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Principles of Accounting, Volume 1: Financial Accounting

6.3 Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases Using the Perpetual Inventory System

Principles of Accounting, Volume 1: Financial Accounting6.3 Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases Using the Perpetual Inventory System
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Role of Accounting in Society
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Explain the Importance of Accounting and Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    3. 1.2 Identify Users of Accounting Information and How They Apply Information
    4. 1.3 Describe Typical Accounting Activities and the Role Accountants Play in Identifying, Recording, and Reporting Financial Activities
    5. 1.4 Explain Why Accounting Is Important to Business Stakeholders
    6. 1.5 Describe the Varied Career Paths Open to Individuals with an Accounting Education
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
  3. 2 Introduction to Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Describe the Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, Balance Sheet, and Statement of Cash Flows, and How They Interrelate
    3. 2.2 Define, Explain, and Provide Examples of Current and Noncurrent Assets, Current and Noncurrent Liabilities, Equity, Revenues, and Expenses
    4. 2.3 Prepare an Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, and Balance Sheet
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Analyzing and Recording Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Describe Principles, Assumptions, and Concepts of Accounting and Their Relationship to Financial Statements
    3. 3.2 Define and Describe the Expanded Accounting Equation and Its Relationship to Analyzing Transactions
    4. 3.3 Define and Describe the Initial Steps in the Accounting Cycle
    5. 3.4 Analyze Business Transactions Using the Accounting Equation and Show the Impact of Business Transactions on Financial Statements
    6. 3.5 Use Journal Entries to Record Transactions and Post to T-Accounts
    7. 3.6 Prepare a Trial Balance
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 The Adjustment Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Explain the Concepts and Guidelines Affecting Adjusting Entries
    3. 4.2 Discuss the Adjustment Process and Illustrate Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    4. 4.3 Record and Post the Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    5. 4.4 Use the Ledger Balances to Prepare an Adjusted Trial Balance
    6. 4.5 Prepare Financial Statements Using the Adjusted Trial Balance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Completing the Accounting Cycle
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Describe and Prepare Closing Entries for a Business
    3. 5.2 Prepare a Post-Closing Trial Balance
    4. 5.3 Apply the Results from the Adjusted Trial Balance to Compute Current Ratio and Working Capital Balance, and Explain How These Measures Represent Liquidity
    5. 5.4 Appendix: Complete a Comprehensive Accounting Cycle for a Business
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Merchandising Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Compare and Contrast Merchandising versus Service Activities and Transactions
    3. 6.2 Compare and Contrast Perpetual versus Periodic Inventory Systems
    4. 6.3 Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    5. 6.4 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Sale of Merchandise Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    6. 6.5 Discuss and Record Transactions Applying the Two Commonly Used Freight-In Methods
    7. 6.6 Describe and Prepare Multi-Step and Simple Income Statements for Merchandising Companies
    8. 6.7 Appendix: Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases and Sales Using the Periodic Inventory System
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Accounting Information Systems
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Define and Describe the Components of an Accounting Information System
    3. 7.2 Describe and Explain the Purpose of Special Journals and Their Importance to Stakeholders
    4. 7.3 Analyze and Journalize Transactions Using Special Journals
    5. 7.4 Prepare a Subsidiary Ledger
    6. 7.5 Describe Career Paths Open to Individuals with a Joint Education in Accounting and Information Systems
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Fraud, Internal Controls, and Cash
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Analyze Fraud in the Accounting Workplace
    3. 8.2 Define and Explain Internal Controls and Their Purpose within an Organization
    4. 8.3 Describe Internal Controls within an Organization
    5. 8.4 Define the Purpose and Use of a Petty Cash Fund, and Prepare Petty Cash Journal Entries
    6. 8.5 Discuss Management Responsibilities for Maintaining Internal Controls within an Organization
    7. 8.6 Define the Purpose of a Bank Reconciliation, and Prepare a Bank Reconciliation and Its Associated Journal Entries
    8. 8.7 Describe Fraud in Financial Statements and Sarbanes-Oxley Act Requirements
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Accounting for Receivables
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Explain the Revenue Recognition Principle and How It Relates to Current and Future Sales and Purchase Transactions
    3. 9.2 Account for Uncollectible Accounts Using the Balance Sheet and Income Statement Approaches
    4. 9.3 Determine the Efficiency of Receivables Management Using Financial Ratios
    5. 9.4 Discuss the Role of Accounting for Receivables in Earnings Management
    6. 9.5 Apply Revenue Recognition Principles to Long-Term Projects
    7. 9.6 Explain How Notes Receivable and Accounts Receivable Differ
    8. 9.7 Appendix: Comprehensive Example of Bad Debt Estimation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Inventory
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Describe and Demonstrate the Basic Inventory Valuation Methods and Their Cost Flow Assumptions
    3. 10.2 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Periodic Method
    4. 10.3 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Perpetual Method
    5. 10.4 Explain and Demonstrate the Impact of Inventory Valuation Errors on the Income Statement and Balance Sheet
    6. 10.5 Examine the Efficiency of Inventory Management Using Financial Ratios
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Long-Term Assets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Distinguish between Tangible and Intangible Assets
    3. 11.2 Analyze and Classify Capitalized Costs versus Expenses
    4. 11.3 Explain and Apply Depreciation Methods to Allocate Capitalized Costs
    5. 11.4 Describe Accounting for Intangible Assets and Record Related Transactions
    6. 11.5 Describe Some Special Issues in Accounting for Long-Term Assets
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Current Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Identify and Describe Current Liabilities
    3. 12.2 Analyze, Journalize, and Report Current Liabilities
    4. 12.3 Define and Apply Accounting Treatment for Contingent Liabilities
    5. 12.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record Short-Term Notes Payable
    6. 12.5 Record Transactions Incurred in Preparing Payroll
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Long-Term Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Explain the Pricing of Long-Term Liabilities
    3. 13.2 Compute Amortization of Long-Term Liabilities Using the Effective-Interest Method
    4. 13.3 Prepare Journal Entries to Reflect the Life Cycle of Bonds
    5. 13.4 Appendix: Special Topics Related to Long-Term Liabilities
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  15. 14 Corporation Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Explain the Process of Securing Equity Financing through the Issuance of Stock
    3. 14.2 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Issuance and Repurchase of Stock
    4. 14.3 Record Transactions and the Effects on Financial Statements for Cash Dividends, Property Dividends, Stock Dividends, and Stock Splits
    5. 14.4 Compare and Contrast Owners’ Equity versus Retained Earnings
    6. 14.5 Discuss the Applicability of Earnings per Share as a Method to Measure Performance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  16. 15 Partnership Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Describe the Advantages and Disadvantages of Organizing as a Partnership
    3. 15.2 Describe How a Partnership Is Created, Including the Associated Journal Entries
    4. 15.3 Compute and Allocate Partners’ Share of Income and Loss
    5. 15.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record the Admission and Withdrawal of a Partner
    6. 15.5 Discuss and Record Entries for the Dissolution of a Partnership
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  17. 16 Statement of Cash Flows
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Explain the Purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows
    3. 16.2 Differentiate between Operating, Investing, and Financing Activities
    4. 16.3 Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    5. 16.4 Prepare the Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    6. 16.5 Use Information from the Statement of Cash Flows to Prepare Ratios to Assess Liquidity and Solvency
    7. 16.6 Appendix: Prepare a Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Direct Method
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  18. Financial Statement Analysis
  19. Time Value of Money
  20. Suggested Resources
  21. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  22. Index

