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Review Questions

1.
a. The social determinants of health are the conditions in environments where people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes and risks.
2.
c. Stable employment with a living wage is the key to economic stability.
3.
d. Exposure to crime and violence is an adverse childhood experience, as it is a traumatic event that undermines a child’s sense of safety, security, and bonding.
4.
b. A higher education is associated with higher-paying jobs and therefore a higher socioeconomic position (SEP). SEP is a main driver of better health outcomes. Individuals with higher levels of educational attainment are more likely to live longer and healthier lives.
5.
a. Volunteering and giving back to the community is a prime example of building social capital. This is a form of civic participation and benefits both the individual and community.
6.
a. By providing mobile health screenings for individuals who are unable to make it to the clinic, the health care team is thinking from a health equity lens, recognizes that everyone is not the same, and distributes the exact resources or opportunities (in this case, a mobile health screening unit) needed by each individual to reach an equal outcome among individuals.
7.
a. Health disparities are preventable differences in health between groups of individuals, usually as a result of social or economic factors, geographic location, and environment. BIPOC clients who are pregnant experience the highest rates of infant mortality due to a myriad of social and economic disadvantages including racism.
8.
c. Clinical care impacts only 20 percent of health outcomes.
9.
a. The SDOH affect the health and wellness of individuals and contribute to many risk factors for disease and premature death. There is a large inequity in the distribution of disease in this country, and the way to address these disparities is by being equitable and not just focusing on equality.
10.
c. Upstream thinking refers to looking beyond lifestyle choices and instead addressing the root causes of some of the health style choices. For this scenario, having a lack of safe places to exercise is the main driver of the low levels of physical activity.
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