating Expenses, which include Selling Expenses of Advertising Expense ($6,250) and Sales Salaries Expense ($40,000); General and Administrative Expenses, which include Depreciation Expense: Office Equipment ($4,700), Office Supplies Expense ($1,200), and Insurance Expense ($6,900) equals Income from Operations of $54,450 plus Interest Revenue of $5,650 minus Interest Expense of $8,400 equals Net Income of $51,700.

Demonstration of the Simple Income Statement Format

We will use the same adjusted trial balance information for CBS but will now create a simple income statement.

The following is the simple income statement for CBS.

A Simple Income Statement for California Business Solutions for the year ended December 31, 2018. Revenues include Net sales of $293,500, Interest Revenue of $5,650 minus Expenses, which include Cost of Goods Sold ($180,000) Total Selling Expenses ($46,250), Total General and Administrative Expenses ($12,800), and Interest Expense ($8,400) equals Net Income of $51,700.

Final Analysis of the Two Income Statement Options

While companies may choose the format that best suits their needs, some might choose a combination of both the multi-step and simple income statement formats. The multi-step income statement may be more beneficial for internal use and management decision-making because of the detail in account information. The simple income statement might be more appropriate for external use, as a summary for investors and lenders.

From the information obtained on the income statement, a company can make decisions related to growth strategies. One ratio that can help them in this process is the Gross Profit Margin Ratio. The gross profit margin ratio shows the margin of revenue above the cost of goods sold that can be used to cover operating expenses and profit. The larger the margin, the more availability the company has to reinvest in their business, pay down debt, and return dividends to shareholders.

Gross Profit Margin Ratio equals Net sales minus Cost of Goods Sold divided by Net sales.

Taking our example from CBS, net sales equaled $293,500 and cost of goods sold equaled $180,000. Therefore, the Gross Profit Margin Ratio is computed as 0.39 (rounded to the nearest hundredth). This means that CBS has a margin of 39% to cover operating expenses and profit.

Gross profit margin ratio=($293,500$180,000)$293,500=0.39,or39%Gross profit margin ratio=($293,500$180,000)$293,500=0.39,or39%

Think It Through

Which Income Statement Format Do I Choose?

You are an accountant for a small retail store and are tasked with determining the best presentation for your income statement. You may choose to present it in a multi-step format or a simple income statement format. The information on the statement will be used by investors, lenders, and management to make financial decisions related to your company. It is important to the store owners that you give enough information to assist management with decision-making, but not too much information to possibly deter investors or lenders. Which statement format do you choose? Why did you choose this format? What are the benefits and challenges of your statement choice for each stakeholder group?

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