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Unfolding Case Study

1.
d. The clients’ physical environment is most likely hindering their ability to attend their appointments, resulting in inadequate prenatal care and ultimately poor outcomes.
2.
b. All of these choices could potentially affect someone’s ability to access health care, but having adequate insurance coverage is most likely to facilitate clients’ access to health care.
3.
b. Residential segregation is a form of systemic racism that keeps minority groups living in certain disadvantaged areas.
4.
c. Tracking pregnancy-related complications is a more accurate measure of the effectiveness of interventions to address maternal health disparities.

Review Questions

1.
d. Health determinants are nonmedical factors that influence health outcomes. Individuals can be exposed to environmental factors such as pollution that affect their health.
2.
a. A health disparity is a health difference that adversely affects disadvantaged populations in comparison to a reference population based on one or more health outcomes.
3.
c. Encouraging families to share healthy recipes with one another incorporates the effects of the families’ sociocultural environment and their interpersonal levels of influence on their health.
4.
a. Intersectionality occurs when one type of discrimination intersects with other factors of discrimination, such as gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability, age, geographic location, gender identity, and sexual orientation, among others.
5.
b. Discrimination results from prejudices. Prejudice can contribute to members of disadvantaged groups experiencing poor health outcomes—in this situation, poor pain control.
6.
d. Inadequate availability of culturally competent providers can limit health care access for non-English-speaking clients.
7.
b. Race is a determinant of health that can lead to health disparities. For example, Black people are at a greater risk of developing certain diseases than their non-minority counterparts because they have less access to health care and experience greater levels of poverty.
8.
c. Medicaid expansion, part of the Affordable Care Act, expanded the number of people eligible for Medicaid. Insured clients are more likely to report a regular source of health care. Differences in Medicaid eligibility vary among the states, which can account for differences in insurance coverage–related outcomes.
9.
d. Gender norms are social and cultural principles that influence ideas on how different genders are supposed to behave in society. Among these factors, social norms related to masculinity are most likely to affect the adherence rates of men performing testicular exams.
10.
a. Rural residents are more likely to engage in riskier health behavior and have poorer health outcomes than residents of urban areas.
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