Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

Review Questions

1.
b. Genetic associations are only one component of a client’s health, which includes lifestyle, environment, and social factors.
2.
b. Pender’s Health Promotion Model helps nurses understand the determinants of health behavior to promote health through effective behavioral counseling. The model directs nurses to assess for eight beliefs when planning for behavior change and health intervention. The belief of perceived self-efficacy is the personal capability to organize and execute a particular health behavior and self-confidence in performing the health behavior successfully, such as this client’s verbalization of confidence in developing a healthy weekly meal plan for the family.
3.
d. The Socio-Ecological Model considers how human growth and behavior can accommodate and change given the environment and systems that exist around people and how people interact with such environments and systems. The five systems identified in this model are the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. The macrosystem includes codified laws, regulations, and rules as well as economic, social, educational, and legal systems.
4.
b. The UNICEF Socio-Ecological Model uses a socio-ecological approach as a conceptual framework for many health-promoting initiatives at the individual/interpersonal, community, organizational/institutional, and policy/system enabling environments levels. The nurse is effecting change at the community level by focusing on social beliefs and norms about breastfeeding.
5.
b. The Socio-Ecological Model considers how human growth and behavior can accommodate and change given the environment and systems that exist around people. Looking for causative factors for an increase in asthma diagnoses is an example of the environment that may be contributing to rising rates of asthma among grade-school children.
6.
b. Family health history helps identify strong risk factors or predictors for acquiring certain conditions and disorders, such as diabetes. However, family history alone does not mean a person will develop a disease. Although genetic associations can be robust, genetics are still only one component in an overall health picture. As heritability and the presence of certain genes or attributes are measurable, scientists can calculate the impact of genetics versus lifestyle, social, and other factors on specific health risks.
7.
c. Treating all clients regardless of their ability to pay is an example of how health care can be affected by decisions made at the organizational level.
8.
a. The Socio-Ecological Model considers how human growth and behavior can accommodate and change given environments, systems, and how people interact with them. The five systems identified in this model are the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. The exosystem includes informal and formal social structures that do not contain the individual but encompass the settings where the individual lives, such as limited healthy food choices in a neighborhood.
9.
d. The Theory of Planned Behavior explains how intention, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and risk perception influence behaviors. Risk perception include a person’s thoughts about the benefits and hazards of acting or not acting, such as the belief that smoking is unhealthy.
10.
d. The Transtheoretical Model, also called the Stages of Change, explains how individuals progress through different phases of behavior change. In the precontemplation stage, the client does not intend to take action in the next 6 months.
Citation/Attribution

This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/population-health/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/population-health/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Apr 26, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.