The following example transactions and subsequent journal entries for merchandise purchases are recognized using a perpetual inventory system. The periodic inventory system recognition of these example transactions and corresponding journal entries are shown in Appendix: Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases and Sales Using the Periodic Inventory System.

Basic Analysis of Purchase Transaction Journal Entries

To better illustrate merchandising activities, let’s follow California Business Solutions (CBS), a retailer providing electronic hardware packages to meet small business needs. Each electronics hardware package (see Figure 6.9) contains a desktop computer, tablet computer, landline telephone, and a 4-in-1 desktop printer with a printer, copier, scanner, and fax machine.

Photo of a laptop and separate monitor on a desk.
Figure 6.9 California Business Solutions. Providing businesses electronic hardware solutions. (credit: modification of “Professionnal desk” by “reynermedia”/Flickr, CC BY 2.0)

CBS purchases each electronic product from a manufacturer. The following are the per-item purchase prices from the manufacturer.

List of computer products and the price per unit: Desktop Computer at $400; Tablet Computer at $60; Landline telephone at $60; and 4-in-1 desktop printer at $100.

Cash and Credit Purchase Transaction Journal Entries

On April 1, CBS purchases 10 electronic hardware packages at a cost of $620 each. CBS has enough cash-on-hand to pay immediately with cash. The following entry occurs.

A journal entry shows a debit to Merchandise Inventory-Packages for $6,200 and credit to Cash for $6,200 with the note “to recognize purchase of 10 packages.”

Merchandise Inventory-Packages increases (debit) for 6,200 ($620 × 10), and Cash decreases (credit) because the company paid with cash. It is important to distinguish each inventory item type to better track inventory needs.

On April 7, CBS purchases 30 desktop computers on credit at a cost of $400 each. The credit terms are n/15 with an invoice date of April 7. The following entry occurs.

A journal entry shows a debit to Merchandise Inventory: Desktop Computers for $12,000 and credit to Accounts Payable for $12,000 with the note “to recognize purchase of 30 computers on credit, n / 15.”

Merchandise Inventory is specific to desktop computers and is increased (debited) for the value of the computers by $12,000 ($400 × 30). Since the computers were purchased on credit by CBS, Accounts Payable increases (credit).

On April 17, CBS makes full payment on the amount due from the April 7 purchase. The following entry occurs.

A journal entry shows a debit to Accounts Payable for $12,000 and credit to Cash for $12,000 with the note “to recognize payment in full.”

Accounts Payable decreases (debit), and Cash decreases (credit) for the full amount owed. The credit terms were n/15, which is net due in 15 days. No discount was offered with this transaction. Thus the full payment of $12,000 occurs.

Purchase Discount Transaction Journal Entries

On May 1, CBS purchases 67 tablet computers at a cost of $60 each on credit. The payment terms are 5/10, n/30, and the invoice is dated May 1. The following entry occurs.

A journal entry shows a debit to Merchandise Inventory: Tablet Computers for $4,020 and credit to Accounts Payable for $4,020 with the note “to recognize purchase of 67 tablets, 5 / 10, n / 30.”

Merchandise Inventory-Tablet Computers increases (debit) in the amount of $4,020 (67 × $60). Accounts Payable also increases (credit) but the credit terms are a little different than the previous example. These credit terms include a discount opportunity (5/10), meaning, CBS has 10 days from the invoice date to pay on their account to receive a 5% discount on their purchase.

On May 10, CBS pays their account in full. The following entry occurs.

A journal entry shows a debit to Accounts Payable for $4,020 and credits to Merchandise Inventory: Tablet computers and Cash for $201 and $3,819, respectively, with the note “to recognize payment, less purchase discount.”

Accounts Payable decreases (debit) for the original amount owed of $4,020 before any discounts are taken. Since CBS paid on May 10, they made the 10-day window and thus received a discount of 5%. Cash decreases (credit) for the amount owed, less the discount. Merchandise Inventory-Tablet Computers decreases (credit) for the amount of the discount ($4,020 × 5%). Merchandise Inventory decreases to align with the Cost Principle, reporting the value of the merchandise at the reduced cost.

Let’s take the same example purchase with the same credit terms, but now CBS paid their account on May 25. The following entry would occur instead.

A journal entry shows a debit to Accounts Payable for $4,020 and credit to Cash for $4,020 with the note “to recognize payment for tablets, no discount.”

Accounts Payable decreases (debit) and Cash decreases (credit) for $4,020. The company paid on their account outside of the discount window but within the total allotted timeframe for payment. CBS does not receive a discount in this case but does pay in full and on time.

Purchase Returns and Allowances Transaction Journal Entries

On June 1, CBS purchased 300 landline telephones with cash at a cost of $60 each. On June 3, CBS discovers that 25 of the phones are the wrong color and returns the phones to the manufacturer for a full refund. The following entries occur with the purchase and subsequent return.

A journal entry shows a debit to Merchandise Inventory: Phones for $18,000 and credit to Cash for $18,000 with the note “to recognize phone purchase with cash.”

Both Merchandise Inventory-Phones increases (debit) and Cash decreases (credit) by $18,000 ($60 × 300).

A journal entry shows a debit to Cash for $1,500 and credit to Merchandise Inventory: Phones for $1,500 with the note “to recognize return of 25 phones, cash refund.”

Since CBS already paid in full for their purchase, a full cash refund is issued. This increases Cash (debit) and decreases (credit) Merchandise Inventory-Phones because the merchandise has been returned to the manufacturer or supplier.

On June 8, CBS discovers that 60 more phones from the June 1 purchase are slightly damaged. CBS decides to keep the phones but receives a purchase allowance from the manufacturer of $8 per phone. The following entry occurs for the allowance.

A journal entry shows a debit to Cash for $480 and credit to Merchandise Inventory: Phones for $480 with the note “to recognize allowance for 60 phones.”

Since CBS already paid in full for their purchase, a cash refund of the allowance is issued in the amount of $480 (60 × $8). This increases Cash (debit) and decreases (credit) Merchandise Inventory-Phones because the merchandise is less valuable than before the damage discovery.

CBS purchases 80 units of the 4-in-1 desktop printers at a cost of $100 each on July 1 on credit. Terms of the purchase are 5/15, n/40, with an invoice date of July 1. On July 6, CBS discovers 15 of the printers are damaged and returns them to the manufacturer for a full refund. The following entries show the purchase and subsequent return.

A journal entry shows a debit to Merchandise Inventory: Printers for $8,000 and credit to Accounts Payable for $8,000 with the note “to recognize printer purchase on credit, 5 / 15, n / 40.”

Both Merchandise Inventory-Printers increases (debit) and Accounts Payable increases (credit) by $8,000 ($100 × 80).

A journal entry shows a debit to Accounts Payable for $1,500 and credit to Merchandise Inventory: Printers for $1,500 with the note “to recognize return of 15 printers, AP reduction.”

Both Accounts Payable decreases (debit) and Merchandise Inventory-Printers decreases (credit) by $1,500 (15 × $100). The purchase was on credit and the return occurred before payment, thus decreasing Accounts Payable. Merchandise Inventory decreases due to the return of the merchandise back to the manufacturer.

On July 10, CBS discovers that 4 more printers from the July 1 purchase are slightly damaged but decides to keep them, with the manufacturer issuing an allowance of $30 per printer. The following entry recognizes the allowance.

A journal entry shows a debit to Accounts Payable for $120 and credit to Merchandise Inventory: Printers for $120 with the note “to recognize allowance for 4 printers, AP reduction.”

Both Accounts Payable decreases (debit) and Merchandise Inventory-Printers decreases (credit) by $120 (4 × $30). The purchase was on credit and the allowance occurred before payment, thus decreasing Accounts Payable. Merchandise Inventory decreases due to the loss in value of the merchandise.

On July 15, CBS pays their account in full, less purchase returns and allowances. The following payment entry occurs.

A journal entry shows a debit to Accounts Payable for $6,380 and credits to Merchandise Inventory: Printers for $319 and Cash for $6,061 with the note “to recognize payment, less discount, return and allowance.”

Accounts Payable decreases (debit) for the amount owed, less the return of $1,500 and the allowance of $120 ($8,000 – $1,500 – $120). Since CBS paid on July 15, they made the 15-day window, thus receiving a discount of 5%. Cash decreases (credit) for the amount owed, less the discount. Merchandise Inventory-Printers decreases (credit) for the amount of the discount ($6,380 × 5%). Merchandise Inventory decreases to align with the Cost Principle, reporting the value of the merchandise at the reduced cost.

Summary of Purchase Transaction Journal Entries

The chart in Figure 6.10 represents the journal entry requirements based on various merchandising purchase transactions using the perpetual inventory system.

Journal entries starting with Purchase Transaction Journal Entries at the top, followed by Purchase, Purchase Payment, and Purchase Return or Allowance on the second tier, then Cash, Credit, Received Discount, Did not Receive Discount, Before Payment, and After Payment on the third tier, and Dr. Merchandise Inventory Cr. Cash; Dr. Merchandise Inventory Cr. Accounts Payable; Dr. Accounts Payable Cr. Cash and Merchandise Inventory; Dr. Accounts Payable Cr. Cash; Dr. Accounts Payable Cr. Merchandise Inventory; and Dr. Cash Cr. Merchandise Inventory on the bottom tier.
Figure 6.10 Purchase Transaction Journal Entries Using a Perpetual Inventory System. (attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license)

Note that Figure 6.10 considers an environment in which inventory physical counts and matching books records align. This is not always the case given concerns with shrinkage (theft), damages, or obsolete merchandise. In this circumstance, an adjustment is recorded to inventory to account for the differences between the physical count and the amount represented on the books.

Your Turn

Recording a Retailer’s Purchase Transactions

Record the journal entries for the following purchase transactions of a retailer.

Dec. 3 Purchased $500 worth of inventory on credit with terms 2/10, n/30, and invoice dated December 3.
Dec. 6 Returned $150 worth of damaged inventory to the manufacturer and received a full refund.
Dec. 9 Paid the account in full

Solution

Journal entry for December 3 shows a debit to Merchandise Inventory for $500 and a credit to Accounts Payable for $500 with the note “to recognize inventory purchase, 2 / 10, n / 30.” December 6 entries show a debit to Accounts Payable for $150 and a credit to Merchandise Inventory for $150 with the note “to recognize inventory return.” December 9 entries show a debit to Accounts Payable for $350, a credit to Merchandise Inventory for $7, and a credit to Cash for $343 with the note “to recognize payment, less discount and return.”
